Year 11 revision guide


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Year 11 revision guide

  1. 1. Miss Kendall’s Year 11 GCSE Music Revision Guide
  2. 2. Contents Basics Elements of Music Area of Study 1 Rhythm and Metre Area of Study 2 Harmony and Tonality Area of Study 3 Texture and Melody Area of Study 4 Timbre and Dynamics Area of Study 5 Structure and Form Extended Questions
  3. 3. Below are the strands of learning: a) The Western Classical Tradition Baroque orchestral music The concerto Music for voices Chamber music The sonata b) Popular Music of the 20th & 21st centuries Blues Popular music of the 1960s Rock music, R’n’B, Hip-Hop Music Theatre Film music c) World Music Music of the Caribbean Music of Africa Music of India Common Errors highlighted in red Italian Terms in purple italics Websites in bold blue Example questions in the yellow boxes
  4. 4. Elements of Music PITCH TEMPO (Speed) High Low Fast Slow Italian words you can use for tempo Largo: Slowly Andante: Walking Pace Moderato: Moderately Allegro: Fast Vivace: Lively Presto: Very Fast Accelerando: Gradually speeding up Rallentando: Gradually slowing down Ritenuto: Immediately slower Allargando: Getting slower and broadening Rubato: Literally 'robbed time', where rhythms are played freely for expressive effect. PG 1
  5. 5. Elements of Music Loud Dynamics Quiet (Volume) Italian words you can use for dynamics and the symbols you would see on the score (dynamic markings) Crescendo: Getting louder < Diminuendo: Getting quieter < Pianissimo: very quiet Piano: quiet p Fortissimo: very loud Forte: loud pp ff f Mezzo forte: fairly loud mf Mezzo piano: fairly quiet mp Accent: emphasis on a particular note > (marked near the note) Timbre The instruments
  6. 6. Elements of Music Texture How many layers/ instruments are playing at any time. Words you can use for texture A capella= Voices singing on its own Unison= Playing or Singing together Call and Response= A solo melody is then answered by other instruments Monophonic= 1 Melody on its own Homophonic= 1 melody plus accompaniment (chords being played underneath= usually found in a pop song)
  7. 7. Elements of Music Example Questions: What happens to the dynamics in the first section of this piece? Describe the use of pitch with the opening of the violin The beginning of this extract is monophonic, then what happens? Circle the word which best describes the tempo of the opening section of this extract Vivace Largo Moderato
  8. 8. Recognising Instruments Violin Trumpet Piano Guitar Saxophone Drum Kit If you visit this website you can click on lots of instruments which you can listen to: elements_of_music/instrumentationrev1.shtml Make sure you can identify the sound of each one. This is a common question in the exam.
  9. 9. Recognising special instruments relating to the strand of learning Strand of Learning A) The Western Classical Tradition Harpsichord (Baroque Era) B) Popular Music of the 20th and 21st Century The instruments heard within this time period are instruments you use at school and that you are use to hearing. C) World Music Music of the Caribbean Clavas Maracas l e te S Cabasa s n Pa Guiro
  10. 10. Recognising special instruments relating to the strand of learning C) World Music Indian Music– Listen to ‘Pata Pata’ by Miriam Makeba Sitar Tabla Harmonium African Music– Listen to ‘Homeless’ by Ladysmith Black Mambazo African Drumming If you are still not sure about these instruments type them in to Youtube and listen to them.
  11. 11. Family of Instruments Brass Family String Family
  12. 12. Family of Instruments Woodwind Keyboard Family Piano Harp sicho rd Organ To look more into instrument families and sounds visit:
  13. 13. Family of Instruments The Voice Soprano– High Female Alto– Low Female Tenor– High Male Bass– Low Male Vocal Ensembles You can get all female choirs, male choirs or mixed choirs. Barbershop/ acapella groups Gospel Choir Choral Music
  14. 14. Family of Instruments COMMON ERROR The saxophone and flute are actually woodwind instruments– NOT BRASS Questions always come up where you have to identify the instrument playing. Too many pupils get an oboe confused with a flute or a clarinet. Make sure you know your instrument sounds! These are easy marks!
  15. 15. Area of Study 1 Rhythm and Metre Pulse– is the beat! Tempo– is the speed of the beat Tempo is measured in BPM (Beats Per Minute) In the chapter on ELEMENTS OF MUSIC you will find Italian words related to tempo! You will be asked about the time signature of the piece. Usual answers will be: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 6/8 To work this out you need to work out the strongest beat and then count until the next strongest beat. Listen to the pulse! Example Question: How would you describe the tempo of this extract? What is the time signature of this piece?
  16. 16. Rhythm Keywords Example Question: How does the rhythm change in the second extract? Please comment on the rhythm of this extract. Augmentation: An increase in the length of notes. The music will sound slower when imitated or repeated. Therefore your answer could be– the rhythm is augmented Diminution: A decrease in the length of notes. The music will sound quicker when repeated. Syncopation: Off beat. Dotted Rhythm: A dot after the note increases it by half the size. Dotted crotched equals one and a half beats. (Usually sounds long– short) Cross Rhythm/ Polyrhythm: 2 different rhythms being played at the same time on different instruments Rubato: when directed to play “rubato” the performer has freedom with the rhythm and the speed. Drum Fill– Rhythmic decoration used on the drums Triplets: A group of 3 notes having the same time as 2. Have a listen on this website to an example of a triplet
  17. 17. Rhythm and Metre Pick some pieces of music from your listening chart at the beginning of the booklet and answer these questions( Aim to use rhythm keywords from the opposite page.) 1. What is the time signature of this piece? 2. Describe the rhythm of this piece. 3. What is the tempo of this piece? 4. Describe the rhythm used in this piece.
  18. 18. AoS2 Harmony & Tonality Harmony is what happens when two notes at different pitches are played together! Diatonic: occurs when only the notes from the key signature are played Chromatic: happens when you use notes that do not belong in that key signature (it adds colour) Consonant: the harmony sounds nice Dissonance: doesn’t sound so nice! Sounds like a clash Pedal/Drone– is a note that is held on for a long time below the melody. (A drone note is usually played in the bass part and you will find this when listening to Indian music or Bagpipes!) Cadences: The two chords at the end of a phrase (ends the musical sentence) Perfect– Sounds finished    Imperfect– Sounds unfinished Interrupted– Sounds like it is going to, but then doesn’t (Surprise cadence)  Plagal– Amen cadence To hear examples and for more information go to the GCSE Bitesize Website Example Question: In this extract which cadence is located at point A on the score?
  19. 19. Harmony & Tonality Tonality means the music belongs in a key Tonic– Strongest note of the key (this is the first note and is usually what the piece starts and ends on) Major– has a happy feel Minor– has a sad feel (through out!) Modes– ancient scales Pentatonic– 5 note scale Whole tone– made up of tones (whole steps- no semi-tones) Modulation– when the piece changes key. (Usually this will be the dominant or the relative major or minor as they flow nicely in to each other) Key Signatures You can work out key signatures by using the Circle of 5ths
  20. 20. Harmony and Tonality Listening Guide-go through your listening chart and answer the following questions: What is the tonality of this piece? Comment on the harmony Is this piece major or minor? Which cadence is at the end of the chorus? Comment on the harmony Does this piece modulate? If so when and what to? Which key signature has 2 sharps in? Which key signature has 1 flat in?
  21. 21. AoS3 Texture and Melody To find out about TEXTURE turn to the first chapter on the Elements of Music! Example Question: Describe the texture of the piece As well as the words– Unison, Monophonic, Homophonic, Polyphonic you will also need to know the following: Broken Chords– is when the notes of the chord are played separately, not together! The accompaniment sounds more gentle and flowing compared to block chords. You probably used broken chords for your 32 bar song. Imitative/Canonic– Imitate is to copy. That is exactly what happens! An instrument copies another instrument. A canon is a type of imitation where an instrument copies the whole of melody not just part. Many instruments could be involved in a canon. Antiphonal– special kind of imitation. This is where a musical phrase is passed between many instruments. In some antiphonal music the parts are played in different areas of the building and produces a stereo effect. All of the above can be found: Just click on the letter and find the keyword. Click on and listen to it!
  22. 22. AoS3 Texture and Melody Melody is a pattern of notes. Example Question: Which bar does the melody start in? Identify the interval between the first two notes played in the meloIntervals– the distance in pitch between two notes. E.g. The distance between C and G is a 5th. If you go to and go to intervals it plays all the intervals for C. Conjunct– is a type of melodic movement. Conjunct means step wise (the notes are mainly next to each other) Disjunct– Means the melody moves in leaps Triadic– a triadic melody is one that mainly plays the 3 notes of a chord Scalic– A scalic melody is one that follows a scale Arpeggio– is a type of broken chord. Usually ascending (going up) or descending (going down) Passing Note– is a note that connects another two notes that are part of the harmony. For instance, a C note followed by an E note, the passing note would be a D. Acciaccatura and Appoggiatura– these are types of ornaments. They are little added decorations that sound crushed. Blue Notes– These are special notes used in the blues and often ‘slide’ from one to another. You can also use words like: diatonic, chromatic, modal, pentatonic, whole tone (turn to the section on harmony to help you with these words) You can also use augmentation, diminution (which can be found in the rhythm section)
  23. 23. Sequence– is where a melodic phrase is repeated immediately at a different pitch http:// elements_of_music/melody5.shtml Inversion– is where the melody is turned upside down Slide/Glissando/Portamento– All mean the same thing which is sliding from one not Example Question: Which melodic device is being used? Ornamentation- Little decorations (ornaments) to make the melody interesting. Ostinato– a repeated musical phrase Riff– Same as an ostinato but found in popular music Phrasing– dividing the melody into smaller sections– like a sentence Articulation– extra little information for the performer on how to play the note. E.g. Staccato, accents etc. Pitch Bend– found in guitar playing. Improvisation– To make it up on the spot (usually found in blues and jazz)
  24. 24. Texture and Melody Use pieces of music in your listening chart to answer the following questions: Describe the texture of each piece and which musical term best describes it. Describe the melody of each piece.
  25. 25. Area of Study 4 Timbre and Dynamics For definition of these words you can find in chapter one on the Elements of Music! As well as them you need to also need to know- Example Question: Name the instrumental technique the violin is using.
  26. 26. Timbre and Dynamics Example questions: 1. Name the instruments playing and any instrument techniques used. 2. Describe the dynamics. 3. Name the instrument playing the accompaniment. 4. Describe the dynamics throughout the piece of music.
  27. 27. Area of Study 5 Structure and Form Example Question: Describe the structure of this piece. How does section A differ from section B? Example Question: Which of the following best describes the form of this excerpt? ABA ABCD ABCA AAA
  28. 28. Structure and Form Example Questions: 1. Describe the structure of the following piece. 2. Which term best describes the form of this excerpt? Circle Arch– shape binary through-composed twelve-bar blues
  29. 29. Extended Question In the exam you will be asked to listen to an excerpt a few times and then you will be asked to comment on certain areas. Example Question: Comment on this music, referring only to: Rhythm Metre Texture Melody TIP! Use bullet points. List like this E.g.  Rhythm– dotted and syncopated  Metre– 4/4  Texture– homophonic  Melody– improvisation and pitch bend You take the keywords you know and place them in the appropriate areas depending on the piece you are listening to.
  30. 30. Extended Question Pick a different piece of music from your listening chart and answer the following questions: Track 1 Comment on– Pitch, Dynamics, Timbre Track 2 Comment on– Timbre, Texture, Structure Track 3 Comment on– Rhythm, Metre, Texture, Melody Track 4 Comment on– Melody, Metre, Form Track 5 Comment on– Structure, Dynamics, Pitch, Melody Track 6 Comment on– Rhythm, Metre, Texture, Melody
  31. 31. Listening Guide Caribbean Music Old R&B (1950’s) Fats Domino-Blueberry Hill 1. Little Richard-Tutti Frutti Ray Charles– Mess Around BB King-Three O’Clock Blues Soul (1960’s/70’s) Ben E King– Stand by Me Aretha Franklin-Say a little Prayer 2. 3. 4. Soca Calypso– Lord KitchenerSugar Bum Bum Ska– Millie Small-My Boy Lollipop Rock Steady– The Jamaicans-Baba Boom Time Reggae-Desmond Dekker and the ACES-Isrealites Stevie Wonder-Superstition Bill Withers– Lean on me Jackson Five-ABC Disco (1970’s/80’s) Indian Music 1. Rag Desh by Saraswati Dhandhada Donna Summers-I Feel Love Rose Royce– Car Wash Bee Gees– Stayin’ Alive Village People– YMCA Gloria Gaynor– I will Survive Funk (70’s/80’s) Michael Jackson-Thriller Earth, Wind and Fire– Let’s Groove Chaka Khan-Ain’t Nobody Modern R&B (21st Century) Beyonce Knowles– Best Thing I Never Had Rihanna-Unfaithful Mariah Carey– Hero Whitney Houston-The Greatest Love Mary J Blige– Just Fine African Music 1. Yiri by Koko 2. Homeless by Ladysmith Black Mambazo
  32. 32. Websites! REALLY GOOD WEBSITE: A.asp Any keywords in this booklet can be heard by going to this website, finding the keyword then clicking and listening! This has all the areas of study for you to read and listen to. Intervals quiz.html Musical term aq_music_terms_expressions_match/quiz.html Instruments Texture