Vignettes in Survey Research


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Vignettes in Survey Research
Faculty of Social Sciences
Institute of Sociological Studies

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Vignettes in Survey Research

  1. 1. winter semester 2013/2014 VIGNETTES attitudinal survey research JAKUB RŮŽIČKA
  2. 2. Vignette
  3. 3. In a broad sense anthropology criminology medical science (& clinical vignettes) psychology education ... The vignette is a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973) revealing the pathic qualities of a tangible moment perceived by the researcher. Researchers must be mindful that the selection of these moments is an act of signification driven by their own directed attention, which might change while working with the data (protocols, conversations, photos, documents).
  4. 4. Outline
  5. 5. Vignettes in survey research Implementation & Assumptions Biases Conclusions & SWOT Case Studies (Methodology & Outcomes)
  6. 6. Vignettes in survey research Implementation & Assumptions Biases Conclusions & SWOT Case Studies (Methodology & Outcomes)
  7. 7. What is a vignette in survey research? & examples
  8. 8. The foundations of a vignette in 1970s & 1980s (...) “The third generation, starting to emerge in the late 1980s, deals with data that are neither cross-tabulations nor data matrices, either because they have a different form, such as texts or narratives, or because dependence is a crucial aspect, as with spatial or social network data.“ (...) Statistics in Sociology, 1950-2000 (1999)
  9. 9. What is a vignette? A vignette is a sort of "illustration" in words. In survey research, a vignette question describes an event, happening, circumstance, or other scenario, the wording of which often is experimentally controlled by the researcher and at least one of the different versions of the vignette is randomly assigned to different subsets of respondents. For example, imagine a vignette that describes a hypothetical crime that was committed, and the respondents are asked closed-ended questions to rate how serious they consider the crime to be and what sentence a judge should assign to the perpetrator. The researcher could experimentally alter the wording of the vignette by varying six independent variables: the gender, race, and age of both the victim and perpetrator. If two ages (e.g., 16 and 53), three races (Asian, black, and white) and both genders (female and male) were varied for both the victim and perpetrator Vignettes consist of stimuli presented to research participants. Their purpose is to selectively portray aspects of reality to which participants are asked to respond. They take many forms, including written and spoken narratives, visual imagery, video, and sound. Like any research method, vignettes address clearly defined research questions, and their form and application will be directed by the research questions posed, the topics under study, and the kinds of participant groups involved. The simplicity of scenarios can help to identify, clarify, and disentangle the complexities of real-world processes Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods (2008)
  10. 10. Indirect technique (here: disguised gender) It seems that last month, Karl (Kathy) Michaels was away visiting relatives for a few days, leaving the two Michaels youngsters in the care of their mother (father), Kathy (Karl). MIS. (MI.) Michaels, however, took the opportunity to rendezvous with her (his) secret lover, leaving the two children, Mark (5) and Tommy (3), as she (he) had apparently done on several such occasions. This time, however, fear and hunger after many hours of neglect drove the Michaels children to the streets in search of their wayward parent. A pair of city residents found the children wandering in the street almost 3 miles from the Michaels home. The police were called in, and in the process of reuniting the children and their mother (father), the whole story came out. “I don’t see that what I did was so terrible,” Kathy (Karl) told an obviously upset spouse. WOULD YOU AGREE THAT MRS. (MR.) MICHAELS IS A POOR PARENT? (CIRCLE ONE) STRONGLY DISAGREE 1234567 STRONGLY AGREE Contrastive Vignette Technique: An indirect Methodology Designed to Address Reactive Social Attitude Measurement (1980)
  11. 11. Another example This exploratory study reports a first attempt to measure general family status in an urban setting, and further, to do this in an experimental way. The tool investigated is the vignette, a plain-language description of a family containing a measured amount of information. Respondents are asked to read the description and answer a number of status-relevant questions about the family described. The effects on status of each variable investigated may be measured by creating a second vignette on the same family, changing the value of the variable investigated, giving the two forms to two randomly selected groups, and comparing the status scores resulting from the two “treatments.” The technique was applied here to five family related variables and appeared to yield valid data. Marvin Silver, 34, and his wife Sheila, 31, have been married two years. They have just moved into their first home in Wellesley, Massachusetts. They met as students in business school. Mr. Silver has just been appointed assistant administrator of a small Boston hospital. The Silvers have a one-year-old daughter (who is a victim of cerebral palsy). Mrs. Silver does not work, but she does volunteer jobs for the Crippled Children’s Fund. The Vignette as an Experimental Approach to the Study of Social Status: An Exploratory Study (1972)
  12. 12. Question example Which TWO of the following would you most expect the members of this family to mix with socially? Which TWO are the least likely to mix with socially? (Mark them M for most and L for least.) train conductor architect accountant research chemist electrician barber assembly line worker commercial artist owner of a grocery store The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods (2008)
  13. 13. Battery of questions This family shops carefully 1234567 shops impulsively tends to save extra money 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 tends to spend entire salary pays cash for all purchases 1234567 buys on installment attends church regularly 1234567 does not attend church reads many books 1234567 does not read ... The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods (2008)
  14. 14. Vignettes in qualitative research (and in quantitative as well)
  15. 15. The use of vignettes in qualitative research vignettes may be used for three main purposes in social research to allow actions in context to be explored to clarify people’s judgements to provide a less personal and therefore less threatening way of exploring sensitive topics. The Use of Vignettes in Qualitative Research (1999)
  16. 16. Qualitative usage using vignettes within the qualitative paradigm Ice breaker Tapping general attitudes and beliefs Multi-method approach Sensitive topics Comparing perceptions of disparate groups Closing the interview The Use of Vignettes in Qualitative Research (1999)
  17. 17. General usage Vignettes have the potential to explore meanings and interpretations not easily accessible through other methods. Exploring general attitudes and beliefs Asking questions Context Multi-method approach Some researchers have employed vignettes as an icebreaker Sensitive topics Authenticity Compensating for lack of personal experience Using vignettes in qualitative research (1999)
  18. 18. Vignette typology constantvariablevalue vignette (CVVV) method all respondents read identical vignettes, which is a correlational method for assessing intergroup differences in judgments factorial vignette studies combine survey methodologies with an experimental research design, and allow researchers to examine subjects’ reactions to hypothetical scenarios (vignettes) while controlling for variables within the scenarios; slightly different versions of the vignettes are randomly assigned to respondents uncontrolled respondent projections (different respondents = different interpretations) evaluation process unmeasured (just outcomes, not processes) social desirability bias after first assessing the suitability of a factorial vignette design to the topic, researcher should settle on the number of variables according to budget constraints, and then craft realistic vignettes with multiple versions according to the number of variables
  19. 19. Vignette typology “In areas where theory is weak or there exists poorly developed empirical work, the justification for adopting the experimental stance is dubious.“ Reproducing Naturally Occuring Stories: Vignettes In Survey Research (1982)
  20. 20. Vignettes in survey research Implementation & Assumptions Biases Conclusions & SWOT Case Studies (Methodology & Outcomes)
  21. 21. Implementation
  22. 22. The use of vignettes in qualitative research implementation stories must appear plausible and real to participants stories need to avoid depicting eccentric characters and disastrous events, and should instead reflect ‘mundane’ occurrences vignettes need to contain sufficient context for respondents to have an understanding about the situation being depicted, but be vague enough to ‘force’ participants to provide additional factors which influence their decisions participant’s ability to engage with the story may be enhanced if they have personal experience of the situation described vignettes must be presented in an appropriate format (written vs. video narratives) The Use of Vignettes in Qualitative Research (1999)
  23. 23. Implementation (other recommendations) Other Brevity characteristics that vignettes should follow Use of respondents’ (Morrison) words Ambiguity respondents must grab the situation in a few words of sentences to avoid respondents' confusion to find out how ambiguous situations are likely to be interpreted Use of Vignettes in business statistics in testing a new definition of the enterprise (2012)
  24. 24. Designing vignette studies in marketing business researchers argue that vignettebased studies are superior to directquestionbased studies because vignettes provide greater realism supply standardized stimuli to all respondents, which enhances internal validity, measurement reliability, and ease of replication improve construct validity by focusing respondent attention upon specific features of the research question bypass difficulties (e.g., time, expense) of studying real business decisions reduce yea-saying/social desirability bias enhance respondent involvement & dramatize issues Designing Vignette Studies in Marketing (2012)
  25. 25. Designing Vignette Studies in Marketing Vignette make believable design issues make adequately but not overly detailed 1) select the appropriate method (i.e., CVVVs versus factorial survey) 2) tailor their questions to their vignettes, 3) ensure that all relevant variables are covered, 4) develop and use an adequate number of vignettes, 5) control and account for social desirability bias, 6) survey the appropriate respondent population, make tone consistent with research question(s) 7) fit vignettes to respondents, 8) apply conjoint analysis techniques within a ‘theory and practice’ framework, 9) make vignettes believable, make manipulated variable(s) obvious 10) make vignettes adequately but not overly detailed, 11) make the tone of the vignettes consistent with their research question(s), guard against framing effects (precise wording) 12) make the manipulated variable(s) obvious, and 13) guard against framing effects Designing Vignette Studies in Marketing (2012)
  26. 26. Assumptions & issues
  27. 27. Assumption An interviewee’s response to a vignette may well carry some predictive power in respect of how they would behave if they were to be subsequently presented with a similar, ‘real-life’ event. Putting it in context: the use of vignettes in qualitative interviewing (2010)
  28. 28. Issues participants may initially provide socially desirable responses and only after probing will they reveal how they truly believe they would respond to the situation it is important that the stories presented in the vignettes are readily understood, are internally consistent and not too complex in some circumstances it may be desirable to include a control vignette to see if any significant differences emerge The Use of Vignettes in Qualitative Research (1999)
  29. 29. Issues Hughes (1998) “We do not know enough about the relationship between vignettes and real life responses to be able to draw parallels between the two.“ possible solution the recent inclusion of vignettes in multi-method approaches may clarify some of these methodological issues by helping to understand the extent to which abstract responses relate to actions in everyday life Considering the Vignette Technique and its Application to a Study of Drug Injecting and HIV Risk and Safer Behaviour (1998)
  30. 30. Social desirability bias first-person third-person Designing Vignette Studies in Marketing (2012)
  31. 31. Vignettes in survey research Implementation & Assumptions Biases Conclusions & SWOT Case Studies (Methodology & Outcomes)
  32. 32. Case studies results
  33. 33. Student judgments about dating violence Survey vignette methodology was employed to investigate student beliefs about what constitutes abusive behaviors in dating relationships. multiple regression analysis / random, stratified sample was drawn from among students at a large university in the Northeast / 15 vignettes / questionnaire / about 300 responses / individual & situational factors “Significant predictors of abuse judgments were nature of the aggressive act and victim’s gender and sexual orientation. More severe acts of aggression, female victims, gay and lesbian victims, a history of violence in the relationship, injurious outcome, male perpetrator, and alcohol consumption significantly increased abusiveness ratings.“ Student Judgments about Dating Violence: A Factorial Vignette Analysis (1999)
  34. 34. Student motivations to cheat 103 undergraduate college students This study uses students’ evaluations of a hypothetical situation to assess their beliefs about other students’ decisions to cheat on an exam. Participants read a vignette describing an examination in which the protagonist has the opportunity to cheat. The description of the vignette’s protagonist was manipulated with respect to his perceived competence in the course and the source (intrinsic or extrinsic) of his motivation. In addition, students rated their own likelihood of cheating in the hypothetical situation. Their self-reported motivation and actual cheating behavior were assessed as well. Vignette results indicate main effects for both competence and motivation, with high competence and intrinsic motivation leading to lower expected rates of cheating. A three-way interaction among the participants’ gender, motivation and competence is also evident. As these results are consistent with available theory, support is provided for both the theory and the experimental method. Evaluating the Motivation of Other Students to Cheat: A Vignette Experiment (2004)
  35. 35. Case studies methodology & outcomes
  36. 36. Using vignettes in awareness and attitudinal research The vignette approach offers a number of benefits: (1) flexibility that allows the researcher to design an instrument uniquely responsive to a specific topic; (2) enjoyment and creativity for the informant; and (3) depersonalization that encourages an informant to think beyond his or her own circumstances By employing the vignette approach, we avoided prestuctured questionnaires that often contain investigator bias while encouraging topical focus unavailable in most 'grand tour questions'. We provide a description of and evidence for how this vignette approach circumvented frequently encountered problems in awareness and attitudinal research, while more richly capturing the voices of the informants. Using vignettes in awareness and attitudinal research (2000)
  37. 37. Study of drug injecting and HIV risk and safer behaviour methodology previous research ►storyline (previous research & pre-research) ► literacy levels & vocabulary (adjusted to respondents) tips & tricks researchers need to point out their interest in what would happen in reality facilitating e.g. ‘Have you ever found yourself in a similar situation?’ differences real life X vignette responses = would X should responses combining the vignette technique with indirect observation reduction of social desirable reponses follow-up questions ‘What would happen in real life?’ ‘Why do you think she might have do that?’ Considering the Vignette Technique and its Application to a Study of Drug Injecting and HIV Risk and Safer Behaviour (1998)
  38. 38. Follow-ups Researcher: Ben lent Jim the works. Ben's solicitor manages to get him off early and Ben leaves prison. When lien gets out he starts to see Jo again. Would anything change when they have sex? Robert: Probably not. no. I don't think they would. Researcher: Would he be concerned about anything? Robert: I know a lien, his name isn't Ben. but I know a and Ben wasn't into anything like this till he went to jaill and he met all these Petes and Jims. In fact he'd go looking for Petes and Jims in the jaill so he could get his injecting. And then, when he did get out you know, he told people like yourself and other people that knew what he was doing with Petes and Jims and said don't do anything because if my girlfriend finds out' and I know full well he's slept with his girlfriend and not said anything and his girlfriend still doesn't know. So probably Ben, you know, would carry on and not say anything, he wouldn't want Jo to know what he’s done in prison. Considering the Vignette Technique and its Application to a Study of Drug Injecting and HIV Risk and Safer Behaviour (1998)
  39. 39. Study of drug injecting and HIV risk and safer behaviour participants drew on the experiences of peers (and/or their own experiences) in order to bring meaning to and to interpret the vignette respondents can easily interpret the vignette if he or she has direct experience maintaining interest & attention a need to get a respondent ‘back on track‘ from time to time Considering the Vignette Technique and its Application to a Study of Drug Injecting and HIV Risk and Safer Behaviour (1998)
  40. 40. Culture differences “Western template“ Vignette Methodology and Culture-Relevance: Lessons Learned through a Project on Successful Aging with Iranian Immigrants to Sweden (2009)
  41. 41. Cultural differences The vignette technique was used in a cross-cultural comparative study of the delivery of personal social services in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In this article we discuss the major premises of using the vignette technique in cross-cultural comparative social research. In total, 247 vignettes were collected, 165 in Orebro, Sweden and 82 in the United Kingdom The vignettes were filled in by social workers working in the sector of child and family care. Our basic premise that the social world is becoming more and more globalized leads us to seek uniqueness among uniformities. In such a research context, the vignette technique is an adequate instrument of data collection for the purpose of comparing the delivery of personal social services in the United Kingdom and Sweden How to use the vignette technique in cross-cultural social work research (1994)
  42. 42. Disproval of questionnaire survey results Using a two-part instrument consisting of eight vignettes and twenty character traits, the study sampled 141 employees of a mid-west financial firm regarding their predispositions to prefer utilitarian or formalist forms of ethical reasoning. In contrast with earlier studies, we found that these respondents did not prefer utilitarian reasoning. An Empirical Study of Ethical Predispositions (1996)
  43. 43. Job resources at work (another disproval) To investigate employees’ beliefs about the availability, relevance, and use of matching and non-matching job resources in different types of demanding situations at work, a quasi-experimental survey study with vignettes was developed. Specifically, employees were presented three hypothetical situations at work (i.e. ‘vignettes’), representing a cognitively, an emotionally, and a physically demanding job. For each separate vignette, employees had to imagine themselves in the hypothetical situation at work. Subsequently, they were asked to assess the relevance, the availability, and the use of three types of job resources (i.e. five items representing cognitive job resources, five items representing emotional job resources, and five items representing physical job resources) in the hypothetical situation concerned. The databases were merged to create a sample of 217 Dutch human service employees. The multivariate tests of the three repeated measures MANOVAs it was shown that there generally seems to be a dominant role for emotional job resources in the job stress process, whereas the role of physical job resources and, to a lesser extent, cognitive job resources appears much weaker and mainly restricted to corresponding types of job demands The role of matching job resources in different demanding situations at work: A vignette study (2010)
  44. 44. Vignettes and respondent debriefings for questionnaire design and evaluation two methods, vignettes and respondent debriefing questions, can be used to identify measurement problems and craft and test questionnaire designs to address them respondent debriefing and vignettes do not eliminate all the surprises involved in questionnaire design and pretesting, but they can help a designer better understand and predict the nature and underpinnings of questionnaire effects vignettes and debriefing questions can be used to evaluate alternative questionnaires Vignettes and Respondent Debriefings for Questionnaire Design and Evaluation (2006)
  45. 45. Vignettes and Respondent Debriefings for Questionnaire Design and Evaluation Debriefing Question sensitivity Confidence (in respondents own answers) Failure of metamemory (quick responses) Recall interference (projections of previous questions) Fatigue and negative response set (long batteries) Mnemonic failure (context needed to recall information) Mental Processes Selective reporting (widely reported events prone to be answered ‘yes‘) Vignettes and Respondent Debriefings for Questionnaire Design and Evaluation (2006)
  46. 46. Scale development (/pre-research) X Scale evaluation The Suicide Attitude Vignette Experience (SAVE scale) consists of 10 vignettes which describe different situations leading to attempted suicide The target figures described in the 10 vignettes are alternately male and female Sex differences were found for total sympathy with females scoring higher. Overall this study found support for the validity and reliability of the SAVE scale. administered to 198 twelfth-grade students factor analyses of the SAVE scale three factors for both forms: sympathy, empathy, and agree. The suicide attitude vignette experience: A method for measuring adolescent attitudes toward suicide (1984)
  47. 47. Vignettes in survey research Implementation & Assumptions Biases Conclusions & SWOT Case Studies (Methodology & Outcomes)
  48. 48. Biases & limitations
  49. 49. SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods Methodological debate on vignettes focuses on the differences between what people might actually do in real-life situations and responses elicited from selective representations of real life featured in the ‘’vignette world." Critiques of the method, including that of Parkinson and Manstead (1993). argue that vignette data can be understood only within the context of people's responses to particular scenarios and do not allow generalization to understanding real life. Other commentators, such as Loman and Larkin ( 1976). suggest that some vignette forms, such as video and film, relate better to real life than others, such as written narratives. Notwithstanding, vignettes play a valuable role in augmenting insights into the social world and arc well suited to multimethod research. They contribute toward understanding people’s perceptions. beliefs, attitudes, and behavior throughout the social sciences. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods (2003)
  50. 50. The effective use of vignettes in social and nursing research (desk research) - + • difference between real life processes and vignette scenarios • vignettes cannot completely capture the reality of people's lives • the extent to which findings are generalizable outside of specific vignette situations • important to consider their suitability for particular participant groups • vignettes can be used to generate a sound data-base relatively quickly and cost effectively • where there are difficulties in accessing participant groups and where ethical problems are paramount • focused uniform response base that can be used whether or not participants have detailed knowledge of the topics under consideration • difficult or sensitive topics The application of vignettes in social and nursing research (2001)
  51. 51. First equals most important? Order effects in vignette-based measurement research questions Does the order in which characteristics are presented in the vignette affect respondents’ judgments? Does this affect research conclusions? Under which conditions are order effects mostly likely to occur? methodology literature in cognitive psychology & survey methodology vignettes describing full-time employees web survey of 300 students regression models & factorial survey First equals most important? Order effects in vignette-based measurement (2012)
  52. 52. First equals most important? Order effects in vignette-based measurement For respondents with strong attitudes (e.g. experts on a topic), there appears to be little risk of order effects. The order however only matters when the vignettes are complex, that is, when employees are described with 12 rather than 8 different characteristics – or when respondents are asked two questions about each vignette rather than just one. Order effects are more likely for respondents who have little knowledge or weak attitudes about the topic the vignettes are describing. Contrary to expectations respondents’ cognitive ability did not appear to matter. First equals most important? Order effects in vignette-based measurement (2012)
  53. 53. Using the vignette method in formative evaluation multiple vignettes decisions about the timing of data collections Using the Vignette Method in Formative Evaluation (1993)
  54. 54. Evaluating the validity of self-reported deviant behavior using vignette analyses In this paper, the validity of vignette analyses of various forms of deviant behavior in the presence of opportunities is analyzed on the basis of ideas derived from cognitive psychology. Abelson’s Script Theory together with insights into human memory of visual and verbal information, allow the assumption that vignette analyses using visual stimuli are valid measures of deviant behavior in particular. The study includes an empirical examination of these ideas (n=450). Nonparticipant observations and vignette analyses with visual and verbal material were carried out with regard to three forms of deviant behavior occurring in the presence of opportunities presenting themselves in everyday life. What prompted this study was an objection to the idea of using vignette analyses to measure actual behavior. Data analyses yielded the result that frequencies of deviant behavior were related to the techniques of data collection under consideration. Especially vignette analyses of the return of ‘lost letters’ that use both visual and verbal stimuli overestimate ‘actual’ (i.e. observed) return rates. Evaluating the Validity of Self-Reported Deviant Behavior Using Vignette Analyses (2007)
  55. 55. CVVM X Experimental By systematically varying the levels of theoretically important vignette characteristics a large population of different vignettes is typically available - too large to be presented to each respondent. Therefore, each respondent gets only a subset of vignettes. These subsets may either be randomly selected in following the tradition of the factorial survey or systematically selected according to an experimental design. We show that these strategies in selecting vignette sets have strong implications for the analysis and interpretation of vignette data. Random selection strategies result in a random confounding of effects and heavily rely on the assumption of no interaction effects. In contrast, experimental strategies systematically confound interaction effects with main or set effects, thereby preserving a meaningful interpretation of main and important interaction effects. Using a pilot study on attitudes towards immigrants we demonstrate the implementation and analysis of a confounded factorial design. Experimental Vignette Studies in Survey Research (2010)
  56. 56. The problem of interpretation in vignette methodology in research with young people young people do not have fully developed personality higher influence of collective (as opposed to personal) repertoire of ‘desirable‘ behavior The problem of interpretation in vignette methodology in research with young people (2012)
  57. 57. Difficulties include problems establishing reliability & validity, especially external validity Three videos depicting hypothetical heterosexual date rape incidents were made. Each one was based on one of three variables that have been shown to have relevance to evaluations of date rape: “owing”, “leading on” and “alcohol”. The videos were transcribed into written vignettes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six experimental groups, watched one of the videos or read one of the vignettes, and completed a questionnaire to assess attribution of blame and the degree to which the situation was defined as rape. The two methodologies differed significantly for the alcohol scenario, where participants blamed the victim more and were less likely to define the situation as rape when the written vignette methodology was used. The Effectiveness of the Vignette Methodology: A Comparison of Written and Video Vignettes in Eliciting Responses about Date Rape (2002)
  58. 58. Only important research questions (against satisficing) minimizing the number of different vignette versions required for the research instrument The Use of Vignettes in Survey Research (1978) The Context of Satisficing in Vignette Research (2010)
  59. 59. Other vignette usage
  60. 60. Scenario-based role-playing experiment for research seeking to understand how and why operations and supply chain managers, when dealing with complex issues, form their judgments and preferences or make the decisions that they do human subjects are recruited to assume an a priori defined role and, in this role, to then form their judgments and preferences or make their decisions in response to the scripted information conveyed The vignette in a scenario-based role-playing experiment (2011)
  61. 61. Clinical vignettes (medicine, education, psychology, neuroscience, ...) To investigate how patients and professionals view the role of advice in diabetes foot care, in order to inform educational practice. 15 patients Development of positive relationships with health professionals was important for patients and encouraged shared understanding. Responses suggest that early positive interactions with appropriately trained professionals are needed to help patients assimilate advice into everyday routines. Meeting the educational needs of people at risk of diabetes-related amputation: a vignette study with patients and professionals (2005)
  62. 62. Suicide risk vignettes 37-year-old white female, self-referred. Stated plan is to drive her car off a bridge. Precipitant seems to be verbal abuse by her boss; after talking to her nightly for hours, he suddenly refused to talk to her. As a result, patient feels angry and hurt, threatened to kill herself. She is also angry at her mother, who will not let patient smoke or bring men to their home. Current alcohol level is .15; patient is confused, repetitive, and ataxic. History reveals a previous suicide attempt (overdose) 7 years ago, which resulted in hospitalization. After spending the night at CIC and sobering, patient denies further suicidal intent. The general idea is that the reporting behaviour of a specific respondent can be anchored using the way in which that respondent evaluates the health status of hypothetical vignette persons. After anchoring the reporting behaviour of each individual, reporting heterogeneity is corrected for and thus cleansed (self-reported) health measures can be obtained. However, the validity of this vignettes method rests on the two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. Assessment and prediction of suicide (1992)
  63. 63. Ethics example A woman moves here from another country and is seeking a new physician. She learns about a local doctor who is from the same country and is the same religion, and she calls his office to become a new patient. She speaks with a member of the office staff and makes an appointment. Two days later the doctor calls her and tells her that he does not see female patients from their culture and religion because of his religious beliefs. He tells her that a woman from their culture should only seek care from female providers, in case her medical condition requires her to take off her clothes. She realizes that he must be very religiously conservative, as this was never an issue in their home country. Is it ethical for the doctor to refuse to see this woman? Would it be acceptable to refuse to see a patient because of sex? race? religion? Sexual orientation? type of insurance (private vs. Medicaid)? immigration status? occupation? lifestyle? What principles can guide a physician's decision about who to see and who to turn away?
  64. 64. Vignettes in survey research Implementation & Assumptions Biases Conclusions & SWOT Case Studies (Methodology & Outcomes)
  65. 65. Conclusions summary & discussion
  66. 66. SWOT STRENGTHS • general & not easily accessible attitudes & beliefs • context & clarification • sensitive topics WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES • external validity • blurred extent of predictive power (real behavior vs. depersonalization) • multi-method approach • experimental design • ice breaker & debriefing • cost efficiency THREATS • weak theory • ambiguity, realism & over-complexity form of the vignette (e.g. written vs. video narrative) • order effects • researcher bias • social desirability bias • satisficing • cultural differences • suitability for particular participant groups (e.g. youngsters)
  67. 67. winter semester 2013/2014 QUESTIONS & DISCUSSION VIGNETTES attitudinal survey research JAKUB RŮŽIČKA