Network standards & protocols

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A Powerpoint On Network Standards And Protocol For College Students

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Network standards & protocols

  1. 1. Network Protocol & Standards NETWORKING ECE2225 VIZIONEER STUDIOS
  2. 2. Sub-Topics Covering Today  What Is The OSI Model  Layers Of The OSI Model  The Purpose Of The Layered Model  Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details  Questions
  3. 3. What Is The OSI Model? SECTION 1
  4. 4. OSI Model  Breaking Down The Acronym OSI Stands For  Open  System  Interconnect
  5. 5. OSI Model  Why Mention The OSI Model?  The Description For The OSI Model Is Both A Layered And Abstract Description For Communications And Computer Network Protocol Design.  In Case You’re Wondering, Abstract In Computer Language Is The Separation Of Ideas From Specific Instances At Work
  6. 6. OSI Model  In The Acronym OSI, The I Stands For Interconnect.  Reason Being Model Is A Set Of Standard Specifications That Allows Various Computer Platforms To Communicate With Each Other Openly.  Hence Open Is A Part Of The Acronym
  7. 7. OSI Model  OSI Means Interconnecting Computer Systems In An Open Manner But With Certain Standards In Place.  It Is Concerned With The Way The Systems Exchange Information And Not With The Internal Functions Of The Particular System
  8. 8. OSI Models QUESTIONS?
  9. 9. Sub-Topics Covering Today  What Is The OSI Model  Layers Of The OSI Model  The Purpose Of The Layered Model  Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details  Questions
  10. 10. Layers Of The OSI Model SECTION 2
  11. 11. Layers Of The OSI Model  The Layers Of The Open System Interconnect Models 1. Physical 2. Data Link 3. Network 4. Transport 5. Session 6. Presentation 7. Application
  12. 12. Layers Of The OSI Model  It Is Important to note that Each of these different layers has its own set of functions  And only communicates with the layers directly above and below and with its opposite layer on other computers.
  13. 13. Layers Of The OSI Model
  14. 14. Layers Of The OSI Model QUESTIONS WILL BE POINTED OUT IN LATER SECTIONS
  15. 15. Sub-Topics Covering Today  What Is The OSI Model  Layers Of The OSI Model  The Purpose Of The Layered Model  Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details  Questions
  16. 16. The Purpose Of The Layered Model SECTION 3
  17. 17. The Purpose Of The Layered Model  There Are 5 Main Reasons Why The OSI Model Is Used.  Change  Design  Learning  Troubleshooting  Standards
  18. 18. The Purpose Of The Layered Model | Change A Concern In Technology Is Usually How One Affects The other. When changes are made to one layer, the impact on the other layers is minimized. However, If on the other hand, the model consists of a single, all-encompassing layer, any change affects the entire model.
  19. 19. The Purpose Of The Layered Model | Design A Layered Model Defines Each Layer Separately. The Thing Is, Long As The Interconnections Between Layers Remain Constant, Then Protocol Designers Can Specialize In One Area/Layer Without Worrying About How Any New Implementations Affect Other Layers.
  20. 20. The Purpose Of The Layered Model | Learning The layered approach reduces complexity Though Many Persons are tech whiz it doesn’t mean they do well with complex stuff. Topics, activities, and actions are reduced into several smaller, interrelated groupings. This makes learning and understanding the actions of each layer and the model generally much easier.
  21. 21. The Purpose Of The Layered Model | Troubleshooting The protocols, actions, and data contained in each layer of the model relate only to the purpose of that layer. This makes stuff easier because now, troubleshooting efforts to be pinpointed on the layer that carries out the suspected cause of the problem. That Makes The Target Easy To Identify and The Kill Clean
  22. 22. The Purpose Of The Layered Model | Standards Possibly the most important reason for using a layered model is that it establishes a prescribed guideline for interoperability(exchange) between the various vendors developing products that will perform different data communications tasks. This Prevents Them From Doing Cunning Things Like Sneaking Into Your Business Or Watching Your Conversations.
  23. 23. The Purpose Of The Layered Model | Standards Remember, though, that layered models- not excluding the OSI model- provide only a guideline and framework, What Does This Mean? It Means It Does not provide a rigid standard that manufacturers can use when creating their products.
  24. 24. The Purpose Of The Layered Model QUESTIONS?
  25. 25. Sub-Topics Covering Today  What Is The OSI Model  Layers Of The OSI Model  The Purpose Of The Layered Model  Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details  Questions
  26. 26. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details SECTION 4
  27. 27. Layers Of The OSI Model  The Layers Of The Open System Interconnect Models 1. Physical 2. Data Link 3. Network 4. Transport 5. Session 6. Presentation 7. Application
  28. 28. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Physical First Of All, The Physical Layer Is The Lowest Layer (Or First Layer) Of The OSI Model. It Contains The Physical Networking Medium, I.E. Cabling, Connectors, And Repeaters.
  29. 29. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Physical The Physical Layer Defines The Physical Network Structures It Also Defines The Mechanical And Electrical Specifications For Using The Transmission Medium And Also Bit Transmission Encoding And Timing Rules
  30. 30. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Physical Though The Main Focus Is Physical Attributes, The Physical Layer Does Not Include A Description Of The Medium And Does Not Provide Any Sort Of Error Correction. However, Implementations Of Physical Protocols Are Transmission-media- specific
  31. 31. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Physical Some Of The Common Medium Are Network Interface Boards Hubs, And Repeaters Transmission Media Connectors (Provide The Mechanical Interface To Interconnect Devices To The Transmission Media I.E. Cables, BNC Connectors, Etc) Modems And Codec's, Which Perform Digital Analogue Conversions.
  32. 32. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Data Link  The Second Layer Of The OSI Model Is The Data Link Layer.  This Controls Communications Between The Network Layer And The Physical Layer.  Its Primary Function Is To Divide Data It Receives From The Network Layer Into Distinct Frames That Can Be Transmitted By The Physical Layer.
  33. 33. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Data Link  The Basic Purposes Of The Data Link Layer Protocol Implementations Includes: Organise The Physical Layer’s Bits Into Logical Groups Of Information (aka Frames) Detect And Correct Errors Control Data Flow And Identify Computers On The Network
  34. 34. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Network  The Primary Function Of Layer Three (Network) Is Moving Data To Specific Network Locations.  By Translating Logical Addresses Into The Appropriate Physical Address  Then Decides On The Best Route For The Data To Take From Sender To Receiver.
  35. 35. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Network  Though This May Seem Similar To What The Data Link Layer Accomplishes Through Physical Decide Addressing.  The Data Link Layer Addressing Only Operates On A Single Network.  The Network Layer However, Addressing Only Operates On Multiple Independent Networks (Internetworks).
  36. 36. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Transport  This Layer Provides Enhancements To The Services Of The Network Layer.  Its Main Tasks Is To Ensure That Data Sent Form One Computer Arrives Reliably  Meaning In The Correct Sequence And Without Errors At The Receiving Computer.
  37. 37. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Transport  To Do This, The Transport Layer Builds On The Error Control Mechanism Provided By The Lower Layer.  This Layer Is The Last Chance For Error Recovery.
  38. 38. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Transport  The Transport Layer Is Also Responsible For Flow Control.  Here Is Where The Rate Of Transmission Is Determined.  Based On How Fast The Receiving Computer Can Accept The Data Packets Being Sent To It.
  39. 39. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Transport  Data On The Sending Computer Is Broken Down Into Packets That Are The Maximum Size That The Type Of Network Can Handle.
  40. 40. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Session  This Layer Is Responsible For Establishing And Maintaining Communication Between Two Nodes On The Network.  The Term Session Refers To A Connection For Data Exchange Between Two Parties;
  41. 41. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Session  It Is Most Often Used In The Context Of Terminal And Mainframe Communications, In Which The Terminal Is A Device With Little (If Any) Of Its Own Processing Or Disk Capacity.  That Means It Depends On A Host To Supply It With Applications And Data Processing Services.
  42. 42. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Session  Often, This Layer Also Helps The Upper Layers Identify And Connect To The Services That Are Available On The Network.  If A Communication Session Is Broken, The Session Layer Is Tho One That Determines Where To Restart The Transmission Once The Session Has Been Reconnected
  43. 43. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Session  Not Only Does This Layer Monitor The Sessions But This Layer Is Also Responsible For Determining The Terms Of The Communication Session  It Will Determine Which Computer Or Node Can Communicate First And For How Long  This Makes It Known As The Traffic Cop
  44. 44. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Presentation  The Presentation Layer Serves As A Translator Between The Application And The Network.  At The Presentation Layer, Data Become Formatted In A Schema That The Network Can Understand  This Format Varies With The Type Of Network Used.
  45. 45. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Presentation  The Presentation Layer Manages Data Encryption And Decryption, Such As The Scrambling Of System Passwords.
  46. 46. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Application  The Top Or Seventh Layer Of The OSI Model Is The Application Layer.  The Application Layer Provides Interfaces To The Software That Enable Programs To Use Network Services.
  47. 47. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Application  The Term “Application Layer” Does Not Refer To A Particular Software Application, Such As Microsoft Word, Running On The Network.  Instead, Some Of The Services Provided By The Application Layer Include File Transfer, File Management, And Message Handling For Electronic Mail.
  48. 48. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Application  Examples Of Common Functions Include: Protocols For Providing Remote File Services, I.E. Open, Close, Read, Write, And Shared Access To Files File Transfer Services And Remote Database Access Message Handling Services For Electronic Mail Applications
  49. 49. Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details | Application  Examples Of Common Functions Include: Global Directory Services To Locate Resources On A Network A Uniform Way Of Handling A Variety Of System Monitors And Devices Remote Job Execution
  50. 50. Sub-Topics Covering Today  What Is The OSI Model  Layers Of The OSI Model  The Purpose Of The Layered Model  Seven Layers Of The OSI Model in Details  Questions
  51. 51. Conclusion

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