- Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS)


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PACS market penetration in the U.S. healthcare space has been significant, at almost 90%. A PACS network typically consists of a central server that stores a database containing the images connected to one or more clients via a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) that provides or utilizes the images.

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  1. 1. Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS)Published: September 2011No. of Pages: 298Price: $ 3400During the past 35 years, ultrasound and nuclear medicine were introduced into clinicalmedicine, computed tomography (CT) revolutionized diagnostic procedures and magneticresonance imaging (MRI) emerged, bringing new diagnostic information at the cellular level.X-ray morphed from analog films to digital, and virtually all medical images became "soft"files on the electronic networks. As imaging departments in healthcare facilities havemigrated from film to digital, the display and storage systems have had to migrate too.These new digital imaging storage and display systems are called picture archiving andcommunication systems (PACS). Most PACS handle images from various medical imaginginstruments, including ultrasound, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), CT,endoscopy, mammograms, etc. The focus of this TriMark Publications report is to analyzeand describe the PACS market segments. Picture archiving and communicationsystems market penetration in the U.S. healthcare space has been significant, at almost90%. A PACS network typically consists of a central server that stores a database containingthe images connected to one or more clients via a local area network (LAN) or a wide areanetwork (WAN) that provides or utilizes the images. More and more PACS utilize Internet-based technologies as their means of communication. This allows remote viewing anddiagnosis with implications for both civilian and military healthcare facilities. Since radiologydepartments dominate the production of images, interconnections with radiologyinformation systems (RIS) are also looked at in this study.Browse All: Pharmaceuticals Market ResearchTABLE OF CONTENTS1. Overview 51.1 Statement of Report 51.2 About This Report 51.3 Scope of the Report 61.4 Objectives 61.5 Methodology 61.6 Executive Summary 72. The Medical Imaging Market 92.1 Medical Imaging Industry Market Size 92.2 Medical Imaging Infrastructure 10
  2. 2. 2.2.1 Total Healthcare Expenditures and Demographics 102.2.2 Number of Hospitals 132.2.3 Number of Radiologists 142.2.4 Radiology Services 152.2.5 Medical Imaging Companies 162.2.6 Market Drivers Product Enhancements Drive Adoption of Imaging Procedures Among End-Users Potential of Novel Contrast Agents Development to Drive Imaging ProcedureVolumes Rapid Pace of Innovation Narrows Product Lifecycles and Restricts Spending 182.2.7 Market Restraints 182.2.8 Market Aspects Molecular Imaging Outpatient Facilities are the Best Growth Market Diagnostic Imaging Modalities Witness Several Technology Advancements Safety and Ergonomics Concerns Drive Technology Growth Volumetric Imaging and Post-Image Processing Techniques Develop Rapidly Increasing Implementation of PACS Units Pushes Digital Radiography into HighGear Future Price Reduction Set to Stimulate Wider Acceptance of DR Systems High-Performance Imaging Combined with Lower Radiation Doses Spurs DRGrowth 212.3 Market Sector Analysis 222.3.1 Competition 222.3.2 Penetration Rates of PACS 243. PACS Market 253.1 PACS Technology 253.1.1 PACS History In the Beginning PACS Pioneers Early Efforts Early PACS Efforts DICOM Begins Filmless Today and Tomorrow 293.1.2 Image Acquisition 293.1.3 Distribution and Communication 293.1.4 Archiving 293.1.5 Servers 293.1.6 Image Display Systems 303.1.7 PACS Drivers 303.1.8 Barriers 313.2 PACS Vendors 313.3 Leading PACS Vendors 353.4 PACS Societies 363.5 PACS Forecasts 373.6 Market Dynamics 393.6.1 Market Challenges 393.6.2 Integrating Imaging Systems 43
  3. 3. 3.6.3 Lack of Funding can Stall Introduction of PACS 433.6.4 Determining and Defining the Return on Investment (ROI) of PACS Solutions 443.6.5 Effective PACS Training 443.6.6 PACS Outside the Radiology Department and the Hospital 453.6.7 Development of Web-based and GUI PACS Solutions 463.6.8 How Much is Enough Storage? 483.6.9 Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) 483.6.9.1 The Process 493.6.9.2 Automation 493.6.9.3 Simplified Disaster Recovery 503.6.9.4 Better Backups 503.6.9.5 Solving the problem 503.6.10 Always Online PACS 513.6.11 Cost of Electronic Storage and Data Transfer Decreasing (Moores Law) 523.6.12 Hospital CEOs and PACS 523.6.13 PACS and RIS Integration Benefits 543.6.13.1 Brokered Versus Integrated RIS/PACS 543.6.14 The Healthcare Leadership Council Congressional Recommendations 553.6.15 Deployment of Filmless Environments Attracting the Best Recruits 563.6.15.1 Planning for Migration from One PACS to Another? 563.6.15.2 Critical Success Factors as Seen by the Referring Physicians 573.6.15.3 Connecting PACS to Results: Text and Images Together 573.6.15.4 ROI on PACS and RIS 583.6.15.5 Advantages of Outsourcing Digital Storage Rather than Implementing an Archivein House 583.6.15.6 Special Considerations in PACS for Extensive Remote or Outsourced ImageReading 593.6.15.7 Enhancing Workflow to Optimize Service to Emergency Medicine 603.6.15.8 Customer Support for PACS: Guidelines 603.6.15.9 RIS/PACS Target Outcomes and Benefit Realization 613.6.15.10 How PACS Helps Radiology Deal with CR? 623.6.15.11 Interfaced, Integrated and Unified PACS 623.7 PACS Usage 623.8 Purchase Options 703.8.1 Turnkey 703.8.2 Software-only PACS (Best of Breed/Unbundled Solutions) 703.8.3 Web-based PACS 723.8.4 Application Service Provider 723.9 Telemedicine/Teleradiology 753.9.1 Opportunities 763.9.1.1 Civilian 763.9.1.2 Military 763.10 Software (Image Processing, PACS, etc.) Companies 773.11 Software (PACS and RIS) 784. Regulations and Standards 794.1 HIPAA 794.1.1 Title I: Healthcare Access, Portability and Renewability 794.1.2 Title II: Preventing Healthcare Fraud and Abuse, Administrative Simplification andMedical Liability Reform 80
  4. 4. The Privacy Rule 804.1.2.2 The Transactions and Code Sets Rule 804.1.2.3 The Security Rule 824.1.2.4 The Unique Identifiers Rule (National Provider Identifier) 834.1.2.5 The Enforcement Rule 844.2 DICOM 844.2.1 History 844.2.2 DICOM Data Format 854.2.3 DICOM Services 854.2.3.1 Store 854.2.3.2 Storage Commitment 854.2.3.3 Query/Retrieve 854.2.3.4 Modality Worklist 854.2.3.5 Modality Performed Procedure Step 854.2.3.6 Printing 854.2.3.7 Off-line Media (DICOM Files) 864.2.4 Application Areas 864.3 HL7 874.3.1 What Does the Name HL7 Mean? 874.3.2 Why HL7? 884.3.3 How is HL7 Organized? 884.3.4 New and Ongoing Initiatives 884.3.4.1 HIPAA 884.3.4.2 The Reference Information Model (RIM) 884.4 Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium 904.5 The IHE 904.6 Optimal Patient Care 904.7 The Four Steps of the Process 914.8 The Technical Framework-Business and Technology Together 914.9 Leading by Example 934.10 IHE and the EHR 934.11 Nuclear Medicine Special Issues 934.11.1 SNM and the IHE 934.11.2 Problems interfacing PACS and NM 934.11.3 The IHE Nuclear Medicine Profile 944.11.4 The Next Step 954.12 Government Healthcare Initiatives Creates Opportunities for PACS Vendors 955. Technology Trends 965.1 Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) 965.2 Digital Dashboard 975.3 Digital Dashboard Example: PACSPulse 1005.4 Paperless Workflow in PACS 1035.5 Process and Workflow Example for RIS PACS Integration 1045.6 Process and Workflow Example for High Speed CT 1066. Company Profiles 1086.1 Agfa-Gevaert Corp. 1086.2 Canon 1086.3 Carestream Health, Inc. (Formerly Kodak Health Imaging Division) 109
  5. 5. 6.4 Cerner Corporation 1106.5 DR Systems 1106.6 Dynamic Imaging 1116.7 Emageon 1116.8 FujiFilm Medical Systems USA 1126.9 GE Healthcare (RIS/PACS) 1126.10 Hitachi Medical Systems America 1136.11 IBM (PACS) 1136.12 IMCO Technologies 1136.13 Intelerad Medical System 1146.14 McKesson Corporation 1146.15 Merge Healthcare (Acquired eMed Technologies) 1146.16 Philips Medical Systems (PACS) 1146.17 ScImage 1156.18 Siemens Medical Solutions (RIS/PACS) 1156.19 SmartPACS (Newly Renamed to Infinitt) 1166.20 Thinking Systems Corporation 1167. Manufacturers 117LISTOF FIGURESFigure 2.1: Total Spending on Healthcare in the U.S., 1960-2007 11Figure 2.2: International Per Capita Healthcare Spending by Country, 2006 12Figure 3.1: Representative PACS Architecture 25Figure 3.2: PACS Facilities Shown by Number of Exams/Procedures Performed Per Year 63Figure 3.3: Modalities Offered by PACS Facilities 63Figure 3.4: US Facilities with PACS 64Figure 3.5: PACS Installation Duration 64Figure 3.6: Number of Vendors Evaluated 65Figure 3.7 Ranking of PACS Evaluation Factors 65Figure 3.8 PACS Features Considered in Evaluating PACS 66Figure 3.9 PACS Vendor Aspects Considered in Evaluating PACS 67Figure 3.10: Number of Service Calls 68Figure 3.11: PACS Satisfaction 68Figure 3.12: Vendors US Market Share 69Figure 4.1: IHE Technical Framework 91Figure 4.2: IHE Framework Organization 92Figure 5.1: Digital Dashboard 97Figure 5.2: PACSPulse Architecture 101Figure 5.3: The Usage and Performance Dashboard 101Figure 5.4: Paper Versus Paperless PACS Workflow 103Figure 5.5: PACS Workflow Example for a CT System 106LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1: U.S. Medical Imaging Market Size, 2001-2010 9Table 2.2: Global Medical Imaging Market Size, 2001-2010 10Table 2.3: U.S. User Expenditures for Medical Imaging Equipment and Related Products,2000-2007 11Table 2.4: Total Number of Americans Over 65 Years of Age, 2000-2050 12
  6. 6. Table 2.5: Hospital Survey 13Table 2.6: Percent Change in Volume of Examinations Per Imaging Modality between 1993and 2004 15Table 2.7: Worldwide Market Share Medical Imaging Companies 17Table 2.8: Worldwide Imaging Procedures, 2001-2010 22Table 2.9: Penetration Rates of PACS in U.S. Hospitals, 2006-2012 24Table 3.1: List of Vendors 32Table 3.2: U.S. Market for PACS, 2004-2012 37Table 3.3: Worldwide and Regional Markets for PACS, 2004-2012 38Table 3.4: European PACS Expenditures, 2004-2012 39Table 3.5: ECRI Criteria for PACS Evaluation 40Table 3.6: Healthcare Leadership Council 55Table 3.7: Healthcare Leadership Council Summary of HIT Benefits 56Table 3.8: PACS Placements by Facility Type 64Table 3.9: Vendors US Market Share 70Table 4.1: IHE Actors and Transactions 92Table 5.1: The Usage and Performance Dashboard 102About Us:ReportsnReports is an online library of over 100,000+ market research reports and in-depthmarket research studies & analysis of over 5000 micro markets. We provide 24/7 online andoffline support to our customers. Get in touch with us for your needs of market researchreports.Follow us on Twitter: Facebook Page: Rambler road,Suite727,Dallas,TX75231Tel: + 1 888 391 5441E-mail: sales@reportsandreports.comhttp://www.reportsnreports.comVisit our Market Research Blog