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Inuit&Food&Security:&Vulnerability&of&the&traditional&food&system&to&climatic&extremes&during&winter&2010/2011&in&Iqaluit,...
Introduction*•  Significant&and&rapid&climate&change&is&predicted&   for&Arctic&regions,&and&there&is&evidence&that&it&is& ...
Traditional*Food*Security*•  A&traditional*food*system*involves&all&processes&associated&   with&hunting,&harvesting,&prep...
Assessing*Food*Security*•  Winter&2010/2011&brought&extreme&   environmental&conditions&throughout&the&   Canadian&Arctic....
Winter*2010/2011:*Warmer&temperatures&                               Iqaluit*Annual*Temperatures**                        ...
Winter*2010/2011:*Later&freezeYup&                          Frobisher*Bay*FreezeFUp*Dates*1982F2010*               395&   ...
Winter*2010/2011:*Earlier&breakYup&                             Frobisher*Bay*BreakFUp*Dates*1982F2011*                210...
Winter*2010/2011:*Shorter&sea&ice&season&&&&longer&open&water&season*                           Annual*Length*of*Stable*Ic...
Objectives*1)  Identify&and&characterize:&    a)  Locally&relevant&extreme&climatic&conditions&        during&winter&2010/...
Objectives*1)  Identify&and&characterize:&    a)  Locally&relevant&extreme&climatic&conditions&        during&winter&2010/...
Study*Design*Rationale*•  Winter&2010/2011&    –  Predicted&to&be&(and&was)&climatically&anomalous&•  Inuit&    –  Disprop...
Case*Study*Location:*Iqaluit,*Nunavut*•  Largest&community&&&territorial&capital&•  Population&of&7,000&(60%&Inuit)&•  Dua...
Methods*                                      MixedYMethod&                                        Approach&           Qua...
Data*Collection:*Instrumental*Data*Sea&Ice&Data&                    Environmental!Data!•    Canadian&Ice&Service&       • ...
Data*Collection:*Interviews*
Data*Collection:*Interviews*•    What:*&25&semiYstructured&interviews&•    Who:*Hunters&living&in&Iqaluit&•    How:*Purpos...
Data*Collection:*Surveys* •    What:*100&household&surveys& •    Who:&Community&members&living&in&public&housing& •    How...
Data*Collection:*Surveys*
Data*Collection:*Participant*Observation*
Data*Analysis* •  Instrumental&data&    –  Least&squares&regression&used&to&identify&linear&trends&        •  Considered&s...
What*were*the*locally*relevant*extreme*climatic*conditions?*
Exposure:*Unpredictable&climatic&conditions&“We’ve&had&bad&years&in&the&past.&&This&was&extreme.&This&was&special.”&
Exposure:*Dangerous&sea&ice&conditions&“Very&knowledgeable&hunters&have&had&accidents,&and&that&says&a&lot,&to&me.”&
Exposure:*Decent&land&conditions&“LandYwise,&it’s&not&so&bad.”&
What*was*the*effect*of*these*extreme*conditions*on*the*traditional*food*system?*
Sensitivity:*Reduced&availability/accessibility*“This&year&there&was&barely&any&country&food.&Everyone&is&searching&for&it...
Sensitivity:*Reduced&consumption*                                         Consumption*of*country*food*during*winter*2010/2...
Sensitivity:*Reduced&quality*“The&quality&is&different.&The&taste&is&different.&The&caribou&are&a&bit&skinny,&and&that&makes...
What*coping*strategies*were*used*to*deal*with*these*stresses?*
Adaptive*Capacity:*Altered&hunting&behaviour*“Hunters&have&a&certain&degree&of&resilience;&it’s&very&hard&to&erode&that.”&
Adaptive*Capacity:*Coping&mechanisms*                                            Use*of*coping*mechanisms*during*winter201...
Adaptive*Capacity:*Food&programs*“Theres&a&soup&kitchen&in&town&thats&keeping&me&alive.”&!
Adaptive*Capacity:*Food&programs*                                           Use*of*food*programs*during*winter*2010/2011**...
Adaptive*Capacity:*Sharing&networks&*“That’s&the&way&I&was&raised.&That’s&the&way&we&are.&When&we&get&country&food,&we&han...
Adaptive*Capacity:*Commercialization**“Inuit&buying&country&food&are&whiteYpeopleYwannabes”&!!
What*broader*socioeconomic*factors*impacted*adaptation?*
Barriers:*Low&incomes&&&high&costs*“Income&support&comes&only&once&a&month.&It’s&never&enough.”&&“One&week&we&had&no&food....
Barriers:*Deteriorating&knowledge&base&“It’s&a&sacrifice&I&had&to&make.&I&had&to&get&my&education.&It’s&not&a&negative&impa...
Barriers:*Strained&sharing&networks&“When&they&catch&a&caribou,&they&hide&it&now.&Even&relatives.&People&are&greedy&now&be...
Barriers:*Social&issues*“Depression&is&hard.”&&“My&family&and&I&were&homeless,&but&my&friend&took&us&in&and&paid&for&us&wh...
Barriers:*Climate&change*“I&don’t&trust&the&ice&anymore.&A&lot&of&the&[hunters]&don’t&trust&it&anymore.&People&are&scared&...
Summary*•    Vulnerability&&was&not&as&pronounced&as&     anticipated,&yet&food&insecurity&amongst&public&     housing&res...
Acknowledgements*•  Logistics&    •    Community&of&Iqaluit&    •    Nunavut&Research&Institute&&&Nunavut&Arctic&College& ...
Thank*you.**sara.statham@mail.mcgill.ca*www.ccadapt.ca*www.ccadapt.ca/ssdissem**
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Inuit Food Security: Vulnerability of the traditional food system to climatic extremes during winter 2010/2011 in Iqaluit, Nunavut

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Presentation by Sara Statham to IPY 2012 conference in Montreal, April 23, 2012.

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Inuit Food Security: Vulnerability of the traditional food system to climatic extremes during winter 2010/2011 in Iqaluit, Nunavut

  1. 1. Inuit&Food&Security:&Vulnerability&of&the&traditional&food&system&to&climatic&extremes&during&winter&2010/2011&in&Iqaluit,&Nunavut& Sara&Statham&&&Dr.&James&Ford& McGill&University&–&Montreal,&QC& International&Polar&Year& April&23,&2012&
  2. 2. Introduction*•  Significant&and&rapid&climate&change&is&predicted& for&Arctic&regions,&and&there&is&evidence&that&it&is& already&occurring.&•  These&changes&have&implications&for&Canadian& Inuit,&many&of&whom&depend&on&hunting&and& fishing&for&their&livelihoods.&•  Varying&environmental&conditions&impact&the& ability&of&Inuit&to&procure&country&food,&thus& impacting&food&security.&
  3. 3. Traditional*Food*Security*•  A&traditional*food*system*involves&all&processes&associated& with&hunting,&harvesting,&preparing,&sharing,&and&consuming& foods&obtained&from&local&natural&resources.&&•  Food*insecurity*occurs&when&this&system&is&stressed&so&that& food&is&not&available,&accessible,&or&of&sufficient&quality.&
  4. 4. Assessing*Food*Security*•  Winter&2010/2011&brought&extreme& environmental&conditions&throughout&the& Canadian&Arctic.&•  The&aim&of&this&project&is&to&determine&whether& these&extreme&environmental&conditions& impacted&the&ability&of&hunters&to&obtain& country&food&and&whether&this&caused&food& insecurity&at&the&community&level.&
  5. 5. Winter*2010/2011:*Warmer&temperatures& Iqaluit*Annual*Temperatures** 1982F2010** 0.0& Y5.0& Temperature*(°C)* y&=&0.1256x&Y&7.2654& R²&=&0.40229& minimum& Y10.0& y&=&0.1297x&Y&11.105& R²&=&0.40977& maximum& average& y&=&0.1338x&Y&14.945& Y15.0& R²&=&0.41155& Y20.0& Year*
  6. 6. Winter*2010/2011:*Later&freezeYup& Frobisher*Bay*FreezeFUp*Dates*1982F2010* 395& January*24* y&=&1.7153x&Y&3095.9& (59*days*later)* 375& R²&=&0.59626& * Julian*Day* 355& 335& 315& 295& 275& 1980& 1985& 1990& 1995& 2000& 2005& 2010& 2015& Year*
  7. 7. Winter*2010/2011:*Earlier&breakYup& Frobisher*Bay*BreakFUp*Dates*1982F2011* 210& 200& Julian*Day* 190& 180& y&=&Y0.7533x&+&1695.2& June*20* 170& R²&=&0.38345& (23*days*earlier)* * 160& 1980& 1990& 2000& 2010& Year*
  8. 8. Winter*2010/2011:*Shorter&sea&ice&season&&&&longer&open&water&season* Annual*Length*of*Stable*Ice*and*Open*Water*at** Frobisher*Bay*1982F2010* 300& Number*of*Days* 250& 200& 150& 100& stable&ice& 50& ice&free& 0& 1982& 1986& 1988& 1990& 1992& 1996& 1998& 2000& 2002& 2006& 2010& 2008& 1984& 1994& 2004& Year*
  9. 9. Objectives*1)  Identify&and&characterize:& a)  Locally&relevant&extreme&climatic&conditions& during&winter&2010/2011&(exposure)& b)  Their&subsequent&effects&on&Iqaluit’s& traditional&food&system&(sensitivity)& c)  Coping&strategies&used&for&dealing&with& stresses&(adaptive/capacity)&2)  Examine&how&the&vulnerability&of&the&traditional& food&system&influences&food&security&among& public&housing&residents&in&Iqaluit.&3)  Identify&what&lessons&can&be&learned&from&winter& 2010/2011&in&terms&of&the&future&implications&of& climate&change.&
  10. 10. Objectives*1)  Identify&and&characterize:& a)  Locally&relevant&extreme&climatic&conditions& during&winter&2010/2011&(exposure)& b)  Their&subsequent&effects&on&Iqaluit’s& traditional&food&system&(sensitivity)& c)  Coping&strategies&used&for&dealing&with& stresses&(adaptive/capacity)&2)  Examine&how&the&vulnerability&of&the&traditional& food&system&influences&food&security&among& public&housing&residents&in&Iqaluit.&3)  Identify&what&lessons&can&be&learned&from&winter& 2010/2011&in&terms&of&the&future&implications&of& climate&change.&
  11. 11. Study*Design*Rationale*•  Winter&2010/2011& –  Predicted&to&be&(and&was)&climatically&anomalous&•  Inuit& –  Disproportionate&prevalence&of&food&insecurity&•  Poor& –  Particularly&vulnerable&demographic&•  Iqaluit,&Nunavut& –  Differs&from&smaller&traditional&Arctic&communities&
  12. 12. Case*Study*Location:*Iqaluit,*Nunavut*•  Largest&community&&&territorial&capital&•  Population&of&7,000&(60%&Inuit)&•  Dual&economy& •  WageYbased&&&subsistenceYbased&•  Dual&food&system& •  Traditional&&&contemporary&•  Very&different&from&smaller,&& traditional&Arctic&communities&
  13. 13. Methods* MixedYMethod& Approach& Quantitative&Data& Qualitative&Data& Key&Sea&Ice& Environmental& Hunter& Household& Participant& Informant& Data& Data& Interviews& Surveys& Observation& Interviews&
  14. 14. Data*Collection:*Instrumental*Data*Sea&Ice&Data& Environmental!Data!•  Canadian&Ice&Service& •  Environment&Canada&•  Available&from&1982Y2011& •  Analyzed&from&1982Y2011&•  BreakYup&dates& •  Temperature&•  FreezeYup&dates& •  Wind&&
  15. 15. Data*Collection:*Interviews*
  16. 16. Data*Collection:*Interviews*•  What:*&25&semiYstructured&interviews&•  Who:*Hunters&living&in&Iqaluit&•  How:*Purposive&&&snowball&sampling&strategies*•  Themes:** •  Individual&characteristics& •  Environmental&observations& •  Wildlife&observations& •  Challenges&and&opportunities& •  Adaptive&strategies& •  Other&factors&affecting&&their&ability&to&hunt&
  17. 17. Data*Collection:*Surveys* •  What:*100&household&surveys& •  Who:&Community&members&living&in&public&housing& •  How:*Random&sampling&strategy& •  Themes:*& •  Household&characteristics& •  Country&food&observations& •  Sources&of&food& •  Coping&mechanisms&
  18. 18. Data*Collection:*Surveys*
  19. 19. Data*Collection:*Participant*Observation*
  20. 20. Data*Analysis* •  Instrumental&data& –  Least&squares&regression&used&to&identify&linear&trends& •  Considered&significant&at&the&95%&confidence&level& •  Excel&and&STATISTICA& •  Interviews&and&surveys& –  Latent&content&analysis&used&to&identify&themes& –  Pearson’s&chiYsquared&and&Fisher’s&Exact&tests&used&& to&identify&relationships&between&variables& •  Considered&significant&at&the&95%&confidence&level& •  IBM&SPSS&Statistics&19&
  21. 21. What*were*the*locally*relevant*extreme*climatic*conditions?*
  22. 22. Exposure:*Unpredictable&climatic&conditions&“We’ve&had&bad&years&in&the&past.&&This&was&extreme.&This&was&special.”&
  23. 23. Exposure:*Dangerous&sea&ice&conditions&“Very&knowledgeable&hunters&have&had&accidents,&and&that&says&a&lot,&to&me.”&
  24. 24. Exposure:*Decent&land&conditions&“LandYwise,&it’s&not&so&bad.”&
  25. 25. What*was*the*effect*of*these*extreme*conditions*on*the*traditional*food*system?*
  26. 26. Sensitivity:*Reduced&availability/accessibility*“This&year&there&was&barely&any&country&food.&Everyone&is&searching&for&it.”&
  27. 27. Sensitivity:*Reduced&consumption* Consumption*of*country*food*during*winter*2010/2011* compared*to*previous*years* 60& Percentage*of*Households*(%)* 40& Arctic&char& 20& Caribou& Seal& Decreased& 0& Increased& 20& 40& 60&
  28. 28. Sensitivity:*Reduced&quality*“The&quality&is&different.&The&taste&is&different.&The&caribou&are&a&bit&skinny,&and&that&makes&a&big&difference&because&we&eat&it&all&year&round.”&!
  29. 29. What*coping*strategies*were*used*to*deal*with*these*stresses?*
  30. 30. Adaptive*Capacity:*Altered&hunting&behaviour*“Hunters&have&a&certain&degree&of&resilience;&it’s&very&hard&to&erode&that.”&
  31. 31. Adaptive*Capacity:*Coping&mechanisms* Use*of*coping*mechanisms*during*winter2010/2011** compared*to*previous*years* 70& Percentage*of*Households*(%)* 60& 50& 40& 30& Winter&2010/2011& 20& Previous&Years& 10& 0& Substituted& Ate&less& Ate& Sold& food& elsewhere& belongings& Coping*Mechanisms*
  32. 32. Adaptive*Capacity:*Food&programs*“Theres&a&soup&kitchen&in&town&thats&keeping&me&alive.”&!
  33. 33. Adaptive*Capacity:*Food&programs* Use*of*food*programs*during*winter*2010/2011** compared*to*previous*years* Percentage*of*Households*(%)* 50& 45& 40& 35& 30& 25& Winter&2010/2011& 20& 15& Previous&Years& 10& 5& 0& Food&Bank& Soup&Kitchen& Tukisigiarvik& Food*Programs*
  34. 34. Adaptive*Capacity:*Sharing&networks&*“That’s&the&way&I&was&raised.&That’s&the&way&we&are.&When&we&get&country&food,&we&hand&it&out.”&
  35. 35. Adaptive*Capacity:*Commercialization**“Inuit&buying&country&food&are&whiteYpeopleYwannabes”&!!
  36. 36. What*broader*socioeconomic*factors*impacted*adaptation?*
  37. 37. Barriers:*Low&incomes&&&high&costs*“Income&support&comes&only&once&a&month.&It’s&never&enough.”&&“One&week&we&had&no&food.&We&only&had&one&dried&noodle&pack&for&4&people.&We&can’t&live&like&that.”&!
  38. 38. Barriers:*Deteriorating&knowledge&base&“It’s&a&sacrifice&I&had&to&make.&I&had&to&get&my&education.&It’s&not&a&negative&impact,&but&I’d&rather&be&out&there&[hunting].”&
  39. 39. Barriers:*Strained&sharing&networks&“When&they&catch&a&caribou,&they&hide&it&now.&Even&relatives.&People&are&greedy&now&because&there&is&less.&Some&people&keep&their&freezer&in&their&bedroom.”&
  40. 40. Barriers:*Social&issues*“Depression&is&hard.”&&“My&family&and&I&were&homeless,&but&my&friend&took&us&in&and&paid&for&us&when&our&Income&Support&ran&out.&She&went&into&debt&to&help&me&and&my&family.”&&“I&went&on&a&weekYlong&bender.&I&spent&all&my&money&so&I&didn’t&buy&food.”&
  41. 41. Barriers:*Climate&change*“I&don’t&trust&the&ice&anymore.&A&lot&of&the&[hunters]&don’t&trust&it&anymore.&People&are&scared&to&go&[hunting].”&!
  42. 42. Summary*•  Vulnerability&&was&not&as&pronounced&as& anticipated,&yet&food&insecurity&amongst&public& housing&residents&was&still&a&concern.&&•  Socioeconomic&conditions&were&more&pressing& than&environmental&conditions&in&terms&of& impacting&food&security.&•  Overall,&extreme&climatic&conditions&did& exacerbate&the&vulnerability&of&the&traditional& food&system,&but&this&was&primarily&due&to&its& coupling&with&broader&socioeconomic&factors.&&
  43. 43. Acknowledgements*•  Logistics& •  Community&of&Iqaluit& •  Nunavut&Research&Institute&&&Nunavut&Arctic&College& •  Dr.&James&Ford,&Dr.&George&Wenzel,&Dr.&Lea&BerrangYFord& •  Daniel&Kaludjak&&&David&Nakashuk& •  Graham&McDowell&&&Peter&Adams& •  Dr.&William&Gough&&&Rick&Siewierski& •  Climate&Change&Adaptation&Research&Group& •  Iqaluit&Housing&Authority& •  Hunters&and&Trappers&Association& •  Innirvik&Support&Services&Ltd.&•  Funding& •  Nasivvik&Centre&for&Inuit&Health&and&Changing&Environments& •  Social&Sciences&and&Humanities&Research&Council& •  Global&Environmental&and&Climate&Change&Centre& •  Northern&Scientific&Training&Program& •  ArcticNet&
  44. 44. Thank*you.**sara.statham@mail.mcgill.ca*www.ccadapt.ca*www.ccadapt.ca/ssdissem**

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