Guide To Harvard Referencing For Tourism Students


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A guide to Harvard Referencing for tourism students at the University of Greenwich - a work in progress!

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Guide To Harvard Referencing For Tourism Students

  1. 1. Guide to Harvard referencing for Tourism students<br />James Kennell November 2009<br />
  2. 2. Why reference?<br />To acknowledge the debt you owe to other people whose ideas have helped you to produce your own work<br />To show that you have carried out research and that your work is based on more than your own opinion<br />To play your part in the community of tourism knowledge-makers<br />Because it is a university regulation!<br />
  3. 3. What system of referencing do we use?<br />We use the Harvard system<br />This is sometimes called the ‘author, date’ method because of the way you write your references in this system<br />Many universities and colleges use this system, but not all. So even if you have learnt about referencing before, you will need to make sure you are doing it correctly at Greenwich<br />
  4. 4. How to reference...<br />No-one is born knowing how to reference.<br />It is a skill that you can learn so, <br />You will need to practice and,<br />Sometimes you will get it wrong, but<br />You WILL get better at it!<br />
  5. 5. The rules<br />The first rule of referencing club is...<br />“Follow the rules!”<br />The second rule of referencing club is...<br />“Always have a copy of the rules with you when you are writing or researching”<br />
  6. 6. Following the rules<br />The next slides you will see cover the rules for referencing that you need to follow when you are researching and writing<br />There is a template for each kind of referencing and an example from the tourism field<br />If you find something that you can’t work out how to reference, ask a member of staff and we will always help you!<br />
  7. 7. An important distinction<br />You need to know the difference between direct and indirect quotation.<br />Direct – this is where you use the exact words of your source. You place them in “...” marks and copy them directly. <br />Indirect – this is where you use someone else’s ideas or findings, but write them up in your own words<br />
  8. 8. Direct and indirect quotation<br />Whether you are copying someone’s words (direct) or making use of their ideas (indirect), you must ALWAYS include a reference<br />This does not just cover words, but also tables, figures, images, graphs, charts, data...everything that came from someone else’s work!<br />
  9. 9. Your reference list (or bibiliography)<br />As well as providing in-text references, you must also list all the sources you have used in producing your work, in a list at the end of your work.<br />You should put all your sources together, in one list<br />You should list your sources alphabetically, by the author’s surname<br />In these slides, you will see how to produce the full references for all your sources, so that you can include them in this list<br />
  10. 10. How to reference...Books (1)<br />In your text (after the quotation)<br />(Author, date) – indirect quotation<br />(Author, date: page number) – direct quotation<br />Examples<br />Tourist spaces are areas of contention and potential conflict (Franquesa & Morrell 2007).<br />Generally, coastal resorts have been under-researched, despite being the “main tourism destination for many holidaymakers” (Agarwal & Shaw 2007: 1).<br />
  11. 11. How to reference...Books (2)<br />In your reference list<br />Author surname, first initial (year) Book Title, Publisher’s Location: Publisher<br />Examples<br />Smith, M. (2003) Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies, London: Routledge<br />Urry, J. (2002) The Tourist Gaze 2nd ed., London: Sage<br />
  12. 12. How to reference...Chapters in edited collections<br />In your text:<br />Use the name of the author of the chapter you are using and follow the rules for books<br />In your reference list<br />Author surname, first initial (year) ‘title of chapter’ in Editor surname, first initial (ed). Title of Book, Publisher’s Location: Publisher, chapter pages<br />Example<br />Gale, T. (2007) &apos;The Problems and Dilemmas of Northern European Post-mature Coastal Tourism Resorts&apos; in Agarwarl, S. & Shaw, G. (ed) Managing Coastal Tourism Resorts: A Global Perspective, Clevedon: Channel View Publications, pp. 21-39<br />
  13. 13. How to reference...Journal articles<br />In your text<br />Follow the same rules as for books (are you seeing a pattern yet?)<br />In your reference list<br />Author surname, first initial. (year) ‘Title of Article’ in Title of Journal, Volume number, Issue Number, pages of the article<br />Example<br />Agarawal, S. (2005) &apos;Global-Local Interactions in English Tourist Resorts: Theoretical Perspectives&apos; in Tourism Geographies, Vol. 7, No.4, pp.351-372<br />
  14. 14. How to reference...websites<br />In your text<br />Follow the same rules as for books<br />DO NOT give the web address<br />This will cause you three problems:<br />Identifying the author<br />Identifying the year<br />Identifying the page<br />
  15. 15. How to reference...websites (2)<br />Identifying the author:<br />Sometimes this will be easy.<br />If it is written by a named journalist<br />An individual is highlighted on the website as having produced that information<br />Often this will be more difficult<br />If you can’t see an author’s name...<br />Use the name of the organisation who have produced the website<br />
  16. 16. How to reference...websites (3)<br />Identifying the year<br />If there is no date on the information you are using....or,<br />If there is no ‘updated on’ information on the website...then, <br />Use the date that you accessed the site<br />
  17. 17. How to reference...websites (3)<br />Identifying the page<br />This should be the title of the webpage you are using<br />This could be the title given to a piece of information – like the title of a news story, for example<br />Or it could be an overall title, like ‘home page’ or ‘about us’<br />If in doubt, look at the top of your browser window – the title of the page will always come up there.<br />
  18. 18. How to reference...websites (4)<br />Referencing in your text<br />Tourism development in Folkestone is based around a creative quarter (Creative Foundation 2009)<br />In your reference list<br />Author (year) ‘Title of page’ [online]<br />Available from: web address<br />Date you accessed this source<br /> Example<br />Creative Foundation (2009) &apos;The regeneration story‘ [online]<br />available from:<br /> Accessed 21st April 2009<br />
  19. 19. Some final thoughts...<br />Not everything that you want to include in your sources will fit into the categories of books, journals and websites<br />BUT – there is a method for referencing every kind of source material, including video, radio, magazines, podcasts and even graffiti!<br />This resource will be updated every time one of you requests information about how to reference something new, so...<br />
  20. 20. If you want advice on how to produce a reference for something that isn’t covered in these slides then email me...<br /><br />I will post updated versions of these slides when you contact me with queries, and I’ll email you all to let you know!<br />
  21. 21. The final, final thought....<br />You can’t learn perfect referencing overnight and it’s not the most exciting thing in the world (as if you needed telling...), but learning how to do it well will help you to improve your grades and show everyone that your ideas are well researched and worth listening to!<br />