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VIRTUAL
SUPPLY CHAIN
MANAGEMENT
The ultimate Supply Chain Management
Strategy

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

1
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Outline

Introduction
What is a Supply Chain?
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Virtual Supply Chain Management
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Terminology
Virtual Purchasing and Supply
Organization
Virtual Organization
Virtual Integration
Virtual Supply Chain

V. Supply-chain management across the
Internet
VI. Conclusion

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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 What do you do well? Who could do it
better? Those are the questions
organizations must answer to analyze
core competencies and the best-suited
suppliers.

Introduction

 One of the most leading-edge topics for
purchasing and supply management
professionals, the virtual supply chain
allows organizations to connect, receive
mutual benefit, and align business
strategies for the prime amount of time.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Introduction

 Now you see it, now you don't. At the
other extreme, far from the long-term
strategic alliance that focuses on
continuous improvement and
increasingly integrated relationships,
lies the virtual supply chain. Still directed
toward the same ultimate goals of
today's supply chains - satisfying the
customer, efficiency, and costeffectiveness - this virtual supply chain
has a different look. It relies on
relationships that can fill a need for a
given moment of time and is structured
in such a way that formation, practice,
and dissolution are conducted with ease.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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What is a
Supply
Chain?

 A Supply Chain consists of
organizations that successively
transform raw materials into
intermediate goods, then to final good,
and finally deliver them to customers.

 A Supply Chain consists of all stages
involved, directly or indirectly, in
fulfilling customer request .

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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What is a
Supply
Chain?

 The global network used to deliver
products and services from raw
materials to the end customer through
engineered flows of information,
physical distribution and cash.
Information
SUPPLY

DEMAND

Product
Cash
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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What is a
Supply
Chain?

Supply Chain Illustration
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Supply
Chain for
Denim
Jeans 1/2

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Supply
Chain for
Denim
Jeans 2/2

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Supply
Chain for
Beer

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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 Developed in 1980s.

Supply Chain
Management
(SCM)

 Supply chain management (SCM) is the
process of planning, implementing, and
controlling the operations of the supply
chain as efficiently as possible .
 Express the need to integrate the key
business processes, from end user
through original suppliers.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Supply Chain
Management
(SCM)

 The basic idea behind the SCM is that
companies and corporations involve
themselves in a supply chain by
exchanging information regarding
market fluctuations, production
capabilities.
 The primary objective of supply chain
management is to fulfill customer
demands through the most efficient use
of resources.
 Effective Supply Chain Mgt. is the next
logical step towards increased profits
and market share.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Supply Chain
Management
(SCM)

 Managing flow of information through
supply chain in order to attain the level
of synchronization that will make it
more responsive to customer needs
while lowering costs.

 Supply chain management deals with
linking the organizations within the
supply chain in order to meet demand
across the chain as efficiently as
possible.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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1) Terminology

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

 The word "virtual" might conjure up
images of the latest high-tech
equipment, simulated strategy games,
or gadgets that alter reality with
surprising ease. However, contrary to
the concepts so prevalent in the
entertainment industry, virtual
organizations and virtual supply chains
have different interpretations in the
business and supply management world.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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1) Terminology

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

 Most are familiar with the concept of
virtual teaming, where several
individuals get together for a project or
discussion, although they're not
together in the physical sense. Thanks to
technology, people can meet via
computer hookups and telecommuting
phone lines. Taking this concept and
applying it to purchasing departments,
organizations, and supply chains can
lead to the following models.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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2) Virtual Purchasing and Supply

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

Organization
 A department takes on a virtual quality if
portions of its responsibilities are shifted
or assigned to other various business
units within the same organization.
Some organizations describe the
transformation as taking a fragmented
organization that had fragmented
purchasing processes, and aligning the
various departments so that all
purchasing processes flow through
common practices, but not a common
department. The virtual aspect results in
the actual purchasing procedures being
handled not by an isolated purchasing
department, but by a process steering
group comprised of members from the
various business functions.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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3) Virtual Organization

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

 Take this concept one step further and
imagine a virtual organization, one that
doesn't exist in a physical sense, but
functions nonetheless. In this instance, an
organization may be an umbrella for several
outsourcing operations, but not necessarily
a physical entity. The single organization is
virtual in the sense that it is not traditionally
"tangible." There may be figureheads and
individuals facilitating all of the third-party
relationships, but all core processes,
whether manufacturing, service,
administrative, or operational, are
performed outside the "virtual"
organization.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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3) Virtual Organization

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

 Virtual organizations are called
"imaginary organizations", held together
by trust, synergies of the partners,
contract and information technology
[Hedberg et al. 1994]. They operate
without long-term relationships, can be
enabled or dissolved easily on a realtime basis. Virtual corporation seems to
be the strategy for structuring and
improve the corporation for the coming
century [Davidov and Malone 1992].
Virtual companies are characterized by a
networks of internal and external
relations that constantly change.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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4) Virtual Integration

 What Is Virtual Integration?

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

 Virtual integration is a new form of
value chain management. Under such a
system, the links of the value chain are
brought together by informal
arrangements among suppliers and
customers. Shipments of the
components that your firm needs can be
easily arranged through the Internet or a
networked computer system. The same
type of arrangement allows you to fully
serve your customers in ordering,
services, or any other needs.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

4) Virtual Integration
 Why Virtual Integration?
 Today the vision for many manufacturers is
to become virtual companies, owning only
the brand and the customer. The design,
system development, product sourcing,
logistics, and even final assembly can all be
outsourced to supply chain partners.
Increasingly the goal is to replace physical
assets with information in such a way that
every member of this extended supply chain
benefits. This forces the move from an
environment of ‘hard wired integration’,
where relationships are arms-length and
adversarial, even across functional
boundaries within the organization, to an
environment based on ‘negotiated sourcing’,
where non-core activities are outsourced and
collaborative partnerships are the norm.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

4) Virtual Integration
 Integrating E-business
 Business processes must not only incorporate
timely company information – for improved
customer relationship management, supply
chain management, and beyond, they must
also be kept up-to-date with fast-changing
business needs. E-business facilitating these
processes is the way most business soon will be
transacted. Whether or not you ever plan to sell
products or services over the Web, your most
important customer or supplier may one day
insist upon using Web for all transaction.
 The fastest growing companies are moving
aggressively to bring e-business into all their
operations. They align their systems with their
fast-changing business priorities and use these
systems strategically, for growth. In addition,
successful businesses are employing
information technology to gather and interpret
data about their ultimate customers, including
demographics, trends, and buying behavior.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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5) Virtual Supply Chain

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

 Virtual supply chains are "production
and distribution systems utilizing a
formal physical network structure, and
operating through a network of separate
organizations" [Chandrashekar and
Schary 1999]. There are no permanent
members, they are called in for
particular projects and may not be
visible for other members. Virtual supply
chains are not serial chains but rather
flexible networks with fast, real-time
electronic communication.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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5) Virtual Supply Chain

Virtual
Supply Chain
Management

 Virtual supply chain operates in changing
business environment. The virtual supply
chain often focuses on the solution to
concrete tasks and projects. After solving the
task and completing the project, virtual
supply chain is dissolved and new one is
formed with new combinations of partners.
The dominant organization in the chain,
called often as a "broker" uses temporary
partners for a specific task. The dominant firm
replaces fixed connections with flexible ones,
based on prior selection of alternatives that
require managers to communicate tasks to
members. This form of coordination has been
possible only with the extensive use of
advanced computer technologies and
telecommunication [Townsend et al. 1998].
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Developing supply-chain management on
the Web

Supply-chain
management
across the
Internet

 Good supply-chain management is essential for a
successful company. Supplychain management
can reach beyond the boundaries of a single
company to The current issue and full text archive
of this journal is available at share that
information between suppliers, manufacturers,
distributors, and retailers. This is where the
Internet plays a central role. The ability to focus
on one layer of the supply chain has enabled
organisations, such as AOL and lastminute.com
to be far more innovative. Shifts towards the
development of a virtual supply-chain
architecture focuses much more emphasis on the
importance of knowledge and intellect in creating
value. An adoption of an integrated approach
throughout the supply chain requires a trade-off
between autonomy and control to which the
balance is unique, between each supply partner
relationship.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Web-based relationships in the supply
chain

Supply-chain
management
across the
Internet

 The growth of Web-based electronic commerce
has created a number of approaches to creating a
model of how it impacts on business.
 The Web enables all suppliers in a supply chain to
identify and co-ordinate data transfers with each
other. Research laboratories, pharmaceutical
distributors and end-users, for example, can all
swap information on new product developments,
specific diseases, and treatments within these
settings.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Case in Point Dell Inc.

Supply-chain
management
across the
Internet

 When Dell Inc. first began using the Internet to expand
their business, the company had three basic
objectives:
 to make it easier to do business with Dell,
 to reduce the cost of doing business with Dell, and
 to enhance their customer relationships.
 Starting in 1996, by 1999 Dell was selling more than
$35 million per day over the Internet.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Case in Point Dell Inc.

Supply-chain
management
across the
Internet

 "But for Dell, online commerce was only the
beginning," writes Michael Dell, the Founder & CEO of
Dell Computer Corporation . “ Because we viewed the
Internet as a central part of our IT strategy, we started
to view the ownership of information differently, too.
Rather than closely guarding our information
databases, which took us years to develop, we used
Internet browsers to essentially give that same
information to our customers and suppliers – bringing
them literally inside our business. This became the key
to what I call a virtually integrated organization – an
organization linked not by physical assets, but by
information. By using the Internet to speed
information from between companies, essentially
eliminating inter-company boundaries, it would be
possible to achieve precision and speed-to-market for
products and services in ways not dreamed possible
before. It would be the ultimate business system for a
digital economy."
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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 Virtual supply chains may hold the key. These
systems are designed for flexibility, complexity
and speed in managing networks of suppliers,
manufacturers, distributors and warehousing
agents virtually. Common system protocols
which allow efficient communication,
collaboration and coordination amongst the
different vendors will let everyone work
together as if they were one large business.

Conclusion

 Apart from that, Internet-enabled infrastructure
allows ease of implementation of crosschecking of inventory levels, order status as well
as expected product delivery schedules. In fact,
problems can be spotted and addressed with
speed to minimize downtime or effects on
production schedule. Ultimately, customer
satisfaction is paramount and everyone is
working towards that one goal of ensuring that
their best is provided.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Conclusion

 The Internet, as a means of virtual organizing,
has become a central part of a commercial drive
towards systemic innovation and the reevaluation by many of value creation. A major
shift in the communications between business
organisations is taking place, which is actually
redefining organisations and commercial
transactions. The Internet has become a key
element in molding and propelling business into
new directions in the traditional marketplace and
emerging marketspace.
 Finally, a virtual supply chain that networks all
parties together is something that is inevitable in
order to increase profitability and reduce costs.
Collaboration amongst different parties is
necessary in the virtual world as this is the only
way in which businesses can thrive. Failure to
adopt new and better management strategies
will only be detrimental to the business as
competitors take over and are able to do a much
better job than you. In fact, these practices will
be more of the norm in the near future.
IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply chain
 http://www.mba.tuck.dartmouth.edu/pages/faculty/d
ave.pyke/case_studies/supply_chain_or_ms.pdf

 www.e-lberta/pdf/efc_supply_chain_basics.pdf
 www.supplychainseminars.com/
 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management

References

 http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/im_val
ue_chain_virtual%20integration.html
 http://www.webpronews.com/the-virtual-supplychain-the-ultimate-supply-chain-managementstrategy-2005-07
 http://www.ism.ws/pubs/ By Roberta J. Duffy, writer
for Purchasing Today®. May 2000 Purchasing Today®,
page 47.

IHEC Carthage 2013/2014

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Virtual supply chain management

  • 1. VIRTUAL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT The ultimate Supply Chain Management Strategy IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 1
  • 2. I. II. III. IV. Outline Introduction What is a Supply Chain? Supply Chain Management (SCM) Virtual Supply Chain Management 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Terminology Virtual Purchasing and Supply Organization Virtual Organization Virtual Integration Virtual Supply Chain V. Supply-chain management across the Internet VI. Conclusion IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 2
  • 3.  What do you do well? Who could do it better? Those are the questions organizations must answer to analyze core competencies and the best-suited suppliers. Introduction  One of the most leading-edge topics for purchasing and supply management professionals, the virtual supply chain allows organizations to connect, receive mutual benefit, and align business strategies for the prime amount of time. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 3
  • 4. Introduction  Now you see it, now you don't. At the other extreme, far from the long-term strategic alliance that focuses on continuous improvement and increasingly integrated relationships, lies the virtual supply chain. Still directed toward the same ultimate goals of today's supply chains - satisfying the customer, efficiency, and costeffectiveness - this virtual supply chain has a different look. It relies on relationships that can fill a need for a given moment of time and is structured in such a way that formation, practice, and dissolution are conducted with ease. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 4
  • 5. What is a Supply Chain?  A Supply Chain consists of organizations that successively transform raw materials into intermediate goods, then to final good, and finally deliver them to customers.  A Supply Chain consists of all stages involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling customer request . IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 5
  • 6. What is a Supply Chain?  The global network used to deliver products and services from raw materials to the end customer through engineered flows of information, physical distribution and cash. Information SUPPLY DEMAND Product Cash IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 6
  • 7. What is a Supply Chain? Supply Chain Illustration IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 7
  • 11.  Developed in 1980s. Supply Chain Management (SCM)  Supply chain management (SCM) is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the operations of the supply chain as efficiently as possible .  Express the need to integrate the key business processes, from end user through original suppliers. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 11
  • 12. Supply Chain Management (SCM)  The basic idea behind the SCM is that companies and corporations involve themselves in a supply chain by exchanging information regarding market fluctuations, production capabilities.  The primary objective of supply chain management is to fulfill customer demands through the most efficient use of resources.  Effective Supply Chain Mgt. is the next logical step towards increased profits and market share. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 12
  • 13. Supply Chain Management (SCM)  Managing flow of information through supply chain in order to attain the level of synchronization that will make it more responsive to customer needs while lowering costs.  Supply chain management deals with linking the organizations within the supply chain in order to meet demand across the chain as efficiently as possible. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 13
  • 14. 1) Terminology Virtual Supply Chain Management  The word "virtual" might conjure up images of the latest high-tech equipment, simulated strategy games, or gadgets that alter reality with surprising ease. However, contrary to the concepts so prevalent in the entertainment industry, virtual organizations and virtual supply chains have different interpretations in the business and supply management world. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 14
  • 15. 1) Terminology Virtual Supply Chain Management  Most are familiar with the concept of virtual teaming, where several individuals get together for a project or discussion, although they're not together in the physical sense. Thanks to technology, people can meet via computer hookups and telecommuting phone lines. Taking this concept and applying it to purchasing departments, organizations, and supply chains can lead to the following models. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 15
  • 16. 2) Virtual Purchasing and Supply Virtual Supply Chain Management Organization  A department takes on a virtual quality if portions of its responsibilities are shifted or assigned to other various business units within the same organization. Some organizations describe the transformation as taking a fragmented organization that had fragmented purchasing processes, and aligning the various departments so that all purchasing processes flow through common practices, but not a common department. The virtual aspect results in the actual purchasing procedures being handled not by an isolated purchasing department, but by a process steering group comprised of members from the various business functions. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 16
  • 17. 3) Virtual Organization Virtual Supply Chain Management  Take this concept one step further and imagine a virtual organization, one that doesn't exist in a physical sense, but functions nonetheless. In this instance, an organization may be an umbrella for several outsourcing operations, but not necessarily a physical entity. The single organization is virtual in the sense that it is not traditionally "tangible." There may be figureheads and individuals facilitating all of the third-party relationships, but all core processes, whether manufacturing, service, administrative, or operational, are performed outside the "virtual" organization. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 17
  • 18. 3) Virtual Organization Virtual Supply Chain Management  Virtual organizations are called "imaginary organizations", held together by trust, synergies of the partners, contract and information technology [Hedberg et al. 1994]. They operate without long-term relationships, can be enabled or dissolved easily on a realtime basis. Virtual corporation seems to be the strategy for structuring and improve the corporation for the coming century [Davidov and Malone 1992]. Virtual companies are characterized by a networks of internal and external relations that constantly change. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 18
  • 19. 4) Virtual Integration  What Is Virtual Integration? Virtual Supply Chain Management  Virtual integration is a new form of value chain management. Under such a system, the links of the value chain are brought together by informal arrangements among suppliers and customers. Shipments of the components that your firm needs can be easily arranged through the Internet or a networked computer system. The same type of arrangement allows you to fully serve your customers in ordering, services, or any other needs. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 19
  • 20. Virtual Supply Chain Management 4) Virtual Integration  Why Virtual Integration?  Today the vision for many manufacturers is to become virtual companies, owning only the brand and the customer. The design, system development, product sourcing, logistics, and even final assembly can all be outsourced to supply chain partners. Increasingly the goal is to replace physical assets with information in such a way that every member of this extended supply chain benefits. This forces the move from an environment of ‘hard wired integration’, where relationships are arms-length and adversarial, even across functional boundaries within the organization, to an environment based on ‘negotiated sourcing’, where non-core activities are outsourced and collaborative partnerships are the norm. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 20
  • 21. Virtual Supply Chain Management 4) Virtual Integration  Integrating E-business  Business processes must not only incorporate timely company information – for improved customer relationship management, supply chain management, and beyond, they must also be kept up-to-date with fast-changing business needs. E-business facilitating these processes is the way most business soon will be transacted. Whether or not you ever plan to sell products or services over the Web, your most important customer or supplier may one day insist upon using Web for all transaction.  The fastest growing companies are moving aggressively to bring e-business into all their operations. They align their systems with their fast-changing business priorities and use these systems strategically, for growth. In addition, successful businesses are employing information technology to gather and interpret data about their ultimate customers, including demographics, trends, and buying behavior. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 21
  • 22. 5) Virtual Supply Chain Virtual Supply Chain Management  Virtual supply chains are "production and distribution systems utilizing a formal physical network structure, and operating through a network of separate organizations" [Chandrashekar and Schary 1999]. There are no permanent members, they are called in for particular projects and may not be visible for other members. Virtual supply chains are not serial chains but rather flexible networks with fast, real-time electronic communication. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 22
  • 23. 5) Virtual Supply Chain Virtual Supply Chain Management  Virtual supply chain operates in changing business environment. The virtual supply chain often focuses on the solution to concrete tasks and projects. After solving the task and completing the project, virtual supply chain is dissolved and new one is formed with new combinations of partners. The dominant organization in the chain, called often as a "broker" uses temporary partners for a specific task. The dominant firm replaces fixed connections with flexible ones, based on prior selection of alternatives that require managers to communicate tasks to members. This form of coordination has been possible only with the extensive use of advanced computer technologies and telecommunication [Townsend et al. 1998]. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 23
  • 24. Developing supply-chain management on the Web Supply-chain management across the Internet  Good supply-chain management is essential for a successful company. Supplychain management can reach beyond the boundaries of a single company to The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at share that information between suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. This is where the Internet plays a central role. The ability to focus on one layer of the supply chain has enabled organisations, such as AOL and lastminute.com to be far more innovative. Shifts towards the development of a virtual supply-chain architecture focuses much more emphasis on the importance of knowledge and intellect in creating value. An adoption of an integrated approach throughout the supply chain requires a trade-off between autonomy and control to which the balance is unique, between each supply partner relationship. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 24
  • 25. Web-based relationships in the supply chain Supply-chain management across the Internet  The growth of Web-based electronic commerce has created a number of approaches to creating a model of how it impacts on business.  The Web enables all suppliers in a supply chain to identify and co-ordinate data transfers with each other. Research laboratories, pharmaceutical distributors and end-users, for example, can all swap information on new product developments, specific diseases, and treatments within these settings. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 25
  • 26. Case in Point Dell Inc. Supply-chain management across the Internet  When Dell Inc. first began using the Internet to expand their business, the company had three basic objectives:  to make it easier to do business with Dell,  to reduce the cost of doing business with Dell, and  to enhance their customer relationships.  Starting in 1996, by 1999 Dell was selling more than $35 million per day over the Internet. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 26
  • 27. Case in Point Dell Inc. Supply-chain management across the Internet  "But for Dell, online commerce was only the beginning," writes Michael Dell, the Founder & CEO of Dell Computer Corporation . “ Because we viewed the Internet as a central part of our IT strategy, we started to view the ownership of information differently, too. Rather than closely guarding our information databases, which took us years to develop, we used Internet browsers to essentially give that same information to our customers and suppliers – bringing them literally inside our business. This became the key to what I call a virtually integrated organization – an organization linked not by physical assets, but by information. By using the Internet to speed information from between companies, essentially eliminating inter-company boundaries, it would be possible to achieve precision and speed-to-market for products and services in ways not dreamed possible before. It would be the ultimate business system for a digital economy." IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 27
  • 28.  Virtual supply chains may hold the key. These systems are designed for flexibility, complexity and speed in managing networks of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and warehousing agents virtually. Common system protocols which allow efficient communication, collaboration and coordination amongst the different vendors will let everyone work together as if they were one large business. Conclusion  Apart from that, Internet-enabled infrastructure allows ease of implementation of crosschecking of inventory levels, order status as well as expected product delivery schedules. In fact, problems can be spotted and addressed with speed to minimize downtime or effects on production schedule. Ultimately, customer satisfaction is paramount and everyone is working towards that one goal of ensuring that their best is provided. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 28
  • 29. Conclusion  The Internet, as a means of virtual organizing, has become a central part of a commercial drive towards systemic innovation and the reevaluation by many of value creation. A major shift in the communications between business organisations is taking place, which is actually redefining organisations and commercial transactions. The Internet has become a key element in molding and propelling business into new directions in the traditional marketplace and emerging marketspace.  Finally, a virtual supply chain that networks all parties together is something that is inevitable in order to increase profitability and reduce costs. Collaboration amongst different parties is necessary in the virtual world as this is the only way in which businesses can thrive. Failure to adopt new and better management strategies will only be detrimental to the business as competitors take over and are able to do a much better job than you. In fact, these practices will be more of the norm in the near future. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 29
  • 30.  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply chain  http://www.mba.tuck.dartmouth.edu/pages/faculty/d ave.pyke/case_studies/supply_chain_or_ms.pdf  www.e-lberta/pdf/efc_supply_chain_basics.pdf  www.supplychainseminars.com/  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management References  http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/im_val ue_chain_virtual%20integration.html  http://www.webpronews.com/the-virtual-supplychain-the-ultimate-supply-chain-managementstrategy-2005-07  http://www.ism.ws/pubs/ By Roberta J. Duffy, writer for Purchasing Today®. May 2000 Purchasing Today®, page 47. IHEC Carthage 2013/2014 30