National nutritional programmes in india


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  • With independence we faced two major nutritional problems:
  • (N.P.A.G.-Pilot Project):Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls, a Pilot project,
  • he main objective of AkshayaPatra's Mid-Day Meal Scheme is to help underprivileged children by providing them with a healthy, balanced meal that they would otherwise have to work for. The meal is an incentive for them to continue their education. It helps reduce the dropout rate to an enormous extent and increases classroom attendance.[8]Other objectives include improve socialization among castes, address malnutrition and empower women through employment.
  • From 2002-2003 it has been transferred to State Plan along with the National Social Assistance Programme comprising the National Old Age Pension Scheme and the National Family Benefit Scheme. The funds for the transferred scheme are being released by the Ministry of Finance as Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to the State Plan and the States have the requisite flexibility in the choice of beneficiaries and implementation. The food grains are released to the State Governments on the existing norms at BPL rates.
  • National nutritional programmes in india

    1. 1. Presenter Dr Utpal Sharma PG Student, Moderator Dr Debadeep Kalita Assistant Professor Department of Community Medicine Gauhati medical college, Guwahati
    2. 2. With independence……  Threat of famine and the resultant acute starvation due to low agricultural production and the lack of an appropriate food distribution system  Chronic energy and micronutrient deficiencies due to:  Low dietary intake because of poverty and low purchasing power;  High prevalence of infection because of poor access to safe-drinking water, sanitation and health care;  Poor utilization of available facilities due to low literacy and lack of awareness. Before independence…….. 1st phase- 1930’s the clinical/medical phase
    3. 3. 2nd phase- The food production phase in 1940’s  Over few past decades India attained self sufficiency in food production in 1970 through various interventions:  Green revolution  Public distribution system  R&D in the field of nutrition by NIN & CFTRI 3rd phase-the community phase….  Direct interventions through national nutritional programmes in late1960’s and early 70’s with inception of ‘5-year plans’  Number of short-term measures to combat problems of malnutrition.  Undernutrition is found mostly in rural areas 4th phase- the multi sectoral phase…..
    4. 4. Ministry of Rural Development  Applied nutrition programme Ministry of Social Welfare  Integrated child development services scheme  Balwadi nutrition programme  Special nutrition programme Ministry of Health and Family Welfare  National nutritional anemia prophylaxis programme  National prophylaxis programme for prevention of blindness due to vitamin A deficiency  National iodine deficiency disorder control programme Ministry of Education  Mid-day meal programme
    5. 5.  One of the earliest nutritional programmes.  This project was started in Orissa on 1963  Later extended to Tamilnadu and UP Objectives: Promoting production and of protective food such Vegetables and fruits Ensure their consumption by pregnant & lactating women and children. 1973 its extended to all states in INDIA Services Nutritional education Nutrition worth 25 paise for children and 50 paise for pregnant and lactating women for 52 days in a year The programme maintained by Ministry of Rural Development.
    6. 6.  This was started in 1970 under the department of social welfare through voluntary organisations.  Voluntary organisations receiving the grants are responsible for the running of this program Beneficiary group  Preschool children 3-5years of age. Services  300kcal and 10gm protein for 270 days in a year.  Also provide with pre school education Balawadis are being phased out because universalization of ICDS
    7. 7.  Started in 1970 by Ministry of Social Welfare.  Operation in urban slums, tribal areas and backward rural areas.  Operated under minimum need programme  Main aim is to improve nutritional status in targeted group. Beneficiary group  Children below 6 years  Pregnant and lactating women Services  Preschool children : 300kcal and 10-12gm protein  Pregnant & lactating mothers :500kcal and 25 gm protein Total of 300 days in a year  Fund for nutrition component of ICDS programme was shared with SNP budget  This programme is gradually being merged into ICDS
    8. 8.  Initiated-Oct.2,1975, in 33 CD Blocks under 5th Five Year Plan  Under aegis of Ministry of social welfare  In succession to objectives of National Children's Policy (Aug. 1974)  World’s largest program for early childhood development  Centrally sponsored scheme implemented by state/UT govts. Rationale Routine MCH services not reaching target Population Nutritional component not covered by Health services Need for community participation
    9. 9. Objectives  Lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of child  Improve nutritional & health status of children  Reduce incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school drop-outs  Enhance the capability of mother & family  Achieve effective coordination among various departments Beneficiaries  Children < 6 years  Pregnant & Lactating women  Women in Reproductive age group (15-44 yr)  Adolescent Girls (in selected Blocks)
    10. 10. Services  Supplementary nutrition  Non-formal pre-school education  Immunization  Health Check-up  Referral services  Nutrition and Health Education Administration of the scheme  Community development block-Rural areas  Tribal blocks-tribal areas  Wards/ slums –urban areas Service through Anganwadi: Population (Previously) Type AWC/Population Mini AWC Urban 500-1500 Nil Rural 500-1500 150-500 Tribal 300-1500 150-300 Population (Currently) Urban 400-800 Nil Rural 400-800 150-400 Tribal 300-800 150-300
    11. 11. Department of Women & Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development Central level Department of social welfare State level District level CDPO (100 villages) Medical officer (20-25) villages Mukhya sevika (20-25 AWC) Multipurpose worker (F) (4-5 no.) Anganwadi worker (5-6 Anganwadi centres) O R G A N I Z A T I O N I C D S
    12. 12. SUPPLEMENTARY NUTRITION  Supplementary feeding and Growth monitoring.  Prophylaxis against Vit. A deficiency.  Control of Nutritional Anemia. ACTIVITIES  Target group identified from community.  They are provided supplementary feeding support for 300 days in a year.  Weight for age growth cards are maintained for all children < 6 years.  Severely malnourished children are given special supplementary feeding and referred to medical services.
    13. 13. Revised financial norms for food supplement Beneficiary Pre-revised Revised w.e.f. Feb. 2009 Calories (KCal) Protein (G) Calories (KCal) Protein(G) Children (6-72 months) 300 8-10 500 12-15 Severely malnourished children (6-72 months) 600 20 800 20-25 Pregnant & Lactating 500 15-20 600 18-20 Category Pre-revised Revised w.e.f June 2010 Children (6-72 months) Rs. 2.00 Rs.4.84 Severely malnourished children (6-72 months) Rs. 2.70 Rs.5.82 Pregnant & Lactating Rs. 2.30 Rs.6.00
    14. 14.  Centrally sponsored programme, launched in 1986.  Implemented by the Ministry of Women & Child Development  Programme follows the norms of SNP.  Providing nutritious/ energy food to children below 6 years of age and expectant /lactating women from disadvantaged sections  Implemented through ICDS  Food grains supplied under the programme- used to prepare food for supplementary nutrition in ICDS
    15. 15.  Introduced in the year 2002-2003 with 100% Central Assistance Aims 1. Improve Nutritional and health status adolescent girls. 2. Provide nutrition and health education to the beneficiaries. 3. Empower adolescent girls through increased awareness to take better care of their personal health and nutrition needs. Beneficiaries  Adolescent girls <35 Kg  Pregnant women <45 kg Services  6 Kg ration per month for three months consecutively.  Implemented through the A.W. Centres  Weighing four times in a year  on the basis of the body weight, issuance of live rice will continue for 3 months.  In Assam, Kokrajhar and Karbi-Anglong as pilot districts.
    16. 16.  Total of 230 blocks  Total 58118 functioning AWCs  Feeding days covered in 2011-12- 177days (target 300days)  Food sponsored for programme -90% of budget in NE states. New Provision of breakfast @ Rs 2 since 2010-11 to be continued till 2013
    17. 17.  Programme was launched during 4th 5-year plan in 1970 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare  Prevention of nutritional anemia in mothers and children Rationale Supplementary iron on daily basis is considered necessary in developing countries because approaches like food fortification and dietary modification are long term options.  Requirements during 2nd and 3rd trimester can’t be made by daily intake. Majority of girls are anemic , even in their adolescence. Souce: Gopalan C. child care in india: emerging challenger bull.1993 Deleterious effect on neural tube development in folic acid development during 1st 4 weeks of pregnancy Source: Rosenberg IH. Folic acid and neural tube defect . Time for action? New Eng J.Med; 1992
    18. 18. Beneficiaries  Children 1-5years of age  Expecting and lactating mothers  Family planning (IUD) acceptors Policy  Expecting and lactating mothers as well as IUD acceptors -60 mg of elemental iron + 0.5 mg folate everyday for 100 days.  Children 1-5 years- 20mg of elemental iron + 0.1 mg folate everyday for 100 days.
    19. 19. In the pursuit of prevention of anemia in country….  1991-Renamed as ‘National nutritional anemia control programme’.  Beneficiaries redefined- extended to both anemic and non-anemic lactating& expecting mothers and 1-5years children.  Dosage of iron- from 60 mg to 100mg of elemental iron daily.  IEC regarding increase consumption of iron-rich food  1992-programme was made integral part of CSSM programme  100mg Fe+0.5 folate for 100days started along 1st dose of inj T.T  Therapeutic dose- 2 tabs of Irofol for 100 days.  1997- Programme is integrated with RCH…..  2005- Programme is integrated with NRHM……
    20. 20. 2007 -new directives from MoH&FW, GoI  6-12 months infants be included in the programme .  Dose for under 5 children in liquid formulation.  Children 6-10years & adolescent 11-18years included Recommended dose:  6-59month children-liquid 20 mg Fe+ 0.1 mg Folate for 100 days  6-10 years-1 tab. 30 mg Fe+ 0.25 mg Folate for 100 days.  Adolescent & adults-1 tab. 100 mg Fe+ 0.5 mg Folate for 100 days  Folic acid tab.(500μg) is given in 1st trimester in first 4 weeks. New Pilot districts as Kamrup and Dibrugarh selected for iron sucrose injection Beneficiaries : Moderate and severe anemia with Hb <9gm/dl detected in 2nd trimester and early 3rd trimester, not responding to IFA oral tablet. Dosage : 100 mg per 5ml, 2 ampoules for each beneficiaries.
    21. 21.  Also known as WIFS-Blue campaign.  Nodal agency- Ministry of H&FW Beneficiaries-  Adolescent girls/boys enrolled in school, 6th- 12th std.  Adolescent girls not enrolled in schools Services  IFA tablet to target population on weekly basis on a fixed day(Monday) for 52 weeks.  Biannual deworming (February and August) IMPLEMENTATION In-school students Ministry of education Out of school students Ministry of Social Welfare
    22. 22.  Launched in 1970 as a centrally sponsored scheme by Ministry of H&FW, GoI.  Component of National programme for control of blindness1976 Rationale  Target group- all children 1-3 years of age.  Activity –Megadose of vit.A (2 lac IU) orally every six months Human liver can store vitamin A when consumed in excess of daily requirements. The stored Vitamin A is released when in need
    23. 23.  8th 5-year plan- vitamin A supplementation linked with immunization programme.  10th 5-year plan- Megadoses to given biannually in pre-summer & pre-winter period.  2006-07-to cover all the children in 6months to 5 years age. Short term strategy  Administation of supplemental dose of Vit. A in Arachis oil.  6-11months-1 dose of 1 lac IU.  1-5 years- 2 lac IU bianually. Long term strategy  Promotion of regular intake of Vit A- rich food.  Feeding locally available food.  Kitchen gardening of Vit A-rich food. Treatment of Vit A defciency  Immediately after diagnosis-2 lac IU followed by another dose of 2 lac IU 1-4 weeks later.
    24. 24.  The beginning-Kangra valley study (1956-72)  National Goitre Control Programme launched in 1962, at the end of 2nd 5-year plan by Ministry of H&FW ,GoI.  Focuses on use of Iodised Salt – Replace of common salt with iodised salt, Cheapest method to control IDD.  Use of Iodized oil Injection to those suffering from IDD, Oral administration as prophylaxis in IDD severe areas Rationale No State or UT in India is free from IDD, as evident from the surveys carried by ICMR Iodine deficiency leads to a spectrum of disorders mostly affecting physical and mental development The fact that human brain development is completed by 3 years of age , iodine deficiency in early age leads to permanent and irreversible damage. Fortification of salt is a preventive programme, can be considered as a ‘vaccine’ Dr V Ramalingaswami (1921 - 2001)
    25. 25.  The turning point- meeting of prime minister in 1983.  1983- Universal iodisation of salt (30 ppm at manufacture level and 15ppm at consumption level)  1992- programme renamed as ‘National iodine deficiency disorder control’ Objectives  Surveys to assess the magnitude of IDD.  Supply of iodised salt  Resurveys 5yearly to assess impact of iodised salt & IDD  Lab monitering of iodised salt and UIE  Health education. Strategy  Iodise entire edible salt in the countryby 1992.  Ban of non-iodised salt under PFA act (1954).
    26. 26.  Goitre survey- 18 districts covered since 2009  Salt survey completed in 19 district (2012)  42 blocks- >75% population using salt with <15ppm iodine content of salt  IDD monitoring lab functional but UIE estimation yet to be started.  UIE estimation done in state health laboratory, Bamunimaidan.  3 iodisation plants exists in state- Dibrugarh, Lakhimpur and Guwahati
    27. 27.  First started in Tamilnadu.  Also known as School lunch programme.  Programme in operation since 1961 under Ministry of Education. Aim  To provide at least one nourishing meal to school going children per day. Objectives  Improve the school attendance  Reduce school drop outs  Beneficial impact on child’s nutrition Principles  Supplement and not a substitute to home diet.  Supply at least 1/3 of the energy requirement and 1/2 of the protein needed  The cost of meal should be reasonably low.  Meal prepared easily in schools, no complicating cooking procedures  Locally available foods should be used  The menu should be frequently changed
    28. 28.  Started in 2000, feeding 1500 children in 5 schools in Bangalore.  Successfully involved private sector participation in the programme.  Programme managed with a centralized kitchen that runs through a public/private partnership.  Food delivered to schools in sealed and heat retaining containers just before the lunch break every day Objectives  Providing underprivileged children with a healthy, balanced meal .  Reduce the dropout rate and increases classroom attendance.  Improve socialization among castes, address malnutrition  Empower women through employment. Assam is the 8th state in the run Launched on 19 feb 2010 20 thousand students of 260 schools of the district in the first phase.
    29. 29.  Annapurna Scheme  Launched in 2000-2001 by Ministry of Rural Development  Senior citizens of ≥65 years of age, not getting the pension under the National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)  10 kgs. of food grains/person/month are supplied free of cost.  Maa-moni  Under Assam Bikash Yojna.  Beneficiaries are pregnant mothers  Rs. 1000 provided for nutrition and ambulance  Antyodaya Anna Yojna  Launched in 25th Dec 2000  Aim- to create hunger-free india in next 5 year and reform PDS  Target group- poor families who couldn’t afford food grains even at BPL rates  Service- 35 kg/Family/month of wheat @Rs 2/- & rice @Rs 3/-  CM’s Vision for Women and Children 2016  Yet to roll out….
    30. 30. Thank you
    31. 31.  Launched by Dept. of Women and Child Development ,Ministry of Human Resource Development in 1991  Targeted All adolescent girls in the age group of 11-18 years common services 1. Watch over menarche, 2. Immunization, 3. General health check-ups once in every six-months, 4. Training for minor ailments, 5. De-worming, 6. Prophylactic measures against anemia, goiter, vitamin deficiency, etc., and 7. Referral to PHC. District hospital in case of acute need. 8. Girls are also provided supplementary nutrition at Rs. 2.50 per girl, per day