- 2. 1 Project in Physics 105.3 Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Discovered that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every part of the fluid and to the walls of its container (Pascal's principle). Made the first terrestrial measurement of the speed of light; invented one of the first interferometers; took the first pictures of the Sun on daguerreotypes. Co-discovered that intensity of magnetic field set up by a current flowing through a wire varies inversely with the distance from the wire. 2 The first American physicist; characterized two kinds of electric charge, which he named ``positive'' and ``negative''. Developed hypothesis that all gases at same volume, pressure, and temperature contain same number of atoms. Studied conditions that occur when an object moves through a fluid at high speed. Proposed ``Mach's principle,'' which states that the inertia of an object is due to the interaction between the object and the rest of the universe . Pioneer in study of electricity; invented the first electric battery. Project in Physics 105.3
- 3. 3 Project in Physics 105.3 Proposed a simple geometrical wave theory of light, now known as ``Huygen's principle''; pioneered use of the pendulum in clocks. Developed the fundamental relationship of fluid flow now known as Bernoulli's principle. Performed fundamental observations, experiments, and mathematical analyses in astronomy and physics; discovered mountains and craters on the moon, and other planets. Discovered that current flow is proportional to potential difference and inversely proportional to resistance (Ohm's law). Developed theories of gravitation and mechanics, and invented differential calculus. Best known for his Three Invented the modern condensing steam engine and a centrifugal governor. Hypothesized foreshortening of moving bodies (LorentzFitzGerald contraction) to explain the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Developed first law of thermodynamics, a statement of conservation of energy Laws of Motion. 4 Project in Physics 105.3
- 4. 5 Project in Physics 105.3 Developed empirical formula to describe hydrogen spectrum Established the differential equation governing heat diffusion and solved it by devising an infinite series of sine and cosines capable of approximating a wide variety of functions . Propounded the theory of electromagnetism; developed the kinetic theory of gases Liquified nitrogen and invented the Dewar flask, which is critical for lowtemperature work. English physicist who discovered the law of elasticity, known as Hooke's law, and who did research in a remarka- Contributed to the fields of hydraulics and hydrodynamics; developed mathematical framework for turbulence and introduced the ``Reynolds number,'' which provides a criterion for dynamic similarity and correct modeling in many fluidflow experiments . Made fundamental contributions to fluid dynamics, lunar orbit theory (tides), and mechanics; also contributed prolifically to all areas of classical mathematics. Contributed to the development of electromagnetism; introduced operational calculus and invented the modern notation for vector calculus. ble variety of fields. 6 Project in Physics 105.3
- 5. 7 Project in Physics 105.3 Developed the principle of least action and the Hamiltonian form of classical mechanics. Studied light and color; known for his double-slit experiment that demonstrated the wave nature of light. Developed a carbon-filament incandescent light; patented the carbon process for printing photographs in permanent pigment. Developed sensitive magnetometers; worked in electrodynamics and the electrical structure of matter. Tesla is credited with inventing modern radio. The Tesla coil, invented in 1891, is still used in radio and television sets and other electronic equipment. In total, Nikola Telsa was granted more than one hundred patents and invented countless unpatented inventions. In 1885, George Westinghouse, head of the Westinghouse Electric Company, bought the patent rights to Tesla's system of dynamos, transformers and motors. Nikola Tesla was Thomas Edison's rival at the end of the 19th century. In fact, he was more famous than Edison throughout the 1890's. 8 A German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"), he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory. Project in Physics 105.3