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Problem-Based Learning
Presented by
Ms.Jalpa G Patel
F.Y.M.sc (N)
INTRODUCTION
• Problem based learning is a process of
acquiring and understanding of
knowledge, skills in the context of an
unfamiliar situation and applying that
learning to the situation.
what is it?what is it?
DEFINITION
• “Problem based learning is the basic
human learning process that allowed
primitive man to survive in his
environment”- Barrows and Tamblyn
(1980)
ConConti…
• Problem based learning is student
centred leaning strategy in which
students collaboratively solve the
problems and this reflects on their
experience. In PBL, The starting point
is a problem, a query, or a puzzle that
the learner wishes to solve. – D.L
Bound, 1985.
• It is a careful inspection of methods,
which are permanently successful in
formal education. – John Dewey (1916)
• Problem based learning can be
explained as “The learning that results
from the process of working toward the
understanding and resolution of a
problem.” – Barrows (1980)
Conti..
• Vernan & Blake (1993) : Defined
Problem based learning as a teaching
learning method that include:
• The study of clinical cases
• Small discussion group
• Collaborative independent study
• Hypothetical deductive reasoning
GOALS OF PROBLEM BASED
LEARNING
• Construct an extensive & flexible
knowledge base.
• Foster increased retention of
knowledge.
• Develop effective problem – solving
skills.
• Develop self-direction, lifelong learning
skills.
• Become effective collaborators.
Conti…
• Strengthen student’s intrinsic
motivation to learn.
• Develop an ability to identify relevant
health problems.
• Acquire the knowledge base necessary
to define the health problem of the pts.
• Reinforce the development of effective
clinical reasoning process.
• Recognize, develop & maintain the
personal characteristics and attitude.
CHARACTERISTICS
• In this students work in small groups to
increase knowledge by identifying learning
objectives, engaging in self-directed work &
participating in discussion.
• It provides students with greater access to
information, support, resources, flexible
approaches to learning, collaborative
learning activities and opportunities for self
development so that can get results in
higher levels of structural environment.
PRINCIPLES
• The student is the focus of the educational
program, the curriculum or the curriculum
contents.
• The development of his/her learning
capacities is emphasized.
• The problem presented in the curriculum
trigger the student’s abilities to analyze to
understand and to solve.
• Co-operation with other and the
importance of communication is
emphasized.
• Much attention is paid to the
development of practical skills, the
development of analytical & creative
thinking skills.
• The development of self-directed
learning ability.
COMPONENTS
• Non-lecture format & teacher acting as
a facilitator.
• Presentation of real world situation or
problem from ordinary life.
• Group work and group discussion.
• Student – directed solution of the
selected problem.
•
THE PBL CYCLE
• The PBL cycle starts with APPLYING.
(PLANNING EFFECTIVE USE OF
LEARNING).
• The second step is EXPERIENCING (activity
phase)
• The third step involves SHARING
(exchanging reactions and observations).
• The fourth step includes PROCESSING
(discussing patterns and dynamics.
• The fifth step relates to GENERALIZING
(developing and real world principles).
STUDENT’S ROLE
• Students have to assume a high
degree of responsibility for their our
education through effective self
learning working with others and setting
relevant goals for themselves & the
group as a whole.
• Students be able to present
demonstrations of their learning
achievements.
•
GROUP MEMBERS ROLE
• Active participation
• Active listening
• Asking questions
• Answering
• Giving information
• Make decisions
COMMON DIFICULTIES IN
PBL IN GROUP
• Unprepared for the tutorial.
• Not given enough time by other
members.
• The dominating group members.
• The group that keeps storming.
TUTOR’S/FACILITATOR’S
ROLE
• Tutor play a crucial role in helping the
group to establish itself, setting norms
for the group function, ensuring group
trust, attending to the group dynamics
& unique characteristics of the group.
USES OF PBL
• To acquire subject matter knowledge.
• Motivate learners to learn.
• Help learners with retention.
• Develop student’s thinking skills.
• Developing student’s key skills relevant to
employment such as interpersonal
communication skills.
• Fostering professional competencies and
confidence together with professional identity.
• Mirroring the inter disciplinary team process
graduates will use in work and research.
• Linking theory and practice.
• Encourage learners to integrate knowledge
from different subjects, disciplines and
sources.
• Having a sense of belonging and friendship.
• Having a sense of fun while learning.
• Expressing in operational form a philosophy
of learning that is student-centric and
problem focused.
ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES
• PBL Method is active and cooperative
learning, the ability to think critically
and clinical reasoning
• It stimulates the students to use skills of
inquiry and critical thinking, peer
teaching and peer evaluation.
• It increases ability to apply knowledge
in clinical situations.
• It increases student responsibility for
self directed peer learning.
• It helps in developing flexible
knowledge that can be applied to
different contexts.
• This learning method helps in
developing lifelong learning skills.
• It encourages students to work in
teams or groups, there by facilitating
group dynamics.
• Development of effective self directed
learning skills and increased student
faculty interaction is facilitated.
• Increased motivation for learning is the
added advantage.
• Promote collaborative learning.
• Moves learning from a positive activity
to an active activity learning becomes
the act of discovery.
DISADVANTAGES
• It is very difficult and expensive to use
as a teaching technique, when the
class size is large.
• Students require orientation to perform
the role of a learner in PBL setting.
• Evaluation is quite difficult and
sometimes may be subjective.
• Resource expensive.
• Staff and students may be initially
uncomfortable with PBL because they
are used to subject based learning and
they do not really understand how to
proceed in PBL.
• Measurement of learning outcomes is
difficult.
Summary
• INTRODUCTION
• DEFINITION
• CHARACTERISTICS
• PRINCIPLES
• COMPONENTS
• PBL CYCLE
• STEPS IN PBL
• STUDENT’S ROLE
• GROUP MEMBERS ROLE
• COMMON DIFICULTIES IN PBL IN GROUP
• TUTOR’S/FACILITATOR’S ROLE
• USE OF PBL
• ADVANTAGES
• DISADVANTAGES
Bibliography
 Bhaskar Nima & Bhaskar Elakkuvana “Text Book of
Nursing Education” First Edition (2013), Published
by Emmess Medical Publishers, Page no.126. (136
to 141)
 R Sudhdha “Nursing Education Principles and
Concepts” First Edition (2013), Published by Jaypee
Medical Publishers, Page no. 94 to 97. (94)
 Venkatesan Latha “Text Book Of Nursing
Education” Edition, Published by Elsevier, Page
no.78 to 79.(84 to 85)
• Website:
• http://www.googlewikipedia.com
• http:/www.slideshare.com
Assignment
WHAT IS PROBLEM-BASED
LEARNING, AND HOW DOES IT
DIFFER FROM PROBLEM
SOLVING?
THANK YOU

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Problem based learning

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Problem based learning is a process of acquiring and understanding of knowledge, skills in the context of an unfamiliar situation and applying that learning to the situation.
  • 4. DEFINITION • “Problem based learning is the basic human learning process that allowed primitive man to survive in his environment”- Barrows and Tamblyn (1980)
  • 5. ConConti… • Problem based learning is student centred leaning strategy in which students collaboratively solve the problems and this reflects on their experience. In PBL, The starting point is a problem, a query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve. – D.L Bound, 1985.
  • 6. • It is a careful inspection of methods, which are permanently successful in formal education. – John Dewey (1916) • Problem based learning can be explained as “The learning that results from the process of working toward the understanding and resolution of a problem.” – Barrows (1980)
  • 7. Conti.. • Vernan & Blake (1993) : Defined Problem based learning as a teaching learning method that include: • The study of clinical cases • Small discussion group • Collaborative independent study • Hypothetical deductive reasoning
  • 8. GOALS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING • Construct an extensive & flexible knowledge base. • Foster increased retention of knowledge. • Develop effective problem – solving skills. • Develop self-direction, lifelong learning skills. • Become effective collaborators.
  • 9. Conti… • Strengthen student’s intrinsic motivation to learn. • Develop an ability to identify relevant health problems. • Acquire the knowledge base necessary to define the health problem of the pts. • Reinforce the development of effective clinical reasoning process. • Recognize, develop & maintain the personal characteristics and attitude.
  • 10. CHARACTERISTICS • In this students work in small groups to increase knowledge by identifying learning objectives, engaging in self-directed work & participating in discussion. • It provides students with greater access to information, support, resources, flexible approaches to learning, collaborative learning activities and opportunities for self development so that can get results in higher levels of structural environment.
  • 11. PRINCIPLES • The student is the focus of the educational program, the curriculum or the curriculum contents. • The development of his/her learning capacities is emphasized. • The problem presented in the curriculum trigger the student’s abilities to analyze to understand and to solve.
  • 12. • Co-operation with other and the importance of communication is emphasized. • Much attention is paid to the development of practical skills, the development of analytical & creative thinking skills. • The development of self-directed learning ability.
  • 13. COMPONENTS • Non-lecture format & teacher acting as a facilitator. • Presentation of real world situation or problem from ordinary life. • Group work and group discussion. • Student – directed solution of the selected problem. •
  • 15.
  • 16. • The PBL cycle starts with APPLYING. (PLANNING EFFECTIVE USE OF LEARNING). • The second step is EXPERIENCING (activity phase)
  • 17. • The third step involves SHARING (exchanging reactions and observations). • The fourth step includes PROCESSING (discussing patterns and dynamics. • The fifth step relates to GENERALIZING (developing and real world principles).
  • 18.
  • 19. STUDENT’S ROLE • Students have to assume a high degree of responsibility for their our education through effective self learning working with others and setting relevant goals for themselves & the group as a whole. • Students be able to present demonstrations of their learning achievements. •
  • 20. GROUP MEMBERS ROLE • Active participation • Active listening • Asking questions • Answering • Giving information • Make decisions
  • 21. COMMON DIFICULTIES IN PBL IN GROUP • Unprepared for the tutorial. • Not given enough time by other members. • The dominating group members. • The group that keeps storming.
  • 22. TUTOR’S/FACILITATOR’S ROLE • Tutor play a crucial role in helping the group to establish itself, setting norms for the group function, ensuring group trust, attending to the group dynamics & unique characteristics of the group.
  • 23. USES OF PBL • To acquire subject matter knowledge. • Motivate learners to learn. • Help learners with retention. • Develop student’s thinking skills. • Developing student’s key skills relevant to employment such as interpersonal communication skills.
  • 24. • Fostering professional competencies and confidence together with professional identity. • Mirroring the inter disciplinary team process graduates will use in work and research. • Linking theory and practice.
  • 25. • Encourage learners to integrate knowledge from different subjects, disciplines and sources. • Having a sense of belonging and friendship. • Having a sense of fun while learning. • Expressing in operational form a philosophy of learning that is student-centric and problem focused.
  • 27.
  • 28. ADVANTAGES • PBL Method is active and cooperative learning, the ability to think critically and clinical reasoning • It stimulates the students to use skills of inquiry and critical thinking, peer teaching and peer evaluation. • It increases ability to apply knowledge in clinical situations. • It increases student responsibility for self directed peer learning.
  • 29. • It helps in developing flexible knowledge that can be applied to different contexts. • This learning method helps in developing lifelong learning skills. • It encourages students to work in teams or groups, there by facilitating group dynamics.
  • 30. • Development of effective self directed learning skills and increased student faculty interaction is facilitated. • Increased motivation for learning is the added advantage. • Promote collaborative learning. • Moves learning from a positive activity to an active activity learning becomes the act of discovery.
  • 31. DISADVANTAGES • It is very difficult and expensive to use as a teaching technique, when the class size is large. • Students require orientation to perform the role of a learner in PBL setting. • Evaluation is quite difficult and sometimes may be subjective. • Resource expensive.
  • 32. • Staff and students may be initially uncomfortable with PBL because they are used to subject based learning and they do not really understand how to proceed in PBL. • Measurement of learning outcomes is difficult.
  • 33. Summary • INTRODUCTION • DEFINITION • CHARACTERISTICS • PRINCIPLES • COMPONENTS • PBL CYCLE • STEPS IN PBL • STUDENT’S ROLE • GROUP MEMBERS ROLE • COMMON DIFICULTIES IN PBL IN GROUP • TUTOR’S/FACILITATOR’S ROLE • USE OF PBL • ADVANTAGES • DISADVANTAGES
  • 34. Bibliography  Bhaskar Nima & Bhaskar Elakkuvana “Text Book of Nursing Education” First Edition (2013), Published by Emmess Medical Publishers, Page no.126. (136 to 141)  R Sudhdha “Nursing Education Principles and Concepts” First Edition (2013), Published by Jaypee Medical Publishers, Page no. 94 to 97. (94)  Venkatesan Latha “Text Book Of Nursing Education” Edition, Published by Elsevier, Page no.78 to 79.(84 to 85)
  • 36. Assignment WHAT IS PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING, AND HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM PROBLEM SOLVING?