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REPORTER: OLAZO, JAMAICA
1. The Aspiration of Initial
/p/, /t/, /k/
2. The Syllabic Consonants
3. Vowel Length
Aspiration – refers to an explosive sound of breath brought
about by the sudden release of air after the contact of parts
of the speech mechanism.
Consonant Place
/p/ Bilabial
/t/ Tip-alveolar
/k/ back,-velar
VARIANTS THAT
AFFECT SPEECH
ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
1. The Aspiration of Initial
/p/, /t/, /k/
2. The Syllabic Consonants
3. Vowel Length
/p/, /t/ and /k/ in its initial position:
Example: (initial – first letter of a name or word)
till till the end of time pick pick up the pieces
table table tennis power people power
tree tea tree top pool pool of water
cool cool morning
car car key
keep keep the change
PLOSIVES
Consonant
Voice
Counterparts
Place
/p/ /b/ Bilabial
/t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar
/k/ /g/ back,-velar
VARIANTS THAT
AFFECT SPEECH
ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
1. The Aspiration of Initial
/p/, /t/, /k/
2. The Syllabic Consonants
3. Vowel Length
/p/, /t/ and /k/ in the medial or final position:
• Medial
apart city uncle opal
party cycle open testing
broker apple writing banker
puppet meter paper center
market water basket operator
PLOSIVES
Consonant
Voice
Counterparts
Place
/p/ /b/ Bilabial
/t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar
/k/ /g/ back,-velar
VARIANTS THAT
AFFECT SPEECH
ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
VARIANTS THAT
AFFECT SPEECH
1. The Aspiration of Initial
/p/, /t/, /k/
2. The Syllabic Consonants
3. Vowel Length
They are not aspirated in words such as: spill, skill, still. Neither are
/b/, /d/, /g/ the voiced counterparts of /p/, /t/, /k/, aspirated.
tick - dick peak - beak post – boast
palm – balm rope – robe take – drake
come – gun route – rude kitten – gotten
trip – drip tuck – duck call – gall
PLOSIVES
Consonant
Voice
Counterparts
Place
/p/ /b/ Bilabial
/t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar
/k/ /g/ back,-velar
ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
/t/ or /d/ in English
Tip: Do not put the tongue between the teeth as you do in the vernacular.
Let’s practice:
tell the teacher do a dance step trick or treat
grade his work get together party take a test
pick up the pieces tick tack toe good old days
tour the country
Consonant Voice Counterparts Place
/p/ /b/ Bilabial
/t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar
/k/ /g/ back,-velar
ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
Mr. Tongue Twister tried
to train his tongue to
twist and turn, and twit an
twat, to learn the letter "T".
Tongue Twister
Tongue Twister
Pete's pa Pete poked
to the pea patch to
pick a peck of peas for the
poor pink pig in the pine hole
pig-pen.
Tongue Twister
- are those consonants which are pronounced without a vowel in an unstressed
syllable. They occur only when the stressed syllable ends in /t/, /d/, or /n/ and is
followed by /l/ or /n/.
cotton sudden needle student gentle didn’t
little final accident hospital forgotten hadn’t
riddle captain curtain sentence colonel couldn’t
certain written gotten mountain bitten kernel
medal Britain bottle capital bridal crystal
THE SYLLABIC
CONSONANTS
THE SYLLABIC CONSONANTS2
- are consonants which are pronounced without a vowel in an unstressed syllable.
Drill:
1. The student was rushed to the hospital.
2. He had met an accident while climbing a mountain.
3. Certain people said that he shouldn’t have tried to do it.
4. Several sentences were written by the student on the board.
5. It was bright and early when the captain finally found the cotton field.
6. The model hadn’t forgotten to write a bread and butter letter.
7. The colonel didn’t have to sit and wait for the final curtain.
THE SYLLABIC CONSONANTS2
- refers to the quantity or the duration of
sound, not the quality or difference in
vowel sounds.
Length of a vowel sound - length of time
needed to pronounce a vowel sound.
VOWEL LENGTH3
The duration of time it takes to
pronounce the vowel is altered by:
•Stress – accompanies the length
of a vowel sound.
Example:
Can’t he swim?
No, He cant.
VOWEL LENGTH3
the seat /dh siyt/
the seed /dh siyd/
the heap /dh hiyp/
the meal /dh miyl/
The duration of time it takes to
pronounce the vowel is altered by:
•Stress
• Syllable Structure
Words divided into their component syllables:
Handkerchief = hand.ker.chief
Bakery = ba.ke.ry
VOWEL LENGTH3
A period is used
to mark the end
of a syllable.
Carlo: How was your vacation,
Kathleen?
Kathleen: Wonderful! It’s nice to
be in the province once in a while
and even nicer to be with relatives
after sometime.
Carlo: Did you have much fun?
Kathleen: Lots of! Eating delicacies,
swimming, dancing, meeting
people, picture taking and many
more. Oh, the beaches are
beautiful!
Carlo: So I thought.
Conversation DrillExercise
Kathleen: You should have waited for us.
Carlo: I wanted to very much, but time
just wasn’t enough for us to enjoy. We had
to live earlier. You know the pressure of
office work.
Kathleen: I know, but maybe later we can
find time together. Can’t we?
Carlo: Sure! How about next summer?
Kathleen: That would be just about right.
I’ll look forward to that. Mom and Dad
will surely be glad to hear about it.
Carlo: So will everybody in the family.
Variants That Affect Speech

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Variants That Affect Speech

  • 2. 1. The Aspiration of Initial /p/, /t/, /k/ 2. The Syllabic Consonants 3. Vowel Length Aspiration – refers to an explosive sound of breath brought about by the sudden release of air after the contact of parts of the speech mechanism. Consonant Place /p/ Bilabial /t/ Tip-alveolar /k/ back,-velar VARIANTS THAT AFFECT SPEECH ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
  • 3. 1. The Aspiration of Initial /p/, /t/, /k/ 2. The Syllabic Consonants 3. Vowel Length /p/, /t/ and /k/ in its initial position: Example: (initial – first letter of a name or word) till till the end of time pick pick up the pieces table table tennis power people power tree tea tree top pool pool of water cool cool morning car car key keep keep the change PLOSIVES Consonant Voice Counterparts Place /p/ /b/ Bilabial /t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar /k/ /g/ back,-velar VARIANTS THAT AFFECT SPEECH ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
  • 4. 1. The Aspiration of Initial /p/, /t/, /k/ 2. The Syllabic Consonants 3. Vowel Length /p/, /t/ and /k/ in the medial or final position: • Medial apart city uncle opal party cycle open testing broker apple writing banker puppet meter paper center market water basket operator PLOSIVES Consonant Voice Counterparts Place /p/ /b/ Bilabial /t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar /k/ /g/ back,-velar VARIANTS THAT AFFECT SPEECH ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
  • 5. VARIANTS THAT AFFECT SPEECH 1. The Aspiration of Initial /p/, /t/, /k/ 2. The Syllabic Consonants 3. Vowel Length They are not aspirated in words such as: spill, skill, still. Neither are /b/, /d/, /g/ the voiced counterparts of /p/, /t/, /k/, aspirated. tick - dick peak - beak post – boast palm – balm rope – robe take – drake come – gun route – rude kitten – gotten trip – drip tuck – duck call – gall PLOSIVES Consonant Voice Counterparts Place /p/ /b/ Bilabial /t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar /k/ /g/ back,-velar ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
  • 6. /t/ or /d/ in English Tip: Do not put the tongue between the teeth as you do in the vernacular. Let’s practice: tell the teacher do a dance step trick or treat grade his work get together party take a test pick up the pieces tick tack toe good old days tour the country Consonant Voice Counterparts Place /p/ /b/ Bilabial /t/ /d/ Tip-alveolar /k/ /g/ back,-velar ASPIRATION OF INITIAL1
  • 7. Mr. Tongue Twister tried to train his tongue to twist and turn, and twit an twat, to learn the letter "T". Tongue Twister
  • 9. Pete's pa Pete poked to the pea patch to pick a peck of peas for the poor pink pig in the pine hole pig-pen. Tongue Twister
  • 10. - are those consonants which are pronounced without a vowel in an unstressed syllable. They occur only when the stressed syllable ends in /t/, /d/, or /n/ and is followed by /l/ or /n/. cotton sudden needle student gentle didn’t little final accident hospital forgotten hadn’t riddle captain curtain sentence colonel couldn’t certain written gotten mountain bitten kernel medal Britain bottle capital bridal crystal THE SYLLABIC CONSONANTS THE SYLLABIC CONSONANTS2
  • 11. - are consonants which are pronounced without a vowel in an unstressed syllable. Drill: 1. The student was rushed to the hospital. 2. He had met an accident while climbing a mountain. 3. Certain people said that he shouldn’t have tried to do it. 4. Several sentences were written by the student on the board. 5. It was bright and early when the captain finally found the cotton field. 6. The model hadn’t forgotten to write a bread and butter letter. 7. The colonel didn’t have to sit and wait for the final curtain. THE SYLLABIC CONSONANTS2
  • 12. - refers to the quantity or the duration of sound, not the quality or difference in vowel sounds. Length of a vowel sound - length of time needed to pronounce a vowel sound. VOWEL LENGTH3
  • 13. The duration of time it takes to pronounce the vowel is altered by: •Stress – accompanies the length of a vowel sound. Example: Can’t he swim? No, He cant. VOWEL LENGTH3 the seat /dh siyt/ the seed /dh siyd/ the heap /dh hiyp/ the meal /dh miyl/
  • 14. The duration of time it takes to pronounce the vowel is altered by: •Stress • Syllable Structure Words divided into their component syllables: Handkerchief = hand.ker.chief Bakery = ba.ke.ry VOWEL LENGTH3 A period is used to mark the end of a syllable.
  • 15. Carlo: How was your vacation, Kathleen? Kathleen: Wonderful! It’s nice to be in the province once in a while and even nicer to be with relatives after sometime. Carlo: Did you have much fun? Kathleen: Lots of! Eating delicacies, swimming, dancing, meeting people, picture taking and many more. Oh, the beaches are beautiful! Carlo: So I thought. Conversation DrillExercise Kathleen: You should have waited for us. Carlo: I wanted to very much, but time just wasn’t enough for us to enjoy. We had to live earlier. You know the pressure of office work. Kathleen: I know, but maybe later we can find time together. Can’t we? Carlo: Sure! How about next summer? Kathleen: That would be just about right. I’ll look forward to that. Mom and Dad will surely be glad to hear about it. Carlo: So will everybody in the family.