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Improving Foreign Support
to Tunisia’s Civil Society
by Nadia Cherif
C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017
Center for Applied Policy ResearchC·A·P
This paper has been published as a result of the program “Policy Advice and Strategy Development”, conducted
by the Center for Applied Policy Research (C·A·P) in cooperation with the Union des Tuni­siens Indépendants
pour la Liberté (UTIL), the Arab Institute for Human Rights (AIHR) and the Faculty of Legal, Political, and Social
Sciences of the University of Carthage. The program is part of the “Bavarian-Tunisian Action Plan 2016-2018“ that
the government of the Free State of Bavaria implements in cooperation with the Ministry of Development, Invest-
ment and international Cooperation of the Republic of Tunisia.
Project supported by BAYERISCHE STAATSREGIERUNG
C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de
CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society
2
Improving Foreign
Support to Tunisia’s
Civil Society
by Nadia Cherif
summary
Since the 2011 uprising, “civil society” is at the
heart of cooperation and development strategies
of the main international donors in Tunisia. The of-
ten stated objective is to reinforce the role of civil
society to promote human rights and democratic
reforms, as well as to assist civil society to grow
and become stronger as part of a broader effort to
promote democracy.
To concretise their support, these donors usually
fund projects, which can be considered an aid de-
livery method known as “project-approach”. But in
a political context where the notion of civil society
is still blurry, where the role of Tunisian civil society
organisations (CSOs) in the democratic process
is not yet established, the project-approach as
currently practiced is not sustainably contribu-
ting to the good realisation of the donors’ stated
objective nor does it serve Tunisia’s consolidation
of democracy. Therefore, adjustments must be
ap­plied to the way development aid is currently
deliv­ered to Tunisian CSOs, in order to allow them
to go beyond mere project implementation and
bring a qualitative contribution to Tunisia nascent
democracy.
Introduction: Foreign Aid to Tuni-
sia and the Project-Approach
Since 2011, foreign aid to Tunisia has tripled, going
from 228 million euros in 2010 to 471 million euros
in 2012, before reaching 790 million euros in 2014.1
Since 2011, the European Union (EU) alone – the
main donor in the country2
– has allocated 34 mil-
lion euros as direct support to civil society organi-
sations operating in Tunisia in the framework of its
bilateral cooperation with the country,3
and with the
objective to strengthen the CSOs’ role in promo-
ting human rights and democratic reforms. In an
attempt to support local civil society organisations,
1	 Data obtained via http://www.aidflows.org.
2	 The EU grants an average of 399 million euros annually.
3	 Total obtained by summing up the available grants envelops for
CSOs as published on EU official website: https://goo.gl/rhvRNB.
from 2011 to 2015, 29% of these funds were di-
rectly attributed to Tunisian registered non-for-profit
organisations – the remaining 71% being granted
to European organisations - in the form of grants
ranging from 20 000 to 450 000 euros.4
In all cases, these grants were attributed to finance
the implementation of projects, which can be de­
fined, according to the EU, as “a series of activities
aimed at bringing about clearly specified objec-
tives within a defined time period and with a de­
fined budget, which is specific to the project.”5
Funding projects is an aid delivery method, known
as the project-approach, consisting in financing
a stand-alone and self-contained action, with the
objective to respond to visible, preferably specific
problems for which concrete solutions are sought.
It is to be distinguished from core funding, which
finances the running costs of an organisation, in-
cluding salaries and facilities, and not only costs
related to a project.6
The project-approach is used
by most and main donors in the country.
As will be argued in the following, in a context
where the notion of civil society is yet not well un-
derstood neither by the general public nor by po-
litical actors and where the role and participation
of civil society organisations (CSOs) in the demo­
cratic process is not yet clearly established, this
approach is impacting civil society organisations
in a way that is not leading to the realisation of the
donors’ stated objective.7
The project-approach is to be criticized that it (1)
challenges CSO’s global political missions, (2)
boosts project related skills to the detriment of more
structuring skills; and (3) detaches CSO’s from their
base and from other organisations. Therefore, re­
commendations to improve foreign assistance to
Tunisian CSOs8
will be presented in the conclusion.
4	 Percentages obtained through data provided by the Finan-
cial Transparency System of the European Commission. See
http://ec.europa.eu/budget/fts/index_en.htm.
5	 See EU Commission: International Cooperation and Development
– Project modality, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/node/1563.
6	 Core funding refers to financial support that covers basic “core” or-
ganisational and administrative costs of an organisation, including
salaries of full-time staff, facilities, equipment, communications,
and the direct expenses of day-to-day work. See EU Commission:
Structured Dialogue, Technical Sheet – Aid Modalities, Core fund­
ing/operating grants, 2012, https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/
mwikis/aidco/images/2/21/TF1_-_Core_funding_-_revisited_2.pdf.
7	 The research for the paper has been based on numerous encoun-
ters and activities with CSOs and donors working in Tunisia. It is
also the result of ten years of professional experience working in
the aid delivery sector, either with donors’ institutions or with non-
for profit organisations.
8	 The paper targets non-for-profits organizations registered in Tuni-
sia and receiving international funds. They are designated through
the name “Civil Society Organizations” to stress their role and
place in post-revolutionary Tunisia’s transforming political system.
C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de
CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society
3
1. An Approach Challenging
Tunisian CSOS Missions
At the core of the project-approach favoured
by international donors lay grants for projects.
Those grants usually follow a public announce-
ment known as a “call for proposals”, which
describe, in published guidelines or terms of
references, the objectives and funding priori-
ties, examples of eligible actions, and the avai-
lable budget for an action. In order to benefit
from a grant, an organisation has to present a
project description and a project budget listing
the expenses and costs directly related to the
implementation of an action.
Donors’ evaluation criteria rely, among other cri-
teria but for an important share, on the relevance
of the proposed project to the objectives and
priorities set in the guidelines of the call. Be-
cause of that, call for proposals have a strong
capacity to orientate the action of a civil society
organisation towards what has been identified
in the call as priority needs. Even if the guide­
lines’ objectives and priorities have been defined
through consultation of civil society organisa­
tions, the procedures implies that it is not about
recognizing and financing initiatives identified
and formulated from independent actors but
about defining issues, target locations and target
groups according to a frame of reference set by
a specific call for proposals.
This approach can bring important modifications
in the way an organisation functions and consti-
tutes a challenge to the global political mission
of a CSO:
−− It confiscates the meaning of the action from
an organisation: the call for proposals and its
related guidelines impose a strict frame for
any concrete action and empty from its sub­
stance the work that an organisation may have
produced, such as constitution of a proper
frame of references or own terms, wording,
critics or innovation;
−− It often pulls CSOs away from their own mis-
sion or objectives. In the exercise of respon-
ding to a call, many go through the expe-
rience of twisting practices, objectives and
wording to make them better fit those stated
in the donors’ guidelines. When applying to
a call, the applicant is forced to translate ac-
tions and specific objectives in the donors’
vocabulary.
−− The twist in words at the application stage
continues throughout the implementation
stage and into real practices. Project monito-
ring and final evaluation are guided by what
has been set in the project description at the
application and contracting stage and embo-
died into measurable indicators. Throughout
the implementation phase, the grant benefi­
ciary will have to make fit, according to these
indicators, real actions into promised ones,
pulling the organisation away from pursuing
a long term and general political project and
bringing it closer to attaining the objective of
an isolated and punctual action.
−− The project-approach leads organisations to
spend time and efforts in defining activity-pro-
jects instead of political projects and ­drives
CSOs away from the definition of a vision within
which objectives are defined and for which the
organisations would need, as a second step,
to find best ways of implementation.
The project logic swallows the political vision and
mission of a civil society organisation and in a
country where CSOs are very much dependant
from external funding, they find themselves in a
constant research for funds and for projects not
always compatible with the mission they had at
the beginning of their, often voluntary, social and
political engagement.
In recent years, Tunisia has experienced many
organisations working, for instance, on a project
dealing with local governance before shifting to a
project setting libraries in rural schools, or work­
ing on school dropout of girls in rural areas be-
fore shifting to support social enterprises. These
examples are not rare or anecdotic as sectors
and themes changes from donors to donors and
from call for proposals to call for proposals. It also
makes it difficult for an organisation to develop a
specialisation, an expertise and a reputation in a
given domain and strictly focus on deepening the
initial objectives they wanted to pursue.
Beyond implementing development projects,
it seems difficult for Tunisian CSOs to precisely
define their field of specialisation. Several define
themselves as “citizen actions” or “development
organisations”, confirming the lack of specialisa-
tion and development of an expertise, needed in
the current political context. Checking on the on-
line platform Jamaity.org, dedicated to Tunisian
civil society organisations and counting 2839 re-
gistered entities, on a panel of 100 organisations,
only ten have chosen just one domain of inter-
C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de
CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society
4
vention, 15 have selected four, 13 have selected
six and four have even selected nine areas of
intervention.
In locations where the number of CSOs is not as
dense as in the capital of Tunis, activities can also
be defined by its target location and not by a the-
matic or specific working area. For instance, and
without judgement on the quality of the organisa-
tion’s work, the Association du Développement
et des Etudes Stratégiques de Médenine has as
main mission to “promote the development of the
region”, according to its online presentation on
Jamayti.org and has selected as field of specia-
lisation “economic and social development”,
“protection and promotion of national heritage”,
“local development” and “art and culture”,9
thus
blurring its strategic objective.
In addition, as can be seen from this finding, the
approach does not facilitate a clear holistic view
of the Tunisian civil society sector: who is and
does what, and who to contact in case of a need
of a technical opinion or contribution, especially
in the framework of democratic reforms or when
a more systematic dialogue between civil socie-
ty and pub­lic authorities should be established.
Moreover, without such a holistic view, a clear
evaluation, relevant for Tunisia authorities and
donors alike, of whether or not the Tunisian civil
society and democracy matures cannot be made.
2. An Approach Multiplying
Projects-Related Skills
Certainly, the project-approach leads to the proli-
feration of project related profiles and boosts pro-
ject related skills within Tunisian civil society. On a
sample of 100 job announcements published on
Jamayti.org, it is noticed that project-related posi-
tions represent 91% of the announcements.
This is mostly considered a positive effect in
terms of the professionalization of Tunisian CSOs.
However, this is done to the detriment of more
­structuring skills and profiles and is not contribu-
ting to the general sustainability of the concerned
structures.
In too many cases, the positions of a project ma-
nager, project officer, project finance officer, pro-
ject assistant, project administrative assistant,
9	 The profile of the organisation can be consulted on http://jamaity.
org/association/association-du-developpement-et-des-etudes-st-
rategiques-de-medenine/.
project coordinator, monitoring and reporting of-
ficer or many else are usually directly paid by pro-
ject funds and often stops when the funding stops.
Beyond the question of sustainability of these po-
sitions, paid and full-time project-related positions
exists in a project-funded CSO while very often,
other fundamental positions does not, such as
managing or executing director of the organisa-
tion, communication officer at the organisation’s
level or monitoring, evaluation and learning officer
at the organisation level. These profiles are much
more difficult to cover financially as, if they relate
to the general functioning of an organisation, they
are not considered as eligible costs in a project
budget or are only partially financially covered.
Of course, it is valuable to foster project-related
skills, but for the same position and the same
skills, the impact is very different if it is oriented
towards a specific project than towards an orga-
nisation as a whole entity. Take the example of
a communication officer: communication on the
project is usually heavily done, because most
of the time it is required by the donor, however
there is a huge unfilled need for Tunisian civil so­
ciety organisations to communicate on their goal,
their role, with their target groups, with their base
or with their key stakeholders. Concerning mo-
nitoring and evaluation related positions, when
they are directed towards a project, they evalua-
te a project only according to pre-set indicators
­while at the organisation level, it will allow to have
a clear vision on the organisation overall impact
and relevance of its associative project, correct
actions and include a learning process within the
organisation.
The lack in most cases of full-time and paid man­
aging or executive director position within Tunisian
non-for-profit organisations is the most problema-
tic aspect. It raises nowadays real questions on
the capacity of Tunisian civil society to sustainably
bear a vision and contribute to better public po-
licies or better respect for human rights and fun-
damental freedoms.
Six years after the revolution, founders of the
“post-revolution CSOs generation” have almost all
withdraw from the leadership positions. Without fi-
nancial means to recruit and keep an executive or
managing director at the head of an organisation,
CSOs that receive project-funding operate with
hands but without a smart brain. They do imple-
ment projects with all the staff and means needed
for it, but they often lack an overall management
that will keep and advance the initial vision and
mission of the organisation, provide opera­tional
C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de
CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society
5
leadership and guide the long-term devel­opment
of the organization.
The role of leadership and management is a
question that stays outside the scope of the pro-
ject-approach and of donors’ strategy as in the
project-logic it is considered as an indirect cost
that can only be taken in charge partially or on
the administrative costs sometimes granted by
the donor together with the project-related contri-
bution. Moreover, it is never part of the evaluation
criteria when granting a fund for a project. How­
ever, it is an aspect that has a direct impact on
the efficiency of a project: Without this core posi­
tion, smart leadership capabilities and a core vi-
sion within the organisation clearly defined and
easily communicated and transmitted internally
and externally, project-related staffs often en­
gage with­out an idea about their own role and
contribution to the organisation’s development.
This lack of identification diminishes the impact
of their contribution at both the organisation
and the project level. The project might also be
detached from the organisation core mission,
as explained ­above, which hampers the project
sustainable impact.
3. An approach detaching CSOs
from their base and from others
The competition that calls for proposals and the
project-approach create modifies Tunisian civil
society organisations’ way to function with others,
placing them in a competitive position with each
other. The project-approach in particular creates
a quasi-grant market with limited funds, and or-
ganisations which may cooperate with each other
for similar goals finally find themselves competing
against each other.10
The obligation of partnerships, often imposed by
donors, is highly inefficient to curb this competi­
tive effect. If it is set on paper, in practice, part-
nerships are rarely effective: disguised sub-con-
tractors, cheap implementers, or refusing to take
in charge cost-share, they are the source of infi­
nite problems that the main grantee has to hide
from the donor and deal with to respect its con-
tractual obligations.
10	 Moreover, with wide eligibility criteria such as those applicable to
EU grant procedures, a Tunisian CSO is not only in competition
with other Tunisian ones but also with international organisations,
UN-related or EU based organisation. Under the asymmetric con-
ditions of human, knowledge and financial capacities, this highly
competitive atmosphere creates further burden and constrain to
Tunisian CSOs.
These partnerships only occur because of the
application process and are not envisioned as an
operating choice of the applicant, but merely as
part of a way to fulfil an eligibility condition or to
win additional evaluation points.
Astonishingly, six years after the revolution, Tu-
nisian CSOs have only rarely been able to effec-
tively collaborate or set up operational networks
outside of funded projects, diminishing also their
capacities to better advocate on the long run.
Because the project-approach has led Tunisian
CSOs to be mere project implementers, it has
also affected the role non-for-profits can play in
the social life.
By limiting their capacities to be critical or innova-
tive concerning the country fragile transformation
and its desperate needs, the project-approach
has also limited associations’ capacities to relay
emerging or disturbing issues or the voice of the
unheard.
Emerging or disturbing issues are defined by the
donor and receive a support limited in time and
in funds. In addition, in the project-logic, donors
­often seek new topics, new actors, new actions
and new issues instead of investing in the sustain-
ability of already successful activities. The long
term and consistency that social change needs
is therefore challenged and CSOs are dragged
towards mere assistance and charitable actions
instead of long term and consistent ones.
Thus, instead of relaying demands or needs of
donors, or being reduced to mere assistance for
implementing an external reform agenda, Tuni-
sian associations as autonomous entities are en-
rolled in addressing the country’s problems and
should be strengthened in their capacities to work
properly and full-steam ahead for reforms.
Conclusion
If the increase in the number of non-for-profits
organisations registered in Tunisia has proved
the end of the authoritarian regime, the project­-
approach pursued by most of international donors
has not helped turn this quantitative boost into a
qualitative one.
The project-approach has implied changes that
are not necessarily contributing to consolidate the
role of civil society in democratic reforms. ­Instead,
it limits CSOs in a role of project implementer,
C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de
CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society
6
­drives them away from a broader political vision,
specialisation, and expertise, and disconnects
them from other organisations, from their base
and from their key stakeholders. Also, it doesn’t
contribute to strengthen and sustain the organisa-
tion on the long term.
Recommendations: Fund Associa-
tive Projects instead of Activity
­Projects
The main recommendation is to consider the con-
temporary political, economic and social context
of Tunisia and the particular needs of Tunisian
CSOs, and to support the overall strategic plan
and operations of an organisation instead of its
isolated and short-term actions.
As noticed above, this kind of support is often la-
belled as core funding and opposed to project­-
funding. But what is important in the core-funding
approach is its objective, which is to provide an
organisation with funds to allow it to maintain and
sharpen a long-term focus on its strategic priori-
ties and results, a space to concentrate, strategi-
ze and mature as an organisation.
Without going through heavy and long reform, do-
nors can make space within their existing proce-
dures for this objective and adjust their approach
to fund the project at the base of an organisation
– associative project - instead of encouraging iso-
lated activity projects. This can be done through:
1. Re-Defining the Notion of “Project”
Projects to be funded should include, in their
definition, a clear reference to the mission of the
applicant organisation. Therefore, instead of a de-
finition detached from all contexts and self-refer-
ring to itself, a donor should define project as: a
set of actions, to be implemented within a defined
time period and with a defined budget, aimed at
bringing about the specific changes envisioned
in the applicant’s core mission. This way, donors
will refine their strategy and clearly target projects
that contribute to advance an organisation mis-
sion­and vision.
2. Adding New Evaluation Criteria
Two evaluation criteria should systematically be
taken into account in project selection: (1) rele­
vance of the presented project to the mission of
the organisation and (2) strategic focus of the or-
ganisation mission.
With these two evaluation criteria, the exercise of
applying to a call will frame applicants to present pro-
jects consistent with their core mission and will be the
occasion to sharpen the focus of the organisation.
Application forms shall therefore be adapted to in-
clude information on the long-term mission of the
organisation, the organisation’s main beneficiaries
- and not only the presented project’s beneficia-
ries – and past and planned efforts to advance the
stated mission. Questions on leadership and go-
vernance should also be included to help evalu­
ate the sustainability of the organisation and its
ability to hold a strategic focus.
3. Accepting broader direct costs
Completing recommendation 1 and 2, organisa­
tion management related costs should be inclu-
ded in the accepted direct costs of a proposed
project. Efficient organisation management has a
direct impact on the efficiency of a project. And
with a greater place given to the organisation mis-
sion in this revisited project-approach, these costs
are more directly linked to the funded action.
Moreover, with the stated objective to strengthen
the role of civil society organisations to contri­bute
to Tunisia democratic transition, donors cannot
leave any longer the question of organisation ma-
nagement outside of their strategy scope.
There is, of course, the possibility to go further with
these recommendations and deeper into de­liv­er­
ing development aid in a way that is more suited to
the current context’s needs. But with these ad­just­
ments, a number of institutional change processes
could be triggered within the organization receiving
funds: organisations can grow in stronger owner­
ship, greater transparency, governance and inter-
nal control, and a better strategic and executive
management; they can enhance and release crea-
tivity and innovation, improve their performance
and through this improve advocacy and sustainabi-
lity for the sake of Tunisia’s democratisation.
Author and contact
Nadia CHERIF
Lawyer and Cooperation and Development Expert
Specialised in EU External Aid Procedures
nadia.cherif@cctendering.com

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Improving Foreign Support to Tunisia’s Civil Society

  • 1. Improving Foreign Support to Tunisia’s Civil Society by Nadia Cherif C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 Center for Applied Policy ResearchC·A·P This paper has been published as a result of the program “Policy Advice and Strategy Development”, conducted by the Center for Applied Policy Research (C·A·P) in cooperation with the Union des Tuni­siens Indépendants pour la Liberté (UTIL), the Arab Institute for Human Rights (AIHR) and the Faculty of Legal, Political, and Social Sciences of the University of Carthage. The program is part of the “Bavarian-Tunisian Action Plan 2016-2018“ that the government of the Free State of Bavaria implements in cooperation with the Ministry of Development, Invest- ment and international Cooperation of the Republic of Tunisia. Project supported by BAYERISCHE STAATSREGIERUNG
  • 2. C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society 2 Improving Foreign Support to Tunisia’s Civil Society by Nadia Cherif summary Since the 2011 uprising, “civil society” is at the heart of cooperation and development strategies of the main international donors in Tunisia. The of- ten stated objective is to reinforce the role of civil society to promote human rights and democratic reforms, as well as to assist civil society to grow and become stronger as part of a broader effort to promote democracy. To concretise their support, these donors usually fund projects, which can be considered an aid de- livery method known as “project-approach”. But in a political context where the notion of civil society is still blurry, where the role of Tunisian civil society organisations (CSOs) in the democratic process is not yet established, the project-approach as currently practiced is not sustainably contribu- ting to the good realisation of the donors’ stated objective nor does it serve Tunisia’s consolidation of democracy. Therefore, adjustments must be ap­plied to the way development aid is currently deliv­ered to Tunisian CSOs, in order to allow them to go beyond mere project implementation and bring a qualitative contribution to Tunisia nascent democracy. Introduction: Foreign Aid to Tuni- sia and the Project-Approach Since 2011, foreign aid to Tunisia has tripled, going from 228 million euros in 2010 to 471 million euros in 2012, before reaching 790 million euros in 2014.1 Since 2011, the European Union (EU) alone – the main donor in the country2 – has allocated 34 mil- lion euros as direct support to civil society organi- sations operating in Tunisia in the framework of its bilateral cooperation with the country,3 and with the objective to strengthen the CSOs’ role in promo- ting human rights and democratic reforms. In an attempt to support local civil society organisations, 1 Data obtained via http://www.aidflows.org. 2 The EU grants an average of 399 million euros annually. 3 Total obtained by summing up the available grants envelops for CSOs as published on EU official website: https://goo.gl/rhvRNB. from 2011 to 2015, 29% of these funds were di- rectly attributed to Tunisian registered non-for-profit organisations – the remaining 71% being granted to European organisations - in the form of grants ranging from 20 000 to 450 000 euros.4 In all cases, these grants were attributed to finance the implementation of projects, which can be de­ fined, according to the EU, as “a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objec- tives within a defined time period and with a de­ fined budget, which is specific to the project.”5 Funding projects is an aid delivery method, known as the project-approach, consisting in financing a stand-alone and self-contained action, with the objective to respond to visible, preferably specific problems for which concrete solutions are sought. It is to be distinguished from core funding, which finances the running costs of an organisation, in- cluding salaries and facilities, and not only costs related to a project.6 The project-approach is used by most and main donors in the country. As will be argued in the following, in a context where the notion of civil society is yet not well un- derstood neither by the general public nor by po- litical actors and where the role and participation of civil society organisations (CSOs) in the demo­ cratic process is not yet clearly established, this approach is impacting civil society organisations in a way that is not leading to the realisation of the donors’ stated objective.7 The project-approach is to be criticized that it (1) challenges CSO’s global political missions, (2) boosts project related skills to the detriment of more structuring skills; and (3) detaches CSO’s from their base and from other organisations. Therefore, re­ commendations to improve foreign assistance to Tunisian CSOs8 will be presented in the conclusion. 4 Percentages obtained through data provided by the Finan- cial Transparency System of the European Commission. See http://ec.europa.eu/budget/fts/index_en.htm. 5 See EU Commission: International Cooperation and Development – Project modality, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/node/1563. 6 Core funding refers to financial support that covers basic “core” or- ganisational and administrative costs of an organisation, including salaries of full-time staff, facilities, equipment, communications, and the direct expenses of day-to-day work. See EU Commission: Structured Dialogue, Technical Sheet – Aid Modalities, Core fund­ ing/operating grants, 2012, https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/ mwikis/aidco/images/2/21/TF1_-_Core_funding_-_revisited_2.pdf. 7 The research for the paper has been based on numerous encoun- ters and activities with CSOs and donors working in Tunisia. It is also the result of ten years of professional experience working in the aid delivery sector, either with donors’ institutions or with non- for profit organisations. 8 The paper targets non-for-profits organizations registered in Tuni- sia and receiving international funds. They are designated through the name “Civil Society Organizations” to stress their role and place in post-revolutionary Tunisia’s transforming political system.
  • 3. C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society 3 1. An Approach Challenging Tunisian CSOS Missions At the core of the project-approach favoured by international donors lay grants for projects. Those grants usually follow a public announce- ment known as a “call for proposals”, which describe, in published guidelines or terms of references, the objectives and funding priori- ties, examples of eligible actions, and the avai- lable budget for an action. In order to benefit from a grant, an organisation has to present a project description and a project budget listing the expenses and costs directly related to the implementation of an action. Donors’ evaluation criteria rely, among other cri- teria but for an important share, on the relevance of the proposed project to the objectives and priorities set in the guidelines of the call. Be- cause of that, call for proposals have a strong capacity to orientate the action of a civil society organisation towards what has been identified in the call as priority needs. Even if the guide­ lines’ objectives and priorities have been defined through consultation of civil society organisa­ tions, the procedures implies that it is not about recognizing and financing initiatives identified and formulated from independent actors but about defining issues, target locations and target groups according to a frame of reference set by a specific call for proposals. This approach can bring important modifications in the way an organisation functions and consti- tutes a challenge to the global political mission of a CSO: −− It confiscates the meaning of the action from an organisation: the call for proposals and its related guidelines impose a strict frame for any concrete action and empty from its sub­ stance the work that an organisation may have produced, such as constitution of a proper frame of references or own terms, wording, critics or innovation; −− It often pulls CSOs away from their own mis- sion or objectives. In the exercise of respon- ding to a call, many go through the expe- rience of twisting practices, objectives and wording to make them better fit those stated in the donors’ guidelines. When applying to a call, the applicant is forced to translate ac- tions and specific objectives in the donors’ vocabulary. −− The twist in words at the application stage continues throughout the implementation stage and into real practices. Project monito- ring and final evaluation are guided by what has been set in the project description at the application and contracting stage and embo- died into measurable indicators. Throughout the implementation phase, the grant benefi­ ciary will have to make fit, according to these indicators, real actions into promised ones, pulling the organisation away from pursuing a long term and general political project and bringing it closer to attaining the objective of an isolated and punctual action. −− The project-approach leads organisations to spend time and efforts in defining activity-pro- jects instead of political projects and ­drives CSOs away from the definition of a vision within which objectives are defined and for which the organisations would need, as a second step, to find best ways of implementation. The project logic swallows the political vision and mission of a civil society organisation and in a country where CSOs are very much dependant from external funding, they find themselves in a constant research for funds and for projects not always compatible with the mission they had at the beginning of their, often voluntary, social and political engagement. In recent years, Tunisia has experienced many organisations working, for instance, on a project dealing with local governance before shifting to a project setting libraries in rural schools, or work­ ing on school dropout of girls in rural areas be- fore shifting to support social enterprises. These examples are not rare or anecdotic as sectors and themes changes from donors to donors and from call for proposals to call for proposals. It also makes it difficult for an organisation to develop a specialisation, an expertise and a reputation in a given domain and strictly focus on deepening the initial objectives they wanted to pursue. Beyond implementing development projects, it seems difficult for Tunisian CSOs to precisely define their field of specialisation. Several define themselves as “citizen actions” or “development organisations”, confirming the lack of specialisa- tion and development of an expertise, needed in the current political context. Checking on the on- line platform Jamaity.org, dedicated to Tunisian civil society organisations and counting 2839 re- gistered entities, on a panel of 100 organisations, only ten have chosen just one domain of inter-
  • 4. C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society 4 vention, 15 have selected four, 13 have selected six and four have even selected nine areas of intervention. In locations where the number of CSOs is not as dense as in the capital of Tunis, activities can also be defined by its target location and not by a the- matic or specific working area. For instance, and without judgement on the quality of the organisa- tion’s work, the Association du Développement et des Etudes Stratégiques de Médenine has as main mission to “promote the development of the region”, according to its online presentation on Jamayti.org and has selected as field of specia- lisation “economic and social development”, “protection and promotion of national heritage”, “local development” and “art and culture”,9 thus blurring its strategic objective. In addition, as can be seen from this finding, the approach does not facilitate a clear holistic view of the Tunisian civil society sector: who is and does what, and who to contact in case of a need of a technical opinion or contribution, especially in the framework of democratic reforms or when a more systematic dialogue between civil socie- ty and pub­lic authorities should be established. Moreover, without such a holistic view, a clear evaluation, relevant for Tunisia authorities and donors alike, of whether or not the Tunisian civil society and democracy matures cannot be made. 2. An Approach Multiplying Projects-Related Skills Certainly, the project-approach leads to the proli- feration of project related profiles and boosts pro- ject related skills within Tunisian civil society. On a sample of 100 job announcements published on Jamayti.org, it is noticed that project-related posi- tions represent 91% of the announcements. This is mostly considered a positive effect in terms of the professionalization of Tunisian CSOs. However, this is done to the detriment of more ­structuring skills and profiles and is not contribu- ting to the general sustainability of the concerned structures. In too many cases, the positions of a project ma- nager, project officer, project finance officer, pro- ject assistant, project administrative assistant, 9 The profile of the organisation can be consulted on http://jamaity. org/association/association-du-developpement-et-des-etudes-st- rategiques-de-medenine/. project coordinator, monitoring and reporting of- ficer or many else are usually directly paid by pro- ject funds and often stops when the funding stops. Beyond the question of sustainability of these po- sitions, paid and full-time project-related positions exists in a project-funded CSO while very often, other fundamental positions does not, such as managing or executing director of the organisa- tion, communication officer at the organisation’s level or monitoring, evaluation and learning officer at the organisation level. These profiles are much more difficult to cover financially as, if they relate to the general functioning of an organisation, they are not considered as eligible costs in a project budget or are only partially financially covered. Of course, it is valuable to foster project-related skills, but for the same position and the same skills, the impact is very different if it is oriented towards a specific project than towards an orga- nisation as a whole entity. Take the example of a communication officer: communication on the project is usually heavily done, because most of the time it is required by the donor, however there is a huge unfilled need for Tunisian civil so­ ciety organisations to communicate on their goal, their role, with their target groups, with their base or with their key stakeholders. Concerning mo- nitoring and evaluation related positions, when they are directed towards a project, they evalua- te a project only according to pre-set indicators ­while at the organisation level, it will allow to have a clear vision on the organisation overall impact and relevance of its associative project, correct actions and include a learning process within the organisation. The lack in most cases of full-time and paid man­ aging or executive director position within Tunisian non-for-profit organisations is the most problema- tic aspect. It raises nowadays real questions on the capacity of Tunisian civil society to sustainably bear a vision and contribute to better public po- licies or better respect for human rights and fun- damental freedoms. Six years after the revolution, founders of the “post-revolution CSOs generation” have almost all withdraw from the leadership positions. Without fi- nancial means to recruit and keep an executive or managing director at the head of an organisation, CSOs that receive project-funding operate with hands but without a smart brain. They do imple- ment projects with all the staff and means needed for it, but they often lack an overall management that will keep and advance the initial vision and mission of the organisation, provide opera­tional
  • 5. C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society 5 leadership and guide the long-term devel­opment of the organization. The role of leadership and management is a question that stays outside the scope of the pro- ject-approach and of donors’ strategy as in the project-logic it is considered as an indirect cost that can only be taken in charge partially or on the administrative costs sometimes granted by the donor together with the project-related contri- bution. Moreover, it is never part of the evaluation criteria when granting a fund for a project. How­ ever, it is an aspect that has a direct impact on the efficiency of a project: Without this core posi­ tion, smart leadership capabilities and a core vi- sion within the organisation clearly defined and easily communicated and transmitted internally and externally, project-related staffs often en­ gage with­out an idea about their own role and contribution to the organisation’s development. This lack of identification diminishes the impact of their contribution at both the organisation and the project level. The project might also be detached from the organisation core mission, as explained ­above, which hampers the project sustainable impact. 3. An approach detaching CSOs from their base and from others The competition that calls for proposals and the project-approach create modifies Tunisian civil society organisations’ way to function with others, placing them in a competitive position with each other. The project-approach in particular creates a quasi-grant market with limited funds, and or- ganisations which may cooperate with each other for similar goals finally find themselves competing against each other.10 The obligation of partnerships, often imposed by donors, is highly inefficient to curb this competi­ tive effect. If it is set on paper, in practice, part- nerships are rarely effective: disguised sub-con- tractors, cheap implementers, or refusing to take in charge cost-share, they are the source of infi­ nite problems that the main grantee has to hide from the donor and deal with to respect its con- tractual obligations. 10 Moreover, with wide eligibility criteria such as those applicable to EU grant procedures, a Tunisian CSO is not only in competition with other Tunisian ones but also with international organisations, UN-related or EU based organisation. Under the asymmetric con- ditions of human, knowledge and financial capacities, this highly competitive atmosphere creates further burden and constrain to Tunisian CSOs. These partnerships only occur because of the application process and are not envisioned as an operating choice of the applicant, but merely as part of a way to fulfil an eligibility condition or to win additional evaluation points. Astonishingly, six years after the revolution, Tu- nisian CSOs have only rarely been able to effec- tively collaborate or set up operational networks outside of funded projects, diminishing also their capacities to better advocate on the long run. Because the project-approach has led Tunisian CSOs to be mere project implementers, it has also affected the role non-for-profits can play in the social life. By limiting their capacities to be critical or innova- tive concerning the country fragile transformation and its desperate needs, the project-approach has also limited associations’ capacities to relay emerging or disturbing issues or the voice of the unheard. Emerging or disturbing issues are defined by the donor and receive a support limited in time and in funds. In addition, in the project-logic, donors ­often seek new topics, new actors, new actions and new issues instead of investing in the sustain- ability of already successful activities. The long term and consistency that social change needs is therefore challenged and CSOs are dragged towards mere assistance and charitable actions instead of long term and consistent ones. Thus, instead of relaying demands or needs of donors, or being reduced to mere assistance for implementing an external reform agenda, Tuni- sian associations as autonomous entities are en- rolled in addressing the country’s problems and should be strengthened in their capacities to work properly and full-steam ahead for reforms. Conclusion If the increase in the number of non-for-profits organisations registered in Tunisia has proved the end of the authoritarian regime, the project­- approach pursued by most of international donors has not helped turn this quantitative boost into a qualitative one. The project-approach has implied changes that are not necessarily contributing to consolidate the role of civil society in democratic reforms. ­Instead, it limits CSOs in a role of project implementer,
  • 6. C·A·Perspectives on Tunisia No. 07-2017 | cap-lmu.de CheriF – Improving foreign support to Tunisia’s civil society 6 ­drives them away from a broader political vision, specialisation, and expertise, and disconnects them from other organisations, from their base and from their key stakeholders. Also, it doesn’t contribute to strengthen and sustain the organisa- tion on the long term. Recommendations: Fund Associa- tive Projects instead of Activity ­Projects The main recommendation is to consider the con- temporary political, economic and social context of Tunisia and the particular needs of Tunisian CSOs, and to support the overall strategic plan and operations of an organisation instead of its isolated and short-term actions. As noticed above, this kind of support is often la- belled as core funding and opposed to project­- funding. But what is important in the core-funding approach is its objective, which is to provide an organisation with funds to allow it to maintain and sharpen a long-term focus on its strategic priori- ties and results, a space to concentrate, strategi- ze and mature as an organisation. Without going through heavy and long reform, do- nors can make space within their existing proce- dures for this objective and adjust their approach to fund the project at the base of an organisation – associative project - instead of encouraging iso- lated activity projects. This can be done through: 1. Re-Defining the Notion of “Project” Projects to be funded should include, in their definition, a clear reference to the mission of the applicant organisation. Therefore, instead of a de- finition detached from all contexts and self-refer- ring to itself, a donor should define project as: a set of actions, to be implemented within a defined time period and with a defined budget, aimed at bringing about the specific changes envisioned in the applicant’s core mission. This way, donors will refine their strategy and clearly target projects that contribute to advance an organisation mis- sion­and vision. 2. Adding New Evaluation Criteria Two evaluation criteria should systematically be taken into account in project selection: (1) rele­ vance of the presented project to the mission of the organisation and (2) strategic focus of the or- ganisation mission. With these two evaluation criteria, the exercise of applying to a call will frame applicants to present pro- jects consistent with their core mission and will be the occasion to sharpen the focus of the organisation. Application forms shall therefore be adapted to in- clude information on the long-term mission of the organisation, the organisation’s main beneficiaries - and not only the presented project’s beneficia- ries – and past and planned efforts to advance the stated mission. Questions on leadership and go- vernance should also be included to help evalu­ ate the sustainability of the organisation and its ability to hold a strategic focus. 3. Accepting broader direct costs Completing recommendation 1 and 2, organisa­ tion management related costs should be inclu- ded in the accepted direct costs of a proposed project. Efficient organisation management has a direct impact on the efficiency of a project. And with a greater place given to the organisation mis- sion in this revisited project-approach, these costs are more directly linked to the funded action. Moreover, with the stated objective to strengthen the role of civil society organisations to contri­bute to Tunisia democratic transition, donors cannot leave any longer the question of organisation ma- nagement outside of their strategy scope. There is, of course, the possibility to go further with these recommendations and deeper into de­liv­er­ ing development aid in a way that is more suited to the current context’s needs. But with these ad­just­ ments, a number of institutional change processes could be triggered within the organization receiving funds: organisations can grow in stronger owner­ ship, greater transparency, governance and inter- nal control, and a better strategic and executive management; they can enhance and release crea- tivity and innovation, improve their performance and through this improve advocacy and sustainabi- lity for the sake of Tunisia’s democratisation. Author and contact Nadia CHERIF Lawyer and Cooperation and Development Expert Specialised in EU External Aid Procedures nadia.cherif@cctendering.com