Creative Approaches for Communicating theEffects of Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies toCommunities and Policymaker...
Engaging with people & communities“where they’re at”Will Vanderbilt James Ford   Marie Pierre LardeauClimate Change Adapta...
3
We must work to make the research weconduct as beneficial to the people we work  with as it is to our scientific community  ...
A PROCESS FOR EVALUATING A N T I C I P A T O R Y                                                                          ...
Hypothesis   Proposal   Field Work   Analysis   Writing    Journal                                                        ...
HIRE LOCALBRAINSTORM                   RESEARCH                    CO-AUTHOR RESEARCH                  ASSISTANTS &       ...
AUDIENCE SCALEOUTCOME           8
Study                       Policy Makers          Media            General Public      Scientists   Communities      Targ...
Study                       Policy Makers          Media            General Public      Scientists   Communities      Targ...
11
Feeding the Family inTimes of StressMarie-Pierre Laurdeau Goal Share the project’s results in a format that could affect i...
Iqaluit Food                ResponsesSecurity        to FoodDissemination   Insecurity                Experiences of users...
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15
16
17
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Jesse Mike             19
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Inuit Food Security:Vulnerability to ExtremesSara StathamGoalGive participants, the general public, andIqaluit residents a...
http://ccadapt.ca/sarafoodsecurity                                     22
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Nauvikhaq (a place to grow)The Ulukhaktok Oral History Database Goal Provide a lasting legacy of over five years of researc...
Skills Transmission and InuitAdaptation to Climate ChangeTristan Pearce University of Guelph et al.Inuit environmental kno...
26
Welcome page: We’ll fill this in with a Ulukhaktok                                                                        ...
Ulukhaktok                                                            Mel Pretty                  ‘Person Page’ - this pag...
How• Use research methods that lend themselves to building  interactive digital tools• Find (cheap) savvy undergrads with ...
Vulnerability of Inuitwomen’s food system toclimate change in thecontext of multiplesocio-economic stressesA case study fr...
31
http://ccadapt.ca                    32
http://ccadapt.ca/WV_IPY@vdblt         We must work to make the research we       conduct as beneficial to the people we wo...
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Communicating with people and Communities "Where they're at"

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Will Vanderbilt presented this talk at the 2012 International Polar Year: From Knowledge to Action conference in Montreal, Canada.

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Communicating with people and Communities "Where they're at"

  1. 1. Creative Approaches for Communicating theEffects of Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies toCommunities and Policymakers in the Canadian ArcticWill Vanderbilt James Ford Marie Pierre LardeauClimate Change Adaptation Research GroupMcGill University 1
  2. 2. Engaging with people & communities“where they’re at”Will Vanderbilt James Ford Marie Pierre LardeauClimate Change Adaptation Research GroupMcGill University 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. We must work to make the research weconduct as beneficial to the people we work with as it is to our scientific community 4
  5. 5. A PROCESS FOR EVALUATING A N T I C I P A T O R Y THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF SEA-LEVEL RISE ON A D A P T A T I O N MEASURES FOR CLIMATE CHANGEFARM P R O G R A M S AND CLIMATE C H A N G E Ir~u TT E RWQ I~T H T H E N E T H E 1995L A N D S : R EnergyPolicy,Vol. 23. No. 4/5, pp. 463~-75, A STUDY OF POSSIBLE SCENARIOS I~E I N E M A N N Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0301~.215/95 $10.00 + 0.00 J.B. SMITH, S.E. R A G L A N D , G.J. PITTSJ. K. L E W A N D R O W S K I 1 and R. J. B R A Z E E 2 Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc., P.O. Drawer O, Boulder, CO 80306, U.S.A. M. G. J. D E N E L Z E N * and J. R O T M A N S *1Resources and Technology Division, Economic Research Service, United States Department ofAgriculture, 1301 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005, US.A. Integrated assessment and Department of Mathematics, Faculty of General Sciences, University of Limburg, P.O. Box 616, environmental policy making2Department of Forestry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1301 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana,IL 61820, U.S.A. Abstract Many countries are preparing national climate change action plans that describe specificmeasures they are 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands takingto mitigategreenhousegas emissionsand adapt to the potential effects of climate change. Among the reasons for preparing such plans are that climate change is likely to occur, and many anticipatorymeasures that would be taken Abstract. This paper describes a simulation study of some of the socio-economic In pursuit of usefulness in response to climate change are "no regret" measures that will produce benefits even if climate does not change. Abstract. The view that the agricultural sector could largely offset any negative consequences of a rise in sea level on Dutch society. A computer simulation Additionally, these plans can serve as communications required by the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate model for the greenhouse problem has been developed, which tries to capture the impacts of climate change by altering production practices assumes process for anticipatory adaptation measures that will enable countries to Change. We propose here an assessment the govern- climate change cause-effect relationship for a combination of greenhouse-gas ment will not create disincentives for farmers to measures to adapt to climate change. These measures anticipate potential climate changes and are identify and select adapt. U.S. farm programs, how- emissions. The impact of emissions of greenhouse gases on global temperature ever, often discourage such obvious adaptations as objectivesunder a wide variety of future climate conditions.The process builds on assessments flexibleenoughtomeet switching crops, investing in and seaqevel rise can be calculated using the model. Additionally, separate, inde- water conserving technologies, and entry or exit. We outline a simple portfolioParson sensitiveregions, or populations, within a country. of vulnerability by focusing on adaptation measuresA the most Edward for pendent modules have been implemented in order to quantify the socio-eeonomic model describing producer decision making: we then use this framework to assess andof Government, are chosen based on expertjudgment and Potential anticipatory adaptation measures areKennedy School two or three Harvard University John F identified, consequences for the Netherlands. Four consistent sets of scenarios have been and Project on the Implementation and easiestto implement. Analytictechniques Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments, International how specific U.S. farm programsanalysisregardingwhichmeasureswouldproducethe greatest benefits and be might affect adaption to climate change. Three developed, based on differences in economic growth, energy use, international are usedto assessthe benefitspresent structurefor Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria future climate scenarios are considered and in each the Institute and costs of each ofof U.S. the measures and evaluate barriers to implementation.The measure environmental measures, etc. On the basis of these scenarios estimates are made farm programs discourages adaptation. most cost-effective and is easiest to implement is selected. We illustrate the application of the process by that is of the costs of coastal defence and water management in the Netherlands as a examining a hypothetical forest threatened by climate change. Current integrated assessment projects primarily seek end to end integration through formal result of adaptation to the impacts of sea-level rise. models at a national to global scale, and show three significant representational weaknesses: Key words: adaptation, benefit-costanalysis, cost-effectivenessanalysis, multicriteria analysis impacts and adaptive response; and the determinants of decadai-scale emissions trends; valuing formation and effects of policies. Meeting the needs of policy audiences may require otherFarm Programs and Adapting to Climate Change forms of integration; may require integration by formal modeling or by other means; and may Introduction require representing decisions of other actors through political and negotiating processes. While rational global environmental policy making requires integrated assessment, current practice 1. IntroductionThe announcement by NASA that 1991 was the second hottest year in over a no single vision of how to do it, so understanding will be best advanced by a admits Current scientific opinion diverse collection of projects pursuing distinct methods and approaches. Further practice may is that the greenhouse phenomenon will become acentury should intensify the climate change debate. Se,ven of the 8 warmest years yield some consensus on best practice, possibly including generic assessment skills generalizable M a n y countries are preparing national climate change action plans that describe the specific across issues. serious threat to mankind in the coming centuries. Undoubtedly sea-level rise ison record have now occurred since 1981.1 Also motivating the climate change measures they are taking to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the potential effects potentially one of the most threatening consequences of the greenhouse phenome-debate are several recent dry weather events. Much of the Western reasonso rforIntegrated assessment; Environmental policy; Modeling change is likely of climate change. Among the United s :States Keyw d preparing such plans are that climate non. Nearly one-third of the worlds population, including many of the largesthas experienced a persistent drought for over 5 years (since 1987);a n y measures that would be taken in response to climate change to occur (]PCC, 1995)~ and m the northern cities, lives within 60 km of a coastline. A sea-level rise, even of less than 1 m,hemisphere had its lowest recorded snow fall in 1990; and in 1988, drought condi- will produce benefits even if climate does not are "no regret" measures, which means that they would have a tremendous influence on habitation patterns, causing large-scale change.tions in the West, Southeast, Northern Plains, and Midwest combined to cause the While there have been examples of integrated assess- migrations organiz- science, but rather assembling, summarizing, of millions of people. Because of the vulnerability of the Netherlands toworst U.S. agricultural losses in decades. In addition, m a n y developing countries and countries with economies in transition face ment of important environmental issues for 20 years or ing, interpreting, and possibly rises in sea level, which resulted in the so-called Delta flood protection plan after reconciling pieces of While few scientists are willing to conclude that these historically highlast three to incorporatea climate change inexistinginfrastructure communicating them so flood in 1953, sea-level rise is a very important topic in this country. numerous opportunities inmore, near tempera- have seen rapid increase in the the future years their knowledge, and the last major that and institutions. Many infrastructure projects for mintegratedg climate-sensitive resources will be work on, and interest in, a n a g i n assessment of they are relevant and helpful for the deliberations of antures and extended dry periods are related to the greenhouse effect, thechange. The papers presented in this volume intelligent but inexpert policy maker. What thisthe relation between a global temperature change and global sea-level possibility However, requires built in these countries. climatic projects include reservoirs, hydropower facilities, coastal Theseof pending climate change should be of concern to agriculture. Because agriculture of energy, and the breadth for m a n a gstrongly on the specific decision context or and our knowledge of the processes causing sea-level rise is still development, and irrigation indicative of the amount institutions and plans depends i n g climate are systems. In addition, rise is not yet clear,is largely defined by the climate, farmers choices of inputs, outputs,agricultureinto this field. services, coastal zone m a n ato e minformed. It may be incomplete. Sea-level changes at any time and at any location are determined by of interest, going sensitive resources, such as and methods and fruitless definitional debate extension issue be a simple exercise in the g e n t plans, information that is well known Substantial confusion clear communication ofof production reflect their expectations of upcomingdevelopmenthas surrounded the concept of being developed. The design of these research community. More climatic factors. Geological causes may have been responsible sustainable temperature, precipitation, are integrated assessment, plans, and others, and accepted by a specific both geological andgrowing season, and soil moisture patterns. These are also theperhaps becausewhose embeds twoshould incorporate thehowever, it is for variables the term infrastructure projects, institutions, and plans can and distinct oppor- often, potential synthetic. It may require expressing for a drop in sea level of about 300 m over the last 80 million years (IPCC, 1990a). tunities for obscurity: what is assessment, and what does results in different forms or at different resolutions;means and variances may change as the levels ofchange to significantly affect the natural be integrated?being addressed. climate greenhouse gases in the atmos- resources it mean for assessment to I propose to drawing causal inferences from But the geological events that affect sea level are generally slow and are unlikely to knowledge or data thatphere increase. A changing climate then, could rearrange the map of U.S. how governments could address adaptation to climate the discipline that generated A few articles have beenseparate theseon agri- published two concepts as follows. Assessment, in lie outside the scope of accelerate. In general the same holds for the historic influence of climate on seaculture by altering regional (and international) patterns of comparativetoadvantage is thetopresentation Smith, in press a). you do X, then from different For the last two million years sea-level rise and climate have changed to- change (e.g., Titus, 1990;contrast pure research, Goklany, 1995; Fankhauser, 1996; of know- them (if Carter et al. Y will (probably) happen); or level. disciplines, of (1994) described generalledge derived can beresearch to assess adaptation. This paper propositions steps that from taken help someone with combining describesin the production of commercially important crops and livestock. responsibilities evaluate possible actions or think about different degrees of confidence and inverification. gether, cyclic periods of about 100 000 yr. During the last glacial period the sea specific techniques that can be applied by governments to assess adaptation needs, identify driven by the need to inform Recently, economists have started to consider the potential costs and benefits recognized by its purposes. a problem. Assessment is Because assessment is anticipatory adaptation measures, and select thosedoes not mean doing most cost-effective and can may require statements of Assessment normally measures that are new important decisions, itrelating to agriculture from possible climate most readily implemented. Adams et al., process, a hypothetical example is offered to be change (Dudek, 1989; In describing this Energy Policy 1995 * PresentNumber 4/5 Volume 23 address: National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), P.O.Box l, 463i In descending order, the hottest years on record are 1990, 1991, 1988, 1983, 1987, 1944, 1989, and 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 92: 229-238.1981. Climatic Change 20: 169-195, 1992. © 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 9 1992 KluwerAcademic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.Climatic Change 23: 1-20, 1993.© 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 5
  6. 6. Hypothesis Proposal Field Work Analysis Writing Journal Article GO TO MAIL TO COMMUNITY! COMMUNITY! 6
  7. 7. HIRE LOCALBRAINSTORM RESEARCH CO-AUTHOR RESEARCH ASSISTANTS & PAPERSNEEDS WITH TRANSLATORSCOMMUNITY CO-APPLY CONDUCT DEVELOP FOR FUNDING FOCUS GROUPS USEFUL TOOLS WITH LOCAL AND VERIFY FOR ORGS RESULTS COMMUNITYHypothesis Proposal Field Work Analysis Writing Journal Article 7
  8. 8. AUDIENCE SCALEOUTCOME 8
  9. 9. Study Policy Makers Media General Public Scientists Communities Targeted posters & brochures Press releases COP EVENTS Informal blog posts Direct engagement Conferences Videos Journal Articles(where available) Online tools & up-to-date website 9
  10. 10. Study Policy Makers Media General Public Scientists Communities Targeted posters & brochures Press releases COP EVENTS Informal blog posts Direct engagement Conferences Videos Journal Articles(where available) Online tools & up-to-date website 10
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  12. 12. Feeding the Family inTimes of StressMarie-Pierre Laurdeau Goal Share the project’s results in a format that could affect immediate change 12
  13. 13. Iqaluit Food ResponsesSecurity to FoodDissemination Insecurity Experiences of users of community based programsbook in Iqaluit, Nunavut Marie-Pierre Lardeau1 James Ford1 Gwen Healey2 Will Vanderbilt1 1. McGill University 2. Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre 13
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  19. 19. Jesse Mike 19
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  21. 21. Inuit Food Security:Vulnerability to ExtremesSara StathamGoalGive participants, the general public, andIqaluit residents an exciting way to exploreand share the results of a recent project 21
  22. 22. http://ccadapt.ca/sarafoodsecurity 22
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  24. 24. Nauvikhaq (a place to grow)The Ulukhaktok Oral History Database Goal Provide a lasting legacy of over five years of research conducted in Ulukhaktok photo: tristan pearce http://nauvikhaq.com 24
  25. 25. Skills Transmission and InuitAdaptation to Climate ChangeTristan Pearce University of Guelph et al.Inuit environmental knowledge and land skills havebeen identified as key determinants of adaptivecapacity to climatic changes that affect subsistenceharvesting. There is evidence however that thetraditional modes of knowledge transmission are notfunctioning as they were in the past. As a result,many younger and inexperienced hunters are not aswell equipped to cope with the risks of hunting, andchanging climatic conditions are making it evenmore hazardous for them. 25
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  27. 27. Welcome page: We’ll fill this in with a Ulukhaktok bit of information about the project. Oral History Database For now, this will be the only non- password protected page. ENTERUlukhaktok Logged in welcome pageOral History Users can click on a picture of an elderDatabase to view all of their stories, or searchClick on an elder to Andy Akoaksion Jack Simon Kataoyak Jimmy Kudlak for a specific term.view their stories,or search for a topic This page will also include informa-below tion about the project, contact information, and recent uploads /Search... news. Mel Pretty Walter Olifie Renie Taipana Oliktoak ADD STORIES ‘Person Page’ - this page will be the 27
  28. 28. Ulukhaktok Mel Pretty ‘Person Page’ - this page will be theOral History Short biography / hub of a person’s stories. Stories at-Database information about person. tributed to the person will automati-PEOPLE cally be added to this pageTOPICSSEARCHADD STORIES The photo section can be a slideshowCONTACTHELP or single photo, and the short bio on the right hand side can be done in bullett point or paragraph form (what Story one title (link) kind of information would we want to A short description of the story, date, etc. put there?) Story two title (link) A short description of the story, date, etc. Story three title (link) A short description of the story, date, etc.Ulukhaktok Story title goes ‘Story Page’ - every story has its ownOral History here page (and link), it includes links toDatabase multiple versions of the audio filesPEOPLE Mel Pretty (including an in-site player), a photoTOPICS 01 January 2007SEARCH (where available, otherwise the textADD STORIES Transcribed text goes here, scrolls along with PLAY goes to the top of the page), and theCONTACTHELP audio... Download in iTunes transcribed text of the story. Download MP3 Fugia isciunt oriatium della sendic temodis ciistini ditatem ne lamus nimiliquos aut velic temquid ex We could also put a short ‘about the eumqui dolorum dunt mollenem fugiatio quam, speaker’ section onto this page, with nos doloreperum inullabo. Sin rem eiur, odigenis a link back to that persons’ individual perum es a sequi tem. Nequatiis expliti consect uribusam ut lat prate exerumet omnis cuptatu page... saessum, nos eaquam niscita doles et ut porum http://nauvikhaq.com sinimus, atempore, omnim ipsae quatem sime con necusdaeriat lique nost, occum enihil idesend usandip icatureni coreperspid eictas sit eliquo 28
  29. 29. How• Use research methods that lend themselves to building interactive digital tools• Find (cheap) savvy undergrads with basic media & communications skills (job description online)• Integrate them into your team in a meaningful way• Maintain a focus on design 29
  30. 30. Vulnerability of Inuitwomen’s food system toclimate change in thecontext of multiplesocio-economic stressesA case study from Arviat, Nunavut Current vulnerabilities Adaptive Capacity Future climate Maude Beaumier, M.A.1 Climate Dr. James Ford, PhD1 vulnerablities Change Shirley Tagalik, Chair of the Arviat Health Committee2 Adaptation Hilda Panigoniak, research assistant2 This vulnerability analysis shows that the Despite adaptation strategies link to While climate change was not identified as Research Group Sarah Curley, research assistant2 food system of Inuit women is vulnerable to modernity such as greater diversity of food an important stressor on the food system 1. Department of Geography, McGill University climate variability and bio-physical change, available all year long, territorial and federal currently by Arviarmiut, when participant McGill University 2. Hamlet of Arviat but that climate change is not an important financial support programs for hunters, observations are examined in the context of determinant of food insecurity among Inuit families and the introduction of technology scientific literature on climate change there women at present. Currently, socio-economic (weather forecast, GPS, collaring information, are clear linkages between climate change and historical factors are the most important roads), sharing continues to remain the most and food security for women in the Canadian ABSTRACTDr. James Fordjames.ford@mcgill.ca in determining food insecurity. Food security is complex and results from interactions important traditional practice strengthening Inuit women’s food system. Arctic. Climate change projections indicate that the arctic will continue warming at a514.398.4960 between multiple human, historical and rapid rate. Thus, with environmental stressorsThis research investigates the vulnerability and adaptation of Inuit environmental factors which affect the exacerbating the pressure that already exist onwomen food system to climatic stresses in the context of other social food system on different levels and scales. the food system due to human and historicalstresses, using a case study from Arviat, Nunavut (NU). Food insecurity Some of the main drivers of food insecurity factors, socio-economic stresses and disparitiesis a significant problem for Arviarmiut, with women being particularly today emerge as a result of rapid changes in must be addressed at the household, livelihoods experienced by Inuit over the community and territorial/global levels inat risk. A community-based participatory research approach was course of the last 60 years. order to prepare for future climate change andemployed to examine how the complex interplay of human and non- Inuit women’s food system vulnerability.human factors operating over multiple spatial and temporal scales,affects how people experience and respond to changing conditions. Climate and Adaptive AdaptationFindings show that Inuit women’s food system in Arviat is sensitive to biophysical strategy costclimate-related risks and changes, but climate change was not identified Territorial & Global changesas affecting women’s food security. Multiple human factors negatively Community Change in caribou Younger women Economic cost: needimpact Inuit women’s food security. On the other hand, a strong Household migration pathway in substituted caribou to buy more store 2010-2011 = shortage meat for store foods food which is expen-sharing network, governmental financial support and local educational of caribou meat in Elderly women, sive and less sharedinitiatives help strengthen the food system and improve food security. Hunter in Formal Community Nutrition North Arviat while eating more Health cost: due to store food, also ate limited knowledge Household or Education Sharing Program different country of and reduced ac- AIM METHODS Close Family foods cess to store foods, Budgeting Skills Community Inter-community the quality of the Security FoodIdentify and characterize Research approach: Community-based Food System Support sharing network food consumed isthe vulnerability and participatory research in Arviat (2060 people), NU low Financial Programsadaptability of the Inuit Sampling: Purposive sampling Country Food NTI Hunterswomen’s food system Resources Increase in tempera- Reduces pirujuaq Cost of increasing Methods: Photovoice (n=10), semi-structured Traditional Support ture and permafrost (cache meat) period size of communityto climate change in Store Food Insecuritythe context of multiple interviews with Inuit women (n=42) and key Traditional Training Programs loss in the area sur- Freeze more meat freezer Food rounding the western when possible Cost of purchasingstresses, using a case informants (n=8), focus groups with women (n=7), Training Hudson Bay and in- bigger extra freezer elders (n=3) and hunters (n=2), and participant Store Food Cost of Living crease in grizzly andstudy from Arviat, NU observations were used to collect in-depth Knowledge Employment polar bears around qualitative data. Aviat = reduces meat Country Food Capacity to preservation practices Analysis: Thematic analysis using QSR NVivo, Concept mapping Knowledge Save Food Increase in days of Younger women in- Economic cost: need abnormally high tem- creased consump- to buy more store Substance Use and Gambling perature during the tion of store food food which is expen-Acknowledgements I would like to thank the Hamlet of Arviat, the Arviat Health Committee, all the participants, summer = decrease during the summer sive and less sharedthe Nutarasungnik family, Ed and Ruth Murphy, Dr. George Wenzel, Dr. Nancy Ross, Marie-Pierre Lardeau and in hunting and avail- Elderly women, Health cost: due toWill Vanderbilt. This research would not have been possible without the financial support provided by Health ability of meat in Ar- while eating more limited knowledgeCanada through the Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nations and Inuit Communities viat during hot sum- store food, also ate of and reduced ac-Program 2010-2011; the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Climate & bio-physical Socio-Economic mer months different country cess to store foods,Changing Environments, graduate funding from the Department of Geography at McGill University, the Northern Change Change foods, especially fish the quality of theScientific Training Program (NSTP), GREAT award and funding from IPY-ACRC (Arctic Peoples, Culture, Resil- and beluga food consumed isience & Caribou) project. low 30
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  32. 32. http://ccadapt.ca 32
  33. 33. http://ccadapt.ca/WV_IPY@vdblt We must work to make the research we conduct as beneficial to the people we work with as it is to our scientific community 33

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