To Killa MockingbirdFinal Exam Reviewby Harper Lee
Slides 3 - 4 Summary Parts 1 & 2Slide 5: Family TreeSlides 6 - 7 Narrator & Character of ScoutSlide 8: Character of Atticus FinchSlide 9: Character of Jem FinchSlide 10: Other important characters pt 1Slide 11: Other important characters pt 2Slides 12 - 20 Major ThemesSlides 21 - 23 Key Quotations and QuestionsSlide 24: SummarySlide 25: Preview of the NovelSlides 26 - 29 The Great Depression & PrejudiceSlides 30 - 35 Social Hierarchy in Maycomb 1933Slides 36 – 38 Practice TestIndex Page
Slide 3: Summary – Part 1• Scout Finch (the female narrator) lives with her brother Jem and theirwidowed father Atticus in the small town of Maycomb in Alabama.• Atticus Finch is a lawyer in the town and as a result is well off. He is anupstanding citizen and an honourable man.• Scout and Jem befriend a young boy named Dill and we see the events ofthe story through their eyes as the stories are narrated by Scout.• Dill becomes fascinated by a house called Radley place where Boo Radleylives. Boo Radley becomes a fascination for the children as they are leftpresents by the strange man in a tree in his garden. These gifts are leftduring the first section of the novel.• The focus of the novel shifts when Atticus agrees to defend a local blackman Tom Robinson who has been accused of raping a white woman.• The case is particularly prominent in a predominantly white communitywho disagree with Atticus’ role.• The Maycomb society are largely racist and as a result of Atticus’ roleJem and Scout both suffer abuse from other children.• In the summer aunt Alexandra (Atticus‟ sister) comes to live with Jem andScout. Dill is supposedly living with his „new father‟ in a different townruns away to join Scout and Jem in Maycomb.
Slide 4: Summary- Part 2• The Tom Robinson trial begins, Mayella Ewellis the woman who has accused Tom of rape.• A trial Jem and Scout sit on the coloured balcony with the town‟s black citizens.Atticus provides very clear evidence that Mayella and her father Bob are in factlying. Mayella had propositioned Tom and was caught by her father, to cover hershame she accused Tom of rape.• Despite the impressive evidence which Atticus providesproving Tom’s innocence the all white jury convict Tom.• Tom recognising his innocence tries to escape from prison but is shot.Jem’s faith in the justice system is shaken and he becomes despondentand doubtful.• Bob Ewell believes he has been made a fool of and vows to seek his revenge onAtticus and the judge.• He abuses Tom’s widow and attempts to break into the judge‟s house.• Eventually Bob attacks Jem and Scout on their way home from a Halloween party.• Boo Radley intervenes and saves the children. Boo attacks Ewell in his attempt tosave the children and stabs him during the struggle. Bob Ewell is killed.• Boo carries a wounded Jem back into the house where the sheriff in a plea to saveBoo insists that Bob Ewell tripped over the tree and caused his own injury byfalling on his knife.• Boo once more disappears to live his solitary life.• Later on Scout feels as though she finally understands Boo. He has becomehuman to her no longer a shadow of danger or something to be feared.• Scout finally embraces her father‟s attitude to show sympathy and understandingto all.
Slide 5: TKAM Characters – Family TreeAtticus Finch –Father, lawyer, widowerJean Louise “Scout” Finch -The narrator and protagonist of the storyJem FinchScout‟s brother& playmateArthur “Boo” RadleyA recluse whose whereaboutsare unknown. Boo dominatesthe imaginations of Jem,Scout, and DillBob Ewell - A drunken,mostly unemployedmember of Maycomb’spoorest familyCharles BakerHarris “Dill”- Jem and Scout’s summerneighbour and friendMaudie Atkinson -The Finches’neighbour, a sharp-tongued widow, & oldfriend of the familyCalpurnia -The Finch‟sAfrican Americancook / maidAunt Alexandra -Atticus’s sister, a strong-willed woman with a fiercedevotion to her familyMayella Ewell -Bob Ewell’s abused,lonely, unhappy daughterTom Robinson - AfricanAmerican field handaccused of rapeHeck Tate - Thesheriff of Maycomband a major witness atTom Robinson’s trialNathan RadleyBoo Radley‟solder brother.Nathan cruelly cuts offan important element ofBoo‟s connection withJem and ScoutMrs. Dubose An elderly,ill-tempered ,racist neighborDolphus Raymondhas a black mistress &children. Pretends tobe a drunk so toexplain his behavior“ Mr. UnderwoodPublisher of Maycomb‟snewspaper.The Cunninghams - A poor farmerand his son Walter who is one ofScout‟s classmates.Link Deas - TomRobinson‟s employer.
The Narrator• Jean Louise Finch• (Scout)• Tomboy• Narrator switchesperspectives from asix year-old girl toone with the wisdomof an adult lookingback.
Slide 7: CharactersScout Finch Narrator• At the beginning of the novel Scout is an innocent five year old, who hasnever experienced the evils of the world. As the novel progresses Scoutcomes face to face with the world‟s evil in the form of racism and deceit.• As this progression happens the reader wanders whether or not Scout will comeaway form her experiences with the same optimistic attitude she began with orwill she be bruised and hurt like Tom Robinson and Boo Radley.• Scout is an unusual young lady. She learns to read before she even startsschool, she fights boys without fear and exposes an ever confident attitude.• She is a bit of a tom boy in a very prim and proper town where ladies areexpected to behave like ladies.• Scout is definitely her father‟s daughter, he has nurtured her mind conscienceand identity. Whilst girls Scout‟s age are wearing dresses and playing withdolls Scout wears overalls, climbs tress with Jem and fights.• Thanks to Atticus‟s wise attitude Scout learns that the human race not onlyhas the capacity for great evil but also the capacity for great good, and thatshe must face every situation with sympathy and understanding.• Scout is not always tactful and does not grasp social niceties when she tellsher teacher that one students is too poor to pay for lunch.• Scout fails to understand human ignorance at times and finds it hard tobelieve that her teacher openly criticises Hitler‟s treatment of the Jews whilstbeing racist herself towards the black community.• Scout‟s development into a person capable of understanding shows thatwhatever evil she encounters, she will retain her conscience without becomingcynical or jaded.• By the end of the novel Scout has moved from a child to a near grownup with an understanding attitude.
Slide 8: CharactersAtticus Finch• Atticus is a well off man in the town of Maycomb especially since the novel is set duringthe Great Depression, a time of widespread poverty.• Atticus is a man of intelligence, wisdom, calm and a model citizen in the town. As aresult Atticus is respected by everyone. He functions in this novel as a moralbackbone holding the Maycomb society together.• Atticus is called upon by the community in times of need however it is this samewillingness to help that results in Atticus falling out with many Maycomb citizens whenhe agrees to defend Tom Robinson.• Atticus’s actions make him the object of abuse and scorn in Maycomb. However he isclearly valued and after the trial his status in the town is restored.• Atticus practises the same sympathy and understanding that he preaches to Jem andScout, and he never holds anything against the people of Maycomb, despite their racistattitudes.• Atticus knows that people are different good and bad, he shows admiration of the goodand understanding to the bad. He passes this on to Scout and it is this outlook whichprotects the innocent such as Scout from being destroyed by contact with evil.• Atticus is a well respected man however neither Jem nor Scout idolise him at thebeginning of the novel. Both children are embarassed that he is older than the otherfathers and that he does not hunt or fish.• Atticus shows his wise parenting in chapter 30 when he says ―Before Jem looks atanyone else he looks at me, and I’ve tried to live so I can look squarely back at him,‖This attitude ultimately wins their respect.• Atticus is consistent throughout the novel despite his children’s evolving attitudes. Hestands for justice and willing views the perspectives of others. He does not evolveduring the novel but retains his qualities and sustains the role as moral guide and voiceof conscience throughout the novel.
Slide 9: CharactersJem Finch• Jem is older than Scout and finds his life shattered during his experience with theTom Robinson trial. This experience comes as Jem is entering puberty and leaves himfeeling confused and disillusioned.• Jem becomes despondent and depressed when he discovers that justice does notprevail.• He feels vulnerable and confused. He tries to uphold the commitment to justice thatAtticus taught he and this remains throughout the novel.• Jem is not without hope unlike My Raymond. Atticus reassures Jem and assures himthat he has to learn from what has happened.• Atticus‟s prominence in Jem‟s life seems to hold a promise of recovery for Jem.Towards the end of the novel Jem begins to show that he has learnt a positive lessonfrom the trial. We see this in chapter 25 when he refuses to let Scout squash a rolypoly bug as it has done no harm. Jem now wants to protect the fragile and harmlessafter witnessing the unfair treatment of Tom Robinson.• Jem resolution of his cynicism and his movement towards a happy life is supported atthe beginning of the novel when Scout recalls that Jem‟s initial interest in Boo Radleystrongly represented his ability to shed innocence without loosing hope.
Slide 10: Characters – Part 1Boo Radley• Boo is a recluse who never sets foot outside the house. He dominates the imaginationof Scout, Jem and Dill and appears to be an evil and beast of a man.• He is a powerful symbol of goodness who is surrounded by evil.• He shows his goodness when he leaves presents for Jem and Scout and then savesthem from the evil Bob Ewell.• Boo was damaged by his cruel father and poses as a threat that evil can possessinnocence and goodness.• He is one of the novel‟s „Mockingbirds‟, a good person injured by the evil of mankind.Dill• He is Scout and Jem‟s friend and neighbour, he is a confident boy with an activeimagination.• He becomes obsessed with Boo.• He represents innocence and childhood in the novel.
Slide 11: Characters – Part 2Bob Ewell and Mayella Ewell• Father and daughter of Maycomb‟s poorest family. Bob knowingly knows that Tom isinnocent and still accuses him of rape.• Bob represents the dark side of the south; ignorance, poverty and racial prejudice.• Mayella is abused, lonely, unhappy daughter.• Although we can pity Mayella because of her father, we cannot pardon her for hershameful indictment of Tom Robinson.Tom Robinson• A black man who works in the fields. He is accused of raping Mayella Ewell.• Tom is another one of the novel‟s „mockingbirds‟ a very important symbol ofan innocent man who is destroyed by an evil racist.Miss Maudie AtkinsonA neighbour of Atticus. She is a sharp tongued widow and afriend of the family. She has a passion for justice along withAtticus and is a friend to Scout and Jem
Slide 13: Themes• The main theme in the novel is the exploration of moral nature ofhumans. It is a exploration of whether people are essentially goodor essentially evil.• The novel explores this idea through using Scout and Jemmovement from childhood innocence to mature understandingadults.• As a result of this transition from innocence to experience, one ofthe important themes involves threat, hatred, prejudice, racismand ignorance.• These themes show how innocent people can be betrayed byignorance.• Even Jem is victimized to an extent by his discovery of the evil ofracism during and after the trial.• Scout is able to sustain her faith in human nature.• The moral voice in „To Kill a Mockingbird‟ is embodied by AtticusFinch is unique in the novel because he understands people withoutloosing faith when evil occurs.• Atticus accepts people for what they are good and bad qualitiesincluded.• Atticus accepts these points and tries to see life through otherpeople‟s eyes.• Atticus can admire Mrs Dubose‟ s courage whilst in deplores herracism.• Scout learns from her father and at last sees Boo Radley in thisway and accept him for good and bad pointsGood and Evil
Slide 14: ThemesMoral Importance• The education of children forms a large part of the novel. In a sense thenovel plots the development of Scout and Jem from childhood innocence tomaturity.• The theme of education and moral importance is best shown between Atticusand Scout, as Atticus devotes himself to instilling a social conscience.• The scenes at school provide a direct comparison to Atticus‟s effectiveeducation of his children, Scout is frequently confronted with teachers whoare frustrated by her attitude and fail to meet her needs.• The novel‟s most important message is that the lessons of sympathy andunderstanding are the most vital.• Atticus‟s ability to put himself in his children‟s shoes and see theirperspective makes him an understanding and valuable teacher.
Slide 15: ThemesSocial InequalityThe social inequality in the novel is explored using the town of Maycomb and itscomplicated hierarchy.The Finch family are well off within the town largely due to Atticus‟semployment. As a result most of the town‟s people are beneath them.The country farmers the Cunninghams lie below the town‟s people due to theirignorance whilst the Ewells are below the Cunninghams because of theirimmoral behaviour.The black community in Maycomb lie even further below the Ewells in spite oftheir admirable qualities and good will.It is this social hierarchy which allows the innocent Tom Robinson to be punishedby the evil Bob Ewell.These social divisions make up a large part of the adult world which Jem andScout see, and these divisions appear to be irrational and destructive.Social division ultimately epitomises the prejudice and ignorance of humannature.
Slide 16: ThemesSmall Town life• Lee focuses closely on the old fashioned small town values of Maycomb.• In order to contrast with the themes of ignorance and prejudice and the suspenseand tension of the novel. Lee emphasises the slow paced and good natured ambianceof small town Maycomb.• Lee juxtaposes small town values with images of evil, to show the forces of good andevil within the town. For example: The terror of the fire is contrasted with peopleof Maycomb coming together to save Miss Maudie‟s valued possessions.Mockingbirds• The title carries great symbolic weight in the novel, as it represents good beingdestroyed by evil.• The mockingbird represents the idea of good- thus to kill a mockingbird is to destroyinnocence.• Throughout the novel Jem, Tom, Dill and Boo are all symbolised as mockingbirds – ieinnocents who have been destroyed through contact with evil.• This connection is explicit after Tom‟s death Mr. Underwood compares his death to“the senseless slaughter of songbirds,”• Whilst Miss Maudie epitomises the concept of the novel when she declares• “Mockingbirds don‟t do one thing but . . . sing their hearts out for us. That‟s why it‟s asin to kill a mockingbird.”• The fact that Jem and Scout‟s last name is Finch (a small bird) suggests that theyare vulnerable and innocent within this racist world.
Prejudice in the novelRaceGenderHandicapsRich/PoorAgeReligionSlide 17: Themes
-It‟s not a man with a gun in his hand.“It‟s when you know you‟re licked beforeyou begin, but you begin anyway and yousee it through, no matter what. You rarelywin, but sometimes you do.”-Atticus FinchCourage
Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose―She was the meanest lady I ever met.‖ Jem• Supposedly holds a Confederatepistol under her shawl.• Yells insults and false accusations at thechildren walking by her house.• Ignites Jem’s slow-burning fuse by insultinghis dead mother.
Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose“She was the bravest person I everknew.” Atticus• She was sick for a long time…probably cancer.• Pain-ridden -Took morphine for years prescribedby a doctor, acceptable use.• Morphine affected her disposition, made her more―contrary‖ (mean) than normal.• Wanted to rid herself of her addiction beforedying. The reading time prolonged her ―fits.‖• Died with pain, but overcame morphine addiction
Slide 21: Key Quotations and QuestionsKey QuotationsYou never really understand a person until you consider things from his point ofview . . . until you climb into his skin and walk around in it. -Chapter 3 Atticus to Scout“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy . . . but singtheir hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.”Chapter 10 Miss MaudieWinter, and a man walked into the street, dropped his glasses, and shot a dog.Summer, and he watched his children’s heart break. Autumn again, and Boo’schildren needed him. Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know aman until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on theRadley porch was enough.Chapter 31 ScoutKey Questions1. How does the writer use the trial of Tom Robinson to bring out the themesand issues in this book ?2. What do we learn about life in Maycomb county in 1930s from thepresentation of female characters in this book?
―You never really know a man until youcrawl into his skin and walk around forawhile.‖--Atticus Finch• Atticus Finch• Jeremy (Jem) Finch• Jean Louise (Scout)• Charles BakerHarris (Dill)• Aunt Alexandra• Boo Radley• Tom Robinson• Robert E. Lee Ewell• Mayella Ewell• Calpurnia
―If you can learn a simple trick,Scout, you’ll get along a lotbetter with all kinds of folks.You never really understand aperson until you consider thingsfrom his point of view—until youcrawl into his skin and walkaround in it.‖
Slide 24: Summary• Scout is the main female narrator – 5 years old at the start of the novel.• The novel focuses on her movement from innocent child to understandingadult.• The novel focuses on prejudice, racism, social class and the battle betweengood and evil.• The novel is set in Maycomb, Alabama during 1930s America – the time ofthe great depression.• Scout has an older brother Jem, her father is Atticus, they make up theFinch family.• Scout and Jem are friends with Dill – during their friendship they becomeobsessed with Boo Radley and he is portrayed as an evil character.• Scout and Jem are saved by Boo Radley at the end of the novel and theychange their opinion of him.• The main event of the novel is the trial of Tom Robinson. Tom Robinson is ablack man accused of rape by Mayella Ewell. Atticus defends Tom andproves him innocent, however the all white jury find him guilty.• The trial of Tom has a huge impact on Jem and Scout. Jem becomesdespondent and depressed that justice fails, whilst Scout has to learn toaccept people for who they are.• The relationship Atticus has with his children is pivotal in the novel as heteaches them the most valuable lesson of all: To truly understand someoneelses point of view, accept people for who they are and accept their goodand bad points.
Preview of the Novel• The setting– The Great Depression• The characters• Conflicts• Prejudice• Social Hierarchy
1930’s - Great Depressionbegan when the stock marketcrashed in October, 1929 Businesses failed,factories closed– People were out ofwork– Even people withmoney sufferedbecause nothing wasbeing produced forsale. Poor people lost theirhomes, were forced to“live off the land.‖
Prejudice in Maycomb County,Alabama, 1930’s“Now gentlemen, in thiscountry our courts are thegreat levelers, and in ourcourts all men are createdequal. Im no idealist tobelieve firmly in the integrityof our courts and of our jurysystem. Thats no ideal to me.That is a living, workingreality.”-Atticus to the jury
Social Hierarchy in Maycomb 1933• Aristocrats - White upper class• White middle class• White lower class• White trash• Negroes
Aristocrats -White upper class• Educated• Legitimate claim to ―Old South‖ plantationfamilies.• Wealth• Aunt Alexandra
• White middle Class• White• Some education• Property owners• Miss Maudie• White Lower Class• White• Little or no education• Sharecroppers/ Farmers• Walter Cunningham
• Poor White Trash• Refuse education• Often alcoholic• Few or no work skills• No work ethic• Same opportunities as other white classes
Negroes• Lowest on the social hierarchy• Education prohibited• Placed here only because of race
Bias against women, race, wealth, social status, and religion• Gender bias• Racial prejudice• Economic prejudice• Social Hierarchy• Religious Prejudice―Scout, yer starting to act like a girl!‖
Know the answers to the following questions:Why is it a sin to kill a mockingbird?Why didnt the Ewells have to go to school?What did Scout and Jem find in the Radleys tree?What was the Boo Radley game?Who makes Scout and Jem feel welcome at Calpurnias church?Describe the relationship between Aunt Alexandra and the children.Why did Dill run away from home back to Maycomb?What was Mayellas account of the incident with Tom Robinson?What was Toms side of the story?What was Toms handicap?What do Dill and Scout learn from Mr. Raymond?
Know the answers to the following questions:What were Atticus closing remarks to the jury and what was the jurys verdict?What was the significance of Maudies two little cakes and one large one?What was Bob Ewells meeting with Atticus at the post office like?Why doesnt Alexandra want Scout playing with Walter Cunningham?How would you describe Mrs. Merriweather?Mr. Underwoods editorial likened Toms death to the senseless slaying of ----?What one word best describes Mrs. Gates?What happened to Judge Taylor?What ultimately happens to Helen Robinson?Why did Scout and Jem not leave the school until almost everyone else had gone?
Know the answers to the following questions:Who killed Bob Ewell?Why does Heck Tate insist that Bob Ewell fell on his own knife?Scout arranged things so that "if Miss Stephanie Crawford was watching from her upstairswindow, she would see Arthur Radley escorting [her] down the sidewalk, as any gentlemanwould do." Why would she do this?Who was responsible for the fire at Miss Maudie‟s house?Who was Cecil Jacobs?What is Uncle Jack like?Why does Jem cut the tops off of all of Mrs. Dubosescamellia bushes and what is his punishment?Who saves Atticus from the angry lynch mob that is coming to get Tom Robinson?
COMING SOON: The Long Awaited SequelWRITERWRITERHARPER LEE SUZANNE COLLINS