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  1. 1. RUSSIARussian Federation or Russia is a federal state that is spreadacross the vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia.With an area of 17,075,400 km ², Russia is the largest countryin the world, covering almost twice the territory of Canada,China, or the United States. It borders with 18 countries.Interms of population is in ninth place in the world. The officiallanguage is Russian and the capital and largest city of Moscowis a city hero. In Russia, 12 cities have more than one millioninhabitants.During the Soviet rule (1917-1991) was called the RussianSoviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and was thelargest republic within the USSR. RSFSR was territorially andeconomically most powerful of the former superpower. Today isa leading member of the Commonwealth of IndependentStates, and OUZB sauce. Russia is playing an important role onthe world stage, a member of the Group of Eight leadingnations of the world G8, a permanent member of the UNSecurity Council, and a member of the BRIC group.Name:Name of Russia comes from the old Russian people, groupsVarjaga (possibly Swedish Vikings) who founded Kievan Rus.Old Latin name of KievanRus was Ruthenia, and today is thename generally refers to the western and southern parts ofKievanRus that were closest to Catholic Europe. The presentform of the name of the state derives from the ancient Greek
  2. 2. name for the Kievan Rus.Geography:Russia is commonly divided into Western Europe (about3.500.0000 km ²) and the eastern part of the Asian - Siberia(13.500.0000 km ²). Natural boundary between these two partsmakes the Ural Mountains, which extends in the direction ofnorth - south over a length of about 2,100 km from the ArcticOcean to the border with Kazakhstan.Russia has 37,000 kilometers of coastline in and out of thethree oceans: the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific oceans. Thelargest islands and archipelagoes are: New Land, Franz JosephLand, Novosibirsk Islands, Sakhalin, Kurile Islands, etc..Most regions of the Russian plains, which in southern steppes,while in northern forested.In the far north the tundralandscapes.Besides the Ural Mountains of Russia theCaucasus (Elbrus peak with 5642 meters the highest peak ofEurope and Russia), Altai Mountains and volcanoes inKamchatka.In Russia, the largest freshwater lake in the world by volume -Baikal. Russias largest river Volga and Don are in theEuropean part, the Ob, Irtysh, Yenisey, Lena and Amur in Asia.European Russia:
  3. 3. Most of the European part of Russia occupies the EastEuropean Plain, with lowland relief that only sometimes exceedthe elevations (ValdajskaSrednjeruska and in the west, alongthe middle course of Privolžje Volga) whose peaks do notexceed 200 - 400 m. Through this plain flows Volga (3688 km),the economically and symbolically the most important rivers ofRussia. Has a continental climate in the extreme north of thepolar crossing, and the narrow Black Sea coast in theMediterranean. From north to south collated belt of coniferousforest, mixed forest, transitional forest-steppe zone, the steppecovered with fertile black soil (chernozem). Along the coast ofthe Caspian Sea due to strong evaporation is present, andsemi-deserts.In the far south of European Russia borders with Georgia andAzerbaijan Caucasus mountains makes the highest point ofRussia, Elbrus (5642 m).Siberia and Far East:To the west lies the vast Siberian West Siberian Plain, throughwhich flows the longest Russian river Ob (Irtysh with 5568miles, 5 in the world). Between the Yenisei River in the west tothe east and Lena is Srednjesibirska plateau with peaks up to1,700 meters. Srednjejakutska valley through which flows theLena shared this plateau of the mountain ranges of easternSiberia.
  4. 4. In the south and east coast of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean tothe mountainous terrain dominated by chains whose verticesare generally above 2,000 m (Beluha in the Altai chain - 4506m, KlyuchevskayaSopka in Kamchatka - 4750 m). Here is thelargest and deepest lake Russia - Baikal (31.500 km ², 1637 mdepth, the deepest in the world).Air much of Siberia is a very harsh continental climate in thenorth, which turns into a polar, and at higher elevations in themountains. Prevailing dense evergreen forests - taiga, withsparse vegetation zones - tundra - and permafrost areas in thefar north. Russias Far East has a monsoon climate.