Narrative “ the way in which a story is told inboth fictional and non fictional media texts”
Narrative/sto ry Story = the story is the actual sequence of events, it is the plotNarrative = the way the events are put together and presented to the audience
Narrative structure• Linear – look at media knowall, difference between story and narrative, different codes Middle Beginning End (introduction to (events happen characters and story) (closure) – story builds)
Open structure – the audience are left to wonder what happens next – use their own initiative. Barthes would say these texts could be interpreted in a multitude of waysClosed structure – has a clear ending and conclusion. This kind of narrative is much more straightforward, and would only be interpreted in a limited number of ways.
• Circular structure – the narrative begins at the end events, and takes the audience on a journey back through the narrative, back to where they started again, at the end. For example The Sixth Sense, Pulp fiction.
Vladimir Propp• Was a russian literary theorist working in the 1920’s• He suggests that the characters from texts can be classified into clearly defined roles.• This was based on russian fairytales, and so can be seen as outdated or irrelevant to some media texts. Modern narratives are often more sophisticated and aim to unconventional• However, it is often seen in
Propp’s character roles• The hero (seeks something)• The villain (opposes the hero)• The donor (helps the hero by providing a magic object)• The dispatcher (sends the hero on his way)• The false hero (falsely assuming the role of hero)• The helper (gives support to the hero)• The princess (the reward for the hero, but also needs protection from the villain)
Todorov• Was a bulgarian literary theorist• He suggested that most narratives start with a state of “equilibrium”, in which the protagonist is happy• This is then disrupted• Then equilibrium is restored New equilibrium disequilibrium equilibrium
Equilibrium: (sets the scene) Everyday Life Disruption: (complication) Something happens to alter the equilibrium Conflict: (climax) Trying to solve the problem (seek resolution) Resolution :Problem is sorted New Equilibrium: (satisfactory end) Back to normal (but never the same)- a new normal
Levi Strauss• Strauss described narrative as created by a conflict of binary oppositions. These could be:• Love/hate• Peace/war - avatar• Rich/poverty - titanic• Man/alien – all alien films• Strong/weak• Light/dark• Good/evil
Roland Barthes• Barthes argued that narrative works through a series of codes that are used to control the way in which information is given to the audience.• Enigma Code: A narrative device that teases the audience by presenting a puzzle or riddle to be solved. For example is the hero going to survive.• Action Code: A narrative device by which a resolution is produced through action, for example a shoot out. The action code is often