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James P. Howard, II
University of Maryland University College
18th Mars Society Convention
14 August 2015—Washington, DC
Why talk about this
"Mars mission" by Les Bossinas of NASA Lewis
Research Center
§ MarsOne
§ Recommendations for global government
§ Need for private ownership
§ Supports economic stability and growth
§ Recommendations for intergovernmental ethics You can’t realistically claim what you
can’t realistically defend
Who’s already done something
"Traktat brzeski 1918". Licensed under Public
Domain via Wikimedia Commons.
Outer Space
Treaty
Space
Liability
Convention
Registration
Convention
Rescue
Agreement
Moon Treaty
• Several treaties address the
specifics of space exploration
• Others include coincident
material
Key Details
§ Treaty on principles governing the
activities of states in the exploration
and use of outer space, including the
moon and other celestial bodies.
§ Adopted in 1967
§ Defining framework for space use
Highlights
§ Nongovernmental actors subject to
governmental supervision
§ No nuclear weapons in space
§ Nobody can claim anything in space
Key Details
§ Convention on International Liability
for Damage Caused by Space
Objects
§ Adopted in 1972
§ Ensures safe exploration
Highlights
§ Nations have liability when their
spacecraft crash
§ Only states can sue each other for
damages
§ No private action
§ Used once, when Kosmos 954
crashed in Canada
Key Details
§ Convention on Registration of
Objects Launched into Outer Space
§ Adopted in 1975
§ Ensures we know what’s where
Highlights
§ Every country needs to maintain a
registry of what they are sending in
to space
§ They need to periodically let the UN
know what they are sending in to
space
Key Details
§ Agreement on the Rescue of
Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts
and the Return of Objects Launched
into Outer Space
§ Adopted in 1979
§ Ensures safe return of astronauts
Highlights
§ Everyone has a duty to rescue
astronauts
§ This includes landed astronauts
§ Covers safe return to home country
Key Details
§ Agreement Governing the Activities
of States on the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies
§ Adopted in 1979
• Defining framework for international
governance of all celestial bodies
Almost Nobody Signed It
Highlights
• Actually governs everything outside
of Earth
• Includes orbits around those bodies
• Peaceful purposes
§ Everyone can go and play
§ Must only use what is necessary
§ Duty of rescue
§ Must also notify in event of crash
What can we learn from who came
before us
By Claude Thomas Stanfield Moore [Public
domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Oscar Wergeland [Public domain], via Wikimedia
Commons
§ Well-documented, due to Sagas
§ Small family farms, not cities
§ 1500 place names in 60 years
§ About 3500 people listed
§ Source: Landnámabók
§ Age of Settlement ends with all
usable land consumed
"Egil Skallagrimsson 17c manuscript" by Unknown
§ General assembly
§ All free men could attend
§ Assembly met in legislative and
judicial roles
§ Modeled on tradition Norse local
governance
§ Power rested with local chieftains
§ Largely run by nationwide aristocracy
W. G. Collingwood [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Ken Lund
§ Followed several failed colonies
§ Organized by the Virginia Company
of London
§ And taking orders from London
§ Appointed local 7-member governing
council
§ Locally elected president
§ Within a two years, only one member
§ Virginia Company suspends local
rule by 1609 for 9 years
By Nationalparks. Nationalparks at en.wikipedia
§ New Governor and Council
appointed by the London Company
§ Elected House of Burgesses
§ Two members from every town
§ Together, can pass laws, and
otherwise looks like a government
§ By 1624,Virginia is a Royal Colony
Ken Lund
"Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor," by William
Halsall, 1882
§ Mayflower destined for Virginia, 1620
§ Due to storms, landed in Mass. Bay
§ Intent to distinguish from Virginia
§ Original text lost
§ Not a form of government, itself
§ Only a promise to collective establish
and adhere to a government
§ “We are a people.”
§ Promised equal and just laws
"The Mayflower Compact 1620 cph.3g07155" by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris
§ Representative government
§ Elected General Court
§ Elected Governor
§ General Court would also act as
judiciary
§ Technically, no outside control
Supernational
National
State
Local
Examples
§ United Nations
§ NATO
§ ASEAN
§ World Bank / IMF
General Purpose
§ Coordination among nation-states
§ Usually issue-specific
§ Talk a lot
National
§ Law-making and policy-setting
§ National defense
§ Money printing and coin minting
§ Foreign policy
§ Post office
§ Regulating common goods
§ Environment
§ Communications
State
§ Law-making and policy-setting
§ Education and welfare
§ Public health
§ Transport regulation
§ Regulate public goods
§ Code-making
§ Power is granted by the State
§ Administrative enactment of state authority
§ Law enforcement
§ Resource utilization
§ Environmental services (trash,wastewater)
§ Land records
§ Planning and zoning
§ Birth and death records
This sounds like what we need
What does all this mean
By Rick Guidice [Public domain], via Wikimedia
Commons
§ Circumstances
§ Relatively small, fixed set of people
§ Long-term growth expected
§ Desire to establish resource-independence
§ Earth is, at minimum, 6 light-minutes away
§ Necessitate development of local government first
§ Planning is essential
§ Vital records
§ Administrative management
LEO/Moon
§ Earth is no more than 3 light-seconds
away
§ 4-day trip
§ Moon can be administratively
managed from Earth
§ Obviously, local services must still be
provided
Generation Ships
§ Going away,fast
What have we learned
§ People will establish their government if left to their own devices
§ That government will likely resemble a democracy
§ Different types of settlements will require different types of governance
§ The overwhelming set of governance concerns resemble local governments
§ Basic high-touch government is necessary to ensure stability and survival
§ What form of government should a colony have
§ How is that government operate
§ Is the government established on Earth beforehand
§ How will that government relate to Earth-bound
governments?
§ Will it be a client or subunit of some nation-state?
§ Will it be a nation-state in it’s own right?
§ Will there be an organized transition period?
§ How will immigration be handled, on both ends?
§ How will different colonies interact with each other?
Decisions to make
§ Handling existing landing sites
§ Should they be treated as parks or otherwise preserved?
§ Can a shared communications platform be
established?
§ Can a positioning system, for the benefit of everyone,
be established? Some things need immediate
attention.

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Planning for Martian Polity

  • 1. James P. Howard, II University of Maryland University College 18th Mars Society Convention 14 August 2015—Washington, DC
  • 2. Why talk about this "Mars mission" by Les Bossinas of NASA Lewis Research Center
  • 3. § MarsOne § Recommendations for global government § Need for private ownership § Supports economic stability and growth § Recommendations for intergovernmental ethics You can’t realistically claim what you can’t realistically defend
  • 4. Who’s already done something "Traktat brzeski 1918". Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.
  • 5. Outer Space Treaty Space Liability Convention Registration Convention Rescue Agreement Moon Treaty • Several treaties address the specifics of space exploration • Others include coincident material
  • 6. Key Details § Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. § Adopted in 1967 § Defining framework for space use Highlights § Nongovernmental actors subject to governmental supervision § No nuclear weapons in space § Nobody can claim anything in space
  • 7. Key Details § Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects § Adopted in 1972 § Ensures safe exploration Highlights § Nations have liability when their spacecraft crash § Only states can sue each other for damages § No private action § Used once, when Kosmos 954 crashed in Canada
  • 8. Key Details § Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space § Adopted in 1975 § Ensures we know what’s where Highlights § Every country needs to maintain a registry of what they are sending in to space § They need to periodically let the UN know what they are sending in to space
  • 9. Key Details § Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space § Adopted in 1979 § Ensures safe return of astronauts Highlights § Everyone has a duty to rescue astronauts § This includes landed astronauts § Covers safe return to home country
  • 10. Key Details § Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies § Adopted in 1979 • Defining framework for international governance of all celestial bodies Almost Nobody Signed It Highlights • Actually governs everything outside of Earth • Includes orbits around those bodies • Peaceful purposes § Everyone can go and play § Must only use what is necessary § Duty of rescue § Must also notify in event of crash
  • 11. What can we learn from who came before us By Claude Thomas Stanfield Moore [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • 12. Oscar Wergeland [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • 13. § Well-documented, due to Sagas § Small family farms, not cities § 1500 place names in 60 years § About 3500 people listed § Source: Landnámabók § Age of Settlement ends with all usable land consumed "Egil Skallagrimsson 17c manuscript" by Unknown
  • 14. § General assembly § All free men could attend § Assembly met in legislative and judicial roles § Modeled on tradition Norse local governance § Power rested with local chieftains § Largely run by nationwide aristocracy W. G. Collingwood [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • 16. § Followed several failed colonies § Organized by the Virginia Company of London § And taking orders from London § Appointed local 7-member governing council § Locally elected president § Within a two years, only one member § Virginia Company suspends local rule by 1609 for 9 years By Nationalparks. Nationalparks at en.wikipedia
  • 17. § New Governor and Council appointed by the London Company § Elected House of Burgesses § Two members from every town § Together, can pass laws, and otherwise looks like a government § By 1624,Virginia is a Royal Colony Ken Lund
  • 18. "Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor," by William Halsall, 1882
  • 19. § Mayflower destined for Virginia, 1620 § Due to storms, landed in Mass. Bay § Intent to distinguish from Virginia § Original text lost § Not a form of government, itself § Only a promise to collective establish and adhere to a government § “We are a people.” § Promised equal and just laws "The Mayflower Compact 1620 cph.3g07155" by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris
  • 20. § Representative government § Elected General Court § Elected Governor § General Court would also act as judiciary § Technically, no outside control
  • 22. Examples § United Nations § NATO § ASEAN § World Bank / IMF General Purpose § Coordination among nation-states § Usually issue-specific § Talk a lot
  • 23. National § Law-making and policy-setting § National defense § Money printing and coin minting § Foreign policy § Post office § Regulating common goods § Environment § Communications State § Law-making and policy-setting § Education and welfare § Public health § Transport regulation § Regulate public goods
  • 24. § Code-making § Power is granted by the State § Administrative enactment of state authority § Law enforcement § Resource utilization § Environmental services (trash,wastewater) § Land records § Planning and zoning § Birth and death records This sounds like what we need
  • 25. What does all this mean By Rick Guidice [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • 26. § Circumstances § Relatively small, fixed set of people § Long-term growth expected § Desire to establish resource-independence § Earth is, at minimum, 6 light-minutes away § Necessitate development of local government first § Planning is essential § Vital records § Administrative management
  • 27. LEO/Moon § Earth is no more than 3 light-seconds away § 4-day trip § Moon can be administratively managed from Earth § Obviously, local services must still be provided Generation Ships § Going away,fast
  • 28. What have we learned
  • 29. § People will establish their government if left to their own devices § That government will likely resemble a democracy § Different types of settlements will require different types of governance § The overwhelming set of governance concerns resemble local governments § Basic high-touch government is necessary to ensure stability and survival
  • 30. § What form of government should a colony have § How is that government operate § Is the government established on Earth beforehand § How will that government relate to Earth-bound governments? § Will it be a client or subunit of some nation-state? § Will it be a nation-state in it’s own right? § Will there be an organized transition period? § How will immigration be handled, on both ends? § How will different colonies interact with each other? Decisions to make
  • 31. § Handling existing landing sites § Should they be treated as parks or otherwise preserved? § Can a shared communications platform be established? § Can a positioning system, for the benefit of everyone, be established? Some things need immediate attention.

Editor's Notes

  1. Don’t be a jerk
  2. Left to their own devices, people will form their own government That government will be more-or-less democratic and more-or-less representative That’s easier to sell people on People will hold to it The General Court is still extant So is the Alþingi