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DR. JAMES M. ALO, RN, MAN, MAPsycho., Ph.D.
 is the processes by which information is  encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding  allows information that is from the ...
 1. first stage we must change the information so  that we may put the memory into the encoding  process. 2. Storage is ...
 Encoding   or registration   (receiving, processing and combining of    received information) Storage (creation of a p...
 Sensory  memory: referring to the  information we receive through the senses Short term memory: is the storage  mechani...
   Short term                      Long Term    Memory:                          Memory :       Limited capacity .     ...
 Corresponds   approximately to the initial  200–500 milliseconds after an item is  perceived. The ability to look at an...
 Iconic   memory     briefly stores an image which has been perceived      for a small duration. Echoic    memory     ...
 allows recall for a period of several seconds  to a minute without rehearsal. Its capacity is also very limited rely m...
 issupported by transient patterns of  neuronal communication dependent on regions of the frontal lobe  (especially dors...
 are maintained by more stable and  permanent changes in neural connections  widely spread throughout the brain. The hip...
 Atkinson-Shiffrin   model (1968)    Aka (Multi-Store Model)                       drjma   2/15/2013
 Multi-Store Model  is believed to be actually made up of   multiple subcomponents, such as:    episodic and    proced...
drjma   2/15/2013
 Consistof three basic stores:  1. central executive    Act as attention    Channels information  2.  phonological lo...
 dedicatedto linking information across domains to form integrated units of    visual,    spatial,    verbal informati...
 1. Recognition memory tasks require individuals  to indicate whether they have encountered a  stimulus   such as a pict...
 1.   Declarative memory     requires conscious recall, in that some conscious      process must call back the informati...
 semantic  memory, which concerns facts  taken independent of context episodic memory which concerns information  specif...
 Aka.  implicit memory is primarily employed in learning motor skills involved in motor learning depends on the  cerebe...
 isthe ability to orient oneself in space, to  recognize and follow an itinerary, or to  recognize familiar places The d...
 are clear episodic memories of unique and highly emotional event. Remembering where you were or what you were doing when...
 Retrospective    memory     as a category includes semantic, episodic and     autobiographical memory. Prospective   m...
 Visual       paired comparison procedure (relies on habituation):    infants are first presented with pairs of visual  ...
 Deferred     imitation technique:     an experimenter shows infants a unique      sequence of actions (such as using a ...
 Paired associate learning - when one learns  to associate one specific word with another. Free recall - during this tas...
 Detection  Paradigm- Individuals are shown a  number of objects and colors samples, during  a certain period of time. R...
Brain areas involved in the neuro-anatomy of memory such as:• Hippocampus  • Spatial learning and declarative learning• Am...
Cognitive neuroscientists consider memory as• Retention• Reactivation• reconstruction of the experience-independent intern...
 internal representation = implies that such  definition of memory contains two  components: the expression of memory at ...
 Encoding    working memory    episodic memory    synaptic transmission    long-term potentiation Working   memory ...
6   months old    could not encode, retain, and retrieve     information.    only recall one step of a two-step sequenc...
 Memory loss is qualitatively different in normal aging from the kind of memory loss associated with a diagnosis of Alzhe...
 Amnesia  = memory loss Parkinsons disease Alzheimer disease = neurological d’r  affecting memory/cognition Hyperthyme...
 Influence   of odors and emotions Interference   from previous knowledge                      drjma   2/15/2013
 Recall:to recall means to supply or  reproduce facts or information. Recognition: is usually superior to recall. E.g. m...
 Knowledge   of results: learning proceeds best  when feedback, that allows you to check  your progress. Recitation: rec...
 Selection: if you boil down the paragraphs in most  textbooks to one or two important terms or ideas, your  memory will ...
 Whole      versus part learning: Generally, it is better  to practice whole packages of information rather than  smaller...
 Spaced    practice: to keep boredom and fatigue to a minimum, try alternating short study sessions with brief rest perio...
 Hunger:  People who are hungry almost always  score lower on memory tests. Sleep: remember that sleeping after study  r...
 Encoding Failure Decay Cue-dependent forgetting Interference Repression Suppression Amnesia                      d...
   Encoding - transforming incoming information into a usable form   state-dependent learning - fact that a bodily state...
   Limitless - storage capacity of long-term memory.   Psychologists have concluded that long-term memories fall    into...
drjma   2/15/2013
   Carlson, Neil R. (2010). Psychology: the Science of Behaviour. Pearson.   Sperling, G (1963). "A Model for Visual Mem...
drjma   2/15/2013
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M e m o r ydrjma

  1. 1. DR. JAMES M. ALO, RN, MAN, MAPsycho., Ph.D.
  2. 2.  is the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. The process of acquiring information drjma 2/15/2013
  3. 3.  1. first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process. 2. Storage is the second memory stage or process.  This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. 3. Finally, the retrieval.  This is the retrieval of information that we have stored.  We must locate it and return it to our consciousness.  Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of information. drjma 2/15/2013
  4. 4.  Encoding or registration  (receiving, processing and combining of received information) Storage (creation of a permanent record of the encoded information) Retrieval, recall or recollection  (calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity) drjma 2/15/2013
  5. 5.  Sensory memory: referring to the information we receive through the senses Short term memory: is the storage mechanism that temporarily holds current or recent information for immediate or short term use. Long term memory: is relatively permanent and practically unlimited in terms of its storage capacity drjma 2/15/2013
  6. 6.  Short term  Long Term Memory: Memory :  Limited capacity .  Unlimited capacity  Limited duration .  Very long duration  Limited storage .  Permanent  Forgetting occur by  subjected to decay or distortion or displacement . replacement . drjma 2/15/2013
  7. 7.  Corresponds approximately to the initial 200–500 milliseconds after an item is perceived. The ability to look at an item, and remember what it looked like with just a second of  Example of sensory memory:  observation  Memorization drjma 2/15/2013
  8. 8.  Iconic memory  briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration. Echoic memory  briefly stores sounds which has been perceived for a small duration. drjma 2/15/2013
  9. 9.  allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal. Its capacity is also very limited rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, lesser extent a visual code. drjma 2/15/2013
  10. 10.  issupported by transient patterns of neuronal communication dependent on regions of the frontal lobe (especially dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the parietal lobe. drjma 2/15/2013
  11. 11.  are maintained by more stable and permanent changes in neural connections widely spread throughout the brain. The hippocampus is essential (for learning new information) to the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory,  Without the hippocampus, new memories are unable to be stored into long-term memory regulated by DNA methylation drjma 2/15/2013
  12. 12.  Atkinson-Shiffrin model (1968)  Aka (Multi-Store Model) drjma 2/15/2013
  13. 13.  Multi-Store Model  is believed to be actually made up of multiple subcomponents, such as:  episodic and  procedural memory.  proposes that rehearsal is the only mechanism by which information eventually reaches long-term storage drjma 2/15/2013
  14. 14. drjma 2/15/2013
  15. 15.  Consistof three basic stores:  1. central executive  Act as attention  Channels information  2. phonological loop  stores auditory information by silently rehearsing sounds or words  3.visuo-spatial sketchpad.  stores visual and spatial information. In 2000 this model was expanded with the multimodal episodic buffer drjma 2/15/2013
  16. 16.  dedicatedto linking information across domains to form integrated units of  visual,  spatial,  verbal information and  chronological ordering (e.g., the memory of a story or a movie scene). assumedto have links to long-term memory and semantical meaning. drjma 2/15/2013
  17. 17.  1. Recognition memory tasks require individuals to indicate whether they have encountered a stimulus  such as a picture or a word 2. Recall memory tasks require participants to retrieve previously learned information.  For example, individuals might be asked to produce a series of actions they have seen before or to say a list of words they have heard before. drjma 2/15/2013
  18. 18.  1. Declarative memory  requires conscious recall, in that some conscious process must call back the information.  It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved. 2. Procedural memory  Aka “implicit memory” drjma 2/15/2013
  19. 19.  semantic memory, which concerns facts taken independent of context episodic memory which concerns information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place. Autobiographical memory - memory for particular events within ones own life - is generally viewed as either equivalent to, or a subset of, episodic memory. Visual memory is part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses pertaining to visual experience. drjma 2/15/2013
  20. 20.  Aka. implicit memory is primarily employed in learning motor skills involved in motor learning depends on the cerebellum and basal ganglia drjma 2/15/2013
  21. 21.  isthe ability to orient oneself in space, to recognize and follow an itinerary, or to recognize familiar places The disorder could be caused by multiple impairments, including difficulties with perception, orientation, and memory drjma 2/15/2013
  22. 22.  are clear episodic memories of unique and highly emotional event. Remembering where you were or what you were doing when you first heard the news  President Kennedy’s assassination or about 9/11 drjma 2/15/2013
  23. 23.  Retrospective memory  as a category includes semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory. Prospective memory  is memory for future intentions, or remembering to remember. Time-based prospective memories  are triggered by a time-cue.  can be further broken down into event- and time-based prospective remembering. drjma 2/15/2013
  24. 24.  Visual paired comparison procedure (relies on habituation):  infants are first presented with pairs of visual stimuli Operant conditioning technique:  infants are placed in a crib and a ribbon that is connected to a mobile overhead is tied to one of their feet drjma 2/15/2013
  25. 25.  Deferred imitation technique:  an experimenter shows infants a unique sequence of actions (such as using a stick to push a button on a box) and then, after a delay, asks the infants to imitate the actions. Elicited imitation technique:  is very similar to the deferred imitation technique; the difference is that infants are allowed to imitate the actions before the delay drjma 2/15/2013
  26. 26.  Paired associate learning - when one learns to associate one specific word with another. Free recall - during this task a subject would be asked to study a list of words and then sometime later they will be asked to recall or write down as many words that they can remember. drjma 2/15/2013
  27. 27.  Detection Paradigm- Individuals are shown a number of objects and colors samples, during a certain period of time. Recognition - subjects are asked to remember a list of words or pictures, after which point they are asked to identify the previously presented words or pictures from among a list of alternatives that were not presented in the original list. Detection Paradigm- Individuals are shown a number of objects and colors samples, during a certain period of time. drjma 2/15/2013
  28. 28. Brain areas involved in the neuro-anatomy of memory such as:• Hippocampus • Spatial learning and declarative learning• Amygdala • Emotional memory• striatum• mammillary bodies drjma 2/15/2013
  29. 29. Cognitive neuroscientists consider memory as• Retention• Reactivation• reconstruction of the experience-independent internal representation drjma 2/15/2013
  30. 30.  internal representation = implies that such definition of memory contains two components: the expression of memory at the behavioral or conscious level, and the underpinning physical neural changes. engram or memory traces drjma 2/15/2013
  31. 31.  Encoding  working memory  episodic memory  synaptic transmission  long-term potentiation Working memory  medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain area strongly associated with long-term memory, and prefrontal cortex Consolidation and reconsolidation  Short-term memory (STM) drjma 2/15/2013
  32. 32. 6 months old  could not encode, retain, and retrieve information.  only recall one step of a two-step sequence  need approximately six exposures in order to be able to remember it. 14-month-olds  can recall a three-step sequence after being exposed to it once. drjma 2/15/2013
  33. 33.  Memory loss is qualitatively different in normal aging from the kind of memory loss associated with a diagnosis of Alzheimers (Budson & Price, 2005). drjma 2/15/2013
  34. 34.  Amnesia = memory loss Parkinsons disease Alzheimer disease = neurological d’r affecting memory/cognition Hyperthymesia = affects autobiographical memory Korsakoffs syndrome = amnesic confabulatory syndrome tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon  Anomic aphasia = temporary failure of word retrieval drjma 2/15/2013
  35. 35.  Influence of odors and emotions Interference from previous knowledge drjma 2/15/2013
  36. 36.  Recall:to recall means to supply or reproduce facts or information. Recognition: is usually superior to recall. E.g. multiple-choice test because you recognize correct answer. Relearning: is typically the most sensitive measure of memory. It may seem that learning algebra, history, or a foreign language is wasted if you dont use the knowledge immediately drjma 2/15/2013
  37. 37.  Knowledge of results: learning proceeds best when feedback, that allows you to check your progress. Recitation: recitation means summarizing aloud while you are learning. drjma 2/15/2013
  38. 38.  Selection: if you boil down the paragraphs in most textbooks to one or two important terms or ideas, your memory will be more manageable. Rehearsal: the more you rehearse as you read, the better you will remember it. Cues the best memory cues (stimuli that aid retrieval) are those that were present during encoding. drjma 2/15/2013
  39. 39.  Whole versus part learning: Generally, it is better to practice whole packages of information rather than smaller parts. Organization: simple reordering or organizing can be helpful. Serial position whenever you must learn something in order, be aware of the serial position effect. drjma 2/15/2013
  40. 40.  Spaced practice: to keep boredom and fatigue to a minimum, try alternating short study sessions with brief rest period. Over learning: after you have learned material well enough to remember it once without error, you should continue studying. Extend how long you remember: when you are learning new information, test yourself repeatedly. drjma 2/15/2013
  41. 41.  Hunger: People who are hungry almost always score lower on memory tests. Sleep: remember that sleeping after study reduces interference. Review : if you have spaced your practice and overlearned, reviewing shortly before an exam help to remember details. drjma 2/15/2013
  42. 42.  Encoding Failure Decay Cue-dependent forgetting Interference Repression Suppression Amnesia drjma 2/15/2013
  43. 43.  Encoding - transforming incoming information into a usable form state-dependent learning - fact that a bodily state that exists during learning can be a strong cue Elaborative rehearsal – concentrates on the meaning of information you want to remember proactive interference -The tendency for prior learning to inhibit recall of later learning Echo - Things that are briefly heard in the sensory register. Recognition – Implicit memory – memories outside of conscious awareness. Icon - image that persists for about one-half second after being seen. Hippocampus - part of the brain that functions as a "switching station" between the STM and LTM. drjma 2/15/2013
  44. 44.  Limitless - storage capacity of long-term memory. Psychologists have concluded that long-term memories fall into the following two categories - procedural memory and fact memory. Decay theories of memory loss seem to be most appropriate for: short-term memory and sensory memory. sensory memory - first step in placing information into memory storage. semantic memory - general knowledge section of the intelligence test for adults Storage - process of holding information Working memory is associated with short term memory drjma 2/15/2013
  45. 45. drjma 2/15/2013
  46. 46.  Carlson, Neil R. (2010). Psychology: the Science of Behaviour. Pearson. Sperling, G (1963). "A Model for Visual Memory Tasks". http://hfs.sagepub.com/content/5/1/19.short#cited-by 5 (1): 19–31. Cowan, N. (2001). "The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity". Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24: 97–185. Miller, G.A.(1956), The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.. Conrad, R. (1964). "Acoustic Confusions in Immediate Memory". British Journal of Psychology 55: 75–84. drjma 2/15/2013
  47. 47. drjma 2/15/2013

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