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- 1. GAMIFIED LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN SITU:Lessons Learnt with Teachers and StudentsJavier Melero, Davinia Hernández-Leo, Josep BlatInteractive Technologies GroupUniversitat Pompeu FabraEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 2. OUTLINEEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 20131. Introduction2. A conceptual model for puzzle-based games design3. Methodology4. Evaluation5. Results on teachers and students6. Conclusions and future work
- 3. INTRODUCTION3• M-learning: Situated learning activities in physical spaces• Benefits: Exploration skills and cooperation (Jeng et al. 2010)• Previous Work: “QuesTInSitu” (Santos et al. 2011)• Explorative and Spatial Skills• Foster students’ motivation and self-assessmentFurther research work involve improving students’ reflexion whenperforming situated learning activitiesEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 4. INTRODUCTION4How can we support more fruitful learning activities in situ thatcan be designed by teachers?• Adopted approach: A metaphor based on puzzle games• Educational Games: strengthen and support school achievement, cognitiveabilities, motivation towards learning, reflection, attention and concentration.• Puzzles: arrangement of a set of pieces into a single, well-fitting structure thatinterrelates them• Benefits:• Puzzle-based games can engage students in the subject topics, fosterstudents’ problem solving, analytical and memory skills (Huang 2007; Bottino2008).• The nature of puzzle-based games seems relevant to consider as potentialeducational strategy to feasibly involve teachers as game designers (Huang2007; Crawford 1982)Research QuestionEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 5. INTRODUCTION5Main objectives:• To propose a conceptual model, and its associated binding, for the design andcomputational representation of puzzle-based games• To support the teachers the creation of in situ learning activities following theconceptual model• Enactment with studentsObjectivesEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 6. PUZZLE-BASED GAMES6• Previous research studies aboutgame design elements that have totake into account when designingeducational games (Fisch, 2005;Jones, 1998; Kirriemuir et al., 2004;Malone, 1981; Sandford et al., 2005;Squire et al., 2003)• A 4-dimension framework,considering the role of teachers,intended to evaluate the potential ofusing games- and simulation-basedlearning (de Freitas et al., 2006)A Conceptual Model (1/2)The proposed conceptual model considers:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 7. PUZZLE-BASED GAMES7A Conceptual Model (2/2)Graphical representation:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 8. 8We explore how can we apply the puzzle-based game metaphor in thecreation of question item-based activitiesConsidering students:• Applying the puzzle-based game metaphor in situated learning activitiesenhance the students’ learning experience• Aim: to engage students in reflecting on the correct solutions• Similar to jigsaw puzzles: players could try to solve the different questions asmany times as needed until reaching a correct solution• Ways to find the correct solutions: reflecting on wrong past choices,consulting resources provided by the gamified application, discussing withother students, asking people, searching by the Internet, etc.PUZZLE-BASED GAMESThe metaphor to design situated activities (1/2)EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 9. 9Considering teachers:• Flexible metaphor for the design of gamified situated learning activities(independent of the subject matter)• Elements considered in the metaphor to design the (assessment) in situ learningactivities:PUZZLE-BASED GAMESThe metaphor to design situated activities (2/2)Board Geographical zones or museums roomsSlots Questions designed for the gamified learning activityPieces Options associated to each questionPuzzle Groups of slotsLevel Contains a puzzle. Levels asPoints Correct/Incorrect answers, consulting hints.Bonus Extra points when all questions from a level have been correctly answeredFeedback Information associated to ranges of pointsHints Information of help to guide students to find the correct answerEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 10. 10• The teachers became co-participants in the design andanalysis• Involves social interactions withthe teachers:• Sharing ideas• Looking at multiple aspects ofthe design and developing• Involves different participantsin the design (researchers andteachersMETHODOLOGYDesign-based Research Methodology (1/2)DesignEnactmentAnalysisRe-design• The methodology (Barab et al., 2004; Collins et al. 1992; DBRC, 2003)involves continuous cycles of:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 11. 11Applying the design-based research methodology:• Context: The puzzle-based game metaphor as an approach to create gamified insitu learning activities• Participants: Teachers (designers) and students (end users) of secondaryeducation• Design: filling the templates containing the different key elements of theconceptual model• Enactment: QuesTInSitu: The Game• Analysis: Mixed evaluation method considering:• Observations, tests, questionnaires, and log files (with students)• Interviews and questionnaires (with teachers)METHODOLOGYDesign-based Research Methodology (2/2)EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 12. 12EVALUATIONThree gamified situated learning activities (1/2)MNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HTeachersInvolved1 teacher 1 teacher 7 teachersPurpose Activity associated to asubject, as a learningactivityActivity associated to asubject, as part of itsformative assessmentTransversal activity in theschoolContext Learning about differentcontemporary picturesof the MNACLearning about the cityof Vic and its art history(unfamiliar city for mostof the students)Discovering and learningabout the heritage of thecity of l’Hospitalet (theirown city)Secondary teachers of different schools were involved in the design of their owngamified situated learning activities considering the puzzle-based gamemetaphor:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 13. 13EVALUATIONThree gamified situated learning activities (2/2)MNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HospitaletNumber Levels 4 levels 4 levels 10 levelsNumber Questions 20 questions 75 questions 55 questionsPoints CorrectAnswers50 points more 1 point more 250 points morePoints IncorrectAnswers10 points less 0.3 points less the first attempt, 0.5point the second one, 1 point the thirdone.100 points lessNumber Hints 19 hints 25 hints 52 hintsPoints Hints 50 points less 0.2 points less 100 points lessExtra Bonus 50 points more 1.5 points more when all the questionscorrectly answered at the first attempt,0.75 points otherwise.Proportional to the number of questionsHints Content Short text about the contextrelated to the questionShort text about the context related tothe questionSuggestions rather than clues (askpeople, read the information that appearsnext to the statue, etc.)Levels Information Short sentence of themuseums roomShort sentence of the geographical zone General information about the zone andparticular information about the questionsFeedbackMessagesInformal Formal InformalSummary of the game design task for creating situated learning activities:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 14. 14RESULTSMNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HospitaletEducationalbenefits(metaphor)Metaphor perceived asmotivating, entertaining,educationalMetaphor allowsconsolidatingknowledge and learningfrom mistakesMetaphor is stimulating,encouraging, andmotivatingApproach(answering asmany times asneeded)Useful to help studentsto reflect but difficult forthe teachers to knowthe students’ difficultiesThe teacher totallyagrees on theimportance of theapproachDifferent ratings whenasking about theimportance of theapproach*Data gathering techniques: questionnaires (once the teachers finished their gamedesign task) and interviewsSummary of results (according to the teachers’ opinions) [1/2]:* A teacher pointed out that “I find the bonus, hints and punctuation more motivating and interesting than trying and trying to reach thecorrect answer or having a free hint. It is not bad, but I find these elements dispensable”EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013Teachers’ opinions (1/2)
- 15. 15RESULTSTeachers’ opinions (2/2)MNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HospitaletElementsunderstandingNo problemsunderstanding what thedifferent elements meanNo problems understandingwhat the different elementsmeanThe “Level” element was themost problematic*. “Slot” and“pieces”, just at the beginning**Hints Hints are useful to guidestudents, but not eachquestion should haveHints are important to guidestudents in case that theyare lost or stuckHints are a good mechanism toadvance in the game, but notall the questions should haveBonus Important to keep studentsmotivatedImportant to keep studentsmotivatedImportant to keep studentsmotivatedPunctuation Important since it maystimulate students toreflect on their decisionswhen selecting an answerHighlights the importance ofdesigning adaptedpunctuation depending onthe number of wrongattemptsGood approach to allowstudents self-reflecting on theirperformance. 5 out of the 7teachers found very importantthe adapted punctuationdepending on the number ofwrong attempts.Feedback Important to students toreflect on their actionsThe teacher did not find veryimportant the feedbackFeedback are perceived asmotivating and necessarySummary of results (according to the teachers’ opinions) [2/2]:* 6 out of the 7 teachers quite or totally agreed that they had difficulties understanding what a level means** During the discussion of a meeting, some teachers argued that at first the metaphor is quite abstract, and it is needed to recall and interpretthe meanings of each element [Observer-1]; but once the elements were understood, it was easy [Observer-2]EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 16. 16RESULTSMNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HospitaletFollowing themetaphor16/36 students don’t like tobe forced to answer thequestions until reaching thecorrect solution52/63 students followed themetaphor25/56 students fully followedthe metaphor18/36 students preferredhaving only one chance tosolve the questions45/63 students preferredthis approach to only havingone chance32/56 students preferred thisapproach to only having onechance28/36 students did not try todo it better in next attempts53/63 students think moreabout the possible solutionsand pay more attention36/56 students totally agreethat think better the solutionsand pay more attentionData gathering techniques: questionnaires (once the students finished the activity),observations (from researchers during the activity), log files (from the app.)Summary of results (according to the students) [1/4]:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013Students Opinions (1/4)
- 17. 17RESULTSMNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HospitaletPunctuation 29/36 students didn’t findappropriate and (30/36)motivating the amount ofpoints when solving correctlythe questions47/63 students foundappropriate and (47/63)motivating the amount ofpoints when solving correctlythe questions45/56 students found (30/56)appropriate and motivating theamount of points when solvingcorrectly the questions14/36 students didn’t findappropriate and (14/36)discourage the amount ofpoints when solving correctlythe questions30/63 students didn’t findappropriate and (16/63)discourage the amount ofpoints when solving correctlythe questions20/56 students didn’t findappropriate and (4/56) discouragethe amount of points whensolving correctly the questionsExtra bonus 19/36 students didn’t findappropriate the amount ofpoints37/63 students foundappropriate the amount ofpoints42/56 students found appropriatethe amount of points17/36 students didn’t find itmotivating46/63 students found itmotivating31/56 students found it motivatingSummary of results (according to the students) [2/4]:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013Students Opinions (2/4)
- 18. 18RESULTSMNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HospitaletHints No data gathered 9/14 groups ofstudents accessed tothe hints (max. 2 hints)7/14 groups of students accessedto the hints (max. 5 hints)0/18 Students foundhints useful because(0/15) help them not tobe stuck13/28 Students foundhints useful because(10/25) help them notto be stuck4/20 Students found hints usefulbecause (9/19) help them not tobe stuck3/16 students foundappropriate the amountof points subtracted14/27 students foundappropriate theamount of pointssubtracted4/19 students found appropriatethe amount of points subtracted2/20 students carefullyaccessed because of thepoints*24/28 studentscarefully accessedbecause of the points*11/20 students carefully accessedbecause of the points** Strategies followed by the students were: looking the information of the surroundings, asking people, searching by the Internet, all themembers agreeing on the answers, and divide the questions among the members of the group [data from questionnaires and observations]Summary of results (according to the students) [3/4]:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013Students Opinions (3/4)
- 19. 19RESULTSStudents Opinions (4/4)MNAC Discovering Vic Discovering l’HospitaletInformation’slevels4/36 studentsfound it helpful31/63 students found ithelpful26/56 students found ithelpful17/36 students itfound unnecessary17/63 students found itunnecessary5/56 students found itunnecessaryFeedback 7/36 students itfound motivating31/63 students found itmotivating21/56 students found itmotivating16/36 students itfound unnecessary12/63 students found itunnecessary9/56 students found itunnecessarySummary of results (according to the students) [4/4]:EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 20. 19RESULTSComparing Students’ PerformanceEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013Particular case: students from the MNAC experiment using the gamified applicationvs. not using the gamified application:• Post-test containing 8 random questions already answered in the app.• Comparison of correct answer: gamified application vs. not gamified application
- 21. 20The conclusions, considering the teachers’ opinions, are:• The metaphor allows the design of gamified learning activities in situ depending onthe teacher’s purpose• Concerns about having the possibility of answering several times the questions aremainly about knowing what the most problematic questions are to the students• Problems understanding the “level” element• The teachers can design their own punctuation depending on the activity’s purpose• Different approaches followed to design hints: textual information vs. clues• Results suggest that not all the questions should have associated hints• Extra bonus valued as a good approach to motivate students• Levels’ information design depends on the purpose: concrete vs. generalizeCONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKConclusions (1/2)EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 22. 21CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKConclusions (2/2)The conclusions, considering the students, are:• Not to force students to answer all the questions for a given level. Like in jigsawpuzzles, one could leave it without finishing it• Punctuation is not the most important information when situated activities are as apart of the students formative assessment• Does not make sense having bonus when forcing the students to answer all thequestions.• Hints are not consulted because students follow other strategies to find theanswers• Feedbacks are necessary and motivating• When interpreting these results, we should also consider contextual aspects(relation teachers-students, students age, socioeconomics factors, sense offreedom, etc.), and the teachers’ decisions for the game designEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 23. 22Future work includes:• Evaluating the students’ performance on “Discovering l’Hospitalet”• Evaluating a gamified design for “Discovering Sant Sadurni” in which 7 teachershave been involved• Evaluating an authoring tool with teachers (excepted end of June)CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKFuture WorkEEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013
- 24. THANK YOU!!EEE Meeting – Leganés, 27-28 May 2013Questions? Suggestions? Doubts?

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