Flinders Island Isolated Power System (IPS) Connect 2016 F GAFARO IRENA


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The transition of the power sector towards a renewable energy based electricity supply requires in many cases the integration of high shares of non-conventional generation into the existing infrastructure. Changes in the physical characteristics and the conditions to operate these grids are consequently introduced. The technical challenges associated with these changes have particular impact in islands, where the grids are small and the flexibility that is offered by system interconnection is not available.

Successful integration experiences in islands have demonstrated that these challenges can be overcome. Reliable and efficient supply of electricity is possible, if a consistent planning process, considering the particularities of each island and the links between different sectors and stakeholders, takes place. Through renewable energy roadmaps, grid integration studies and technical trainings IRENA has supported the planning of the transformation of the electricity systems in Small Island Developing States at a global level. In this presentation IRENA will share the lessons learned within its work and its vision of the deployment of renewable energies in island states for the following years.
Francisco Gafaro works as Programme Officer in the Renewable Energy Agency IRENA since May 2014, coordinating different projects of technical assistance to developing countries, facilitating the integration of renewable energies into the electricity grid. He is holds a Bachelor degree on electrical engineering from the Universidad de Los Andes in Colombia and a M.Sc. In Electrical Power Engineer from the RWTH-Aachen in Germany. He has more than 12 years of experience in the power sector, working in technical topics related to planning and operation of transmission and distribution networks and analyzing the impacts of RE.

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Flinders Island Isolated Power System (IPS) Connect 2016 F GAFARO IRENA

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY AGENCY Integration of VRE in Small Island Developing States: Context & Power system operation and expansion Francisco Gafaro Flinders Island, 01 December 2016
  2. 2. About IRENA » Established in 2011 » An intergovernmental organization » Promotes the widespread adoption and sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy worldwide » Supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future 150 Members 26 States in Accession IRENA work is driven by member country demand
  3. 3. Small Island Developing States -SIDS 3 57 (SIDS), 38 UN members in 3 geographical zones Over 60 million people, Around 90 TWh electricity consumption per year (only in UN members) Around 29 GW of installed generation (only in UN members)
  4. 4. • To date, SIDS represent 40 of the 100 parties to the Paris agreement • Contribution to the total global greenhouse gas emissions is reduced but impact is high • Significant sources of GHG emission come from the electricity, transport and waste • SIDS have recognized the importance of addressing climate change both from a mitigation (regardless of contribution) and adaptation perspective Climate Change agenda and RE Targets
  5. 5. Ambitious RE targets in SIDS
  6. 6. Different types of power systems different approach for transformation Large SIDS systems, up to GW scale (Caribbean, Fiji, PNG), similar to interconnected systems Existing planning and operational procedures gradually adapted Smaller systems, outer islands, remote communities. Single hybrid project may be sufficient Medium size systems, most major islands in the Pacific, East Caribbean, Indic Ocean, gradual but faster integration, very challenging, more and new stakeholders, new unexpected technical issues may arise
  7. 7. The transformation of the power sector IRENAs engagement with SIDS at all levels trough: Capacity building, Direct technical assistance, Project development support tools, ADFD Project Facility, Sustainable Energy Market place, facilitation of strategic partnerships
  8. 8.  Located in South Pacific Ocean  Population: 200,000  75 % lives on main island Upolu  Annual electricity demand c.a. 115 GWh  Peak demand c.a. 24 MW  PPAs with 3 IPPs for ca. 11 MW PV under implementation since 2015  3 MW PV system property of utility EPC  6 MW additional hydro by 2017  Further expansion alternatives projects in time horizon 2022 based on wind + pumped storage and biomass Grid Study Case Upolu, Samoa 8 8 FIAGA F/S L/M TAF 4 MW 8 MW 5 MW 30 MW DIESEL 2.9 MW Load 3.5 MW 4 MW TANU 33 kV 22 kV Upolu 2014 Hydro Map Data ©2015 Google FIAGA F/S L/M TAF 5 MW 8.5 MW 5.7 MW 6.7 MW Load 3.5 MW TANU 33 kV 22 kV Upolu 2017 Hydro 5 MW 30 MW DIESEL 4 MW 7 MW Map Data ©2015 Google
  9. 9. 9 Expected situation 2017 29.8 29.8 29.8 29.8 8.5 10.1 12.8 13.7 2.9 11.4 13.7 13.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2014 2015 2016 2017 TotalPowerInstalled(MW) Diesel [MW] Hydro [MW] PV [MW] Wind [MW] Generation type Existing system 2014 With new PV via PPA 2017 Diesel (MW) 4 x 5.8 4 x 5.8 Hydro (MW) 7.5 14 Wind (MW) 0.55 0.55 PV (MW) 2.85 13.65 Battery storage (MW) - 4 Battery storage (MWh useable) - 2 Installed VRE 2015 Installed VRE 2017 Very high penetration levels can be expected
  10. 10. 10 Grid Modelling Study for Upolu – Scenarios 2017 & 2022
  11. 11. 11 Grid Modelling Study for Upolu Model validation
  12. 12. 12 1086420 [s] 52 50 48 46 44 42 Fiaga #1: Frequency [Hz] - Min Demand and PV max in 2015 Fiaga #1: Frequency [Hz] - Min Demand and PV max in 2016 Fiaga #1: Frequency [Hz] - Min Demand and PV max in 2017 Trip of diesel unit PV Disconnection Load disconnection Trip of diesel generation Example of identified technical issues Performance criteria not fulfilled: Loss of a diesel unit leads to system collapse in case of low demand and high PV generation Main root causes are UFLS settings (too slow) and instantaneous disconnection of PV @47,5 Hz
  13. 13. 13 Identified solutions Base Case 2017 Two sets of measures were identified to solve technical issues:  Alternative 1: Based on operational measures and grid support functions to be provided by new PV systems (grid connection requirements) + Less investment and less complexity - Higher level of curtailment required  Alternative 2: Based on system enhancements and investments in new infrastructure, operational measures and grid connection requirements for new PV systems + Maximum flexibility allowing minimum curtailment - New investments required
  14. 14. Identified solutions Alternative 2 14 • ) Infrastructure and system enhancement Operational measures Grid support functions from new PV systems  Voltage control capabilities with power factor range of ±0,95  Under-Voltage-Ride- Through (UVRT) capability  Reduction of the output power in case of overfrequency P(f)  Modification of UFLS scheme settings  Allocation of frequency regulation reserves according to expected variability of PV and wind using diesel, hydro and battery storage  Limit the amount of power exported by the feeders  Installation of a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) for the provision of spinning reserves. Minimum capacity 4 MW / 2 MWh  The BESS shall perform primary and secondary frequency control  Installation of a reactive power compensation (5.5 MVA) to replace the reactive power provided by the diesel plant  Implement an automatic and centralized system to perform the unit commitment and generation dispatch  Dispatchable units (hydro and batteries) and PV/Wind plants should be controllable from dispatch center
  15. 15. System Operation - Weekend
  16. 16. System Operation - Weekday
  17. 17. System Operation - Weekday
  18. 18. Lessons learned 18  The transformation of the power system in small to medium size islands is rapidly happening and quick action is required  There is an enormous variety in the characteristics of SIDS. Each island is a unique case. Particularities define approach required for planning and implementation  Challenges at different levels, technical-economic-politic can not be isolated  Coordination of support activities among engaged stakeholders and developing partners is crucial  Capacity building is crucial, the industry is changing and new dynamics must be understood
  19. 19. Download the report for free from www.irena.org/Publications Contact: Fboshell@irena.org Renewable Mini-Grids Innovation Outlook
  20. 20. www.irena.org Thank you very much!! Francisco Gafaro fgafaro@irena.org