NURSING FUNDAMENTALSDR. JAMES M. ALO, RN, MAN, MAP, PhD.
What is nursing? • Is the act of utilizing the environment of the px to Nightingale(1860) assist his recovery. • Is the dx & tx of human responses to actual or ANA (1980) potential health problems2/14/2013 drjamesmalo
ROLES of the professional nurse1. Care 5. Protector/ Client provider/rehabilitator advocator2. Comforter/counselor 6. Manager 7. Researcher3. Communicator4. Educator/Teacher2/14/2013 drjamesmalo
STANDARDS of nsg practice1. Quality of care 5. Ethics2. Performance appraisal 6. Collaboration3. Education 7. Research4. Collegiality 8. Resource utiization2/14/2013 drjamesmalo
Hall (1962) Coined the term “nursing process” Nsg center on 3 components: CARE, CORE, & CURELevine (1966) 4 conservation principles: Conserve client energy, structural, personal, & social integrityJohnson (1968) Behavior system model: 7 Basic Needs; security, nurturance, nourishment, elimination, achievement, self-protection, sex.Rogers (1970) Science of Unitary Human BeingsOrem (1971) Self Care & Self Care Deficit TheoryKing (1971) Goal Attainment Theory: 3 Dynamic interacting systems; personal, iinterpersonal, socialNeuman (1972) Health Care system Model: goal of nsg is to assist client in stress(intra, inter, extra-personal) reduction via primary, secondary, tertiary levels of preventionPatterson & Humanistic Nsg Practice: requires participants to be aware of theirZderad (1976) “uniqueness” & @ the same time “commonality” w/ eaxh other. The essential characteristic is nurturance.Leininger (1978) Transcultural Nsg Model: values, beliefs, & practices2/14/2013 drjamesmalo
Roy (1979) Adaptation Model: client as an adaptive systemWatson (1979) Human Caring Model: transpersonal & humanisticParse (1981) Theory of Human Becoming: clients are open, mutual, & in constant interxn w/ environ.Erickson (1983) Modeling & Role-Modeling Theory: Nurses act a role model in nurturanceBenner (1989) Caring is central in nsg, creating possibilities for coping & connecting w/ others.2/14/2013 drjamesmalo
ETHICAL CONCEPTS that apply to nsg practiceEthics Study of good conduct, character & motives, determining the rightnes / wrongnes of an actMorals Ones own personal beliefs, opinions, & attitudes that guide’s ones action.Values Personal belief about the worth of a given idea,, attitude, appraisal of what is good.Autonomy Independence or seld-governanceBeneficence Promoting good to othersMalefi cence Harm or hurtNonmaleficence Avoidance of harmConfidentiality Repect for clients’ privacyFidelity Agreement to keep promisesDistributive justice Allocation of goods/services accdg to: equality, need, meritPrinciple of double Promoting good but involving some expected unavoidable2/14/2013effect harm. drjamesmalo
11 Code of ethics for nurses Safeguards Collaborates w/ the clients members of the right to health team privacy Protect the Safeguard the public from cient & the misinformation public Assumes Maintain conditiond of responsibility & employment acountability Imporve Maintains standards of competence nsg. Contribute to Exercises ongoing informed development Provides judgment services w/2/14/2013 drjamesmalo respect