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Introduction to Heavy Construction Machinery

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Introduction to Heavy Construction Machinery

  1. 1. HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Objective An understanding of how construction equipment and machines have been developed in response to the demands of the work to be undertaken.  Topics to cover 1. Introduction to heavy machinery 2. Dumpers, Excavators, Loaders & types, Road roller, Dredging, Paver finisher 3. Trencher and types, Grader 4. Mixers and types, Concrete plant 5. Vibrators, Cranes and types, Forklift, Crusher
  2. 2. Course Outline  Quiz tests - 40%  Final viva - 30%  Attendance, Presentations - 10%  Homework Assignments - 20%
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Construction is final objective of a design, and the transformation of design by construction into a useful structure is accomplished by men and machines. Men and machines transform a project plan into reality.  It is essential to know how to utilize machines properly and to match their capability to specific project requirements.  As the array of useful equipments expands, the importance of careful planning for construction operation increases.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Machines: Mechanical/Electrical system that amplify human energy, improve our level of control and process information.  Until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power.  In 1860’s Suez canal excavation by Lessseps and his engineers by experimenting and then making 300 steam- powered mechanical dredges work at site yielded main canal’s 74 Million m3 excavation.
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Dreams of V.G Fontana to build machines that would aid in dredging ports, rivers and canals back in 1420 accomplished by Leonardo da Vinci soon after (in 1501), having had in it some power source problem.  Otis William built the first practical power showel excavating machine, “ The 1st Yankee Geologist”, in 1837. It was put to work the very next year on a railroad project in Massachusetts.  In early 1880’s an era of major construction projects began. Bucyrus became leading builder of steam shovels. The most important driver in excavator development was railroad. (70,000 miles railway were constructed in U.S between 1885 and 1897)
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES  Gasoline tractor was demonstrated in 1893 by “The Best Manufacturing company” (predecessor to Caterpillar, Inc)  The first application of ICE for excavating equipment occurred in 1910.  Gasoline-engine-powered shovel introduced by Henry Harnischfeger in 1914.  Cummin’s diesel engine in early 1900’s (appeared in excavators following WW-1). This replaced the steam boiler in shovels.  First gas-powered shovel was brought I n Connecticut in 1922-23. It was employed in a federal-aid road project.
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY Ist Intenal Combustion engine Mechanism and components of an ICE
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  3 SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS  High Strength steels Before WW-II : Steels in 30,000 to 35,000 psi yield range After WW-II : Steels in 40,000 to 45,000 psi yield range Overall weights of machines reduced. The weight of 40 ton truck body was reduced from 25,000 to 16,000 lbs with unchanged body reliability.
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Nylon cord tires Nylon cord material in tires increased load capacity and heat resistance of tires. Also actual number of plies reduced that allowed tires to run cooler and achieve better traction.  High-output diesel engines New ways were developed to have more output power from a cubic inch of engine displacement.
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  FUTURE OF EQUIPMENT INNOVATION  Level of Control Operational control from human to the machine  Amplification of Human energy Shift of energy requirements from man to the machine  Information processing Gathering and processing of information by machine
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  THE FUTURE A time may come when base machine is considered only a mobile counter-weight with a hydraulic power plant. Through multiple attachments the base machine will perform a variety of tasks. e.g. Hydraulic excavators having many attachments such as hammers, compacters, shears and material handling equipment. Wheel loaders having brooms, forks, and stringers is another example.
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Navigation of equipment It draws on some very ancient techniques as well as some of the most advanced in space science and engineering. Geospatial engineering is rapidly expanding and being transferred to construction applications.
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Navigation of equipment GPS (A highly precise satellite-based navigation system) guidance becoming common and reduce the need for surveyors to stake the work in field. In Grader or dozer DTM to be plotted onto P.C and the machine is guided where display indicates. Machine position, along with cut or fill information, will appear on a screen in front of operator all times.
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Navigation of equipment Further in future, machine designers are thinking of an operator working from home. The field operations would be projected by large scale display devices onto the rooms of wall. The operator would operate the machine from these images enhanced by glasses that provide a 3D effect.
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Construction equipment must be retested every six (06) months while in use on site. Any equipment used during this construction may be subject to confirmatory noise level testing by the contractor at the request of engineer.
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Equipment-intensive projects present great financial risk and other risk factors are financing structure, construction activity levels (amount of work being put out to work for bid), labor legislation and agreements, and safety regulations.
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  SAFETY The rate of personal injury and death resulting from construction work is too high. Of all major industry classifications, construction has one of the poorest safety records. Comprehensive set of rules and regulations regarding construction safety is Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) being practiced in U.S.A
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  PLANNING EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION The task of the project planner is to match the right machine or combination or combinations of machines to the job at hand. Considering individual tasks, the quality of performance is measured by matching the equipment spread’s production against its cost.
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  PLANNING EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION “Production” is work done; it can be the volume or weight of material moved, the number of pieces of material cut, the distance travelled or any similar measurement of progress.
  22. 22. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  PLANNING EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION Machine productivity is first of all determined to estimate the equipment component of project cost. Each level of productivity has a corresponding cost associated with the effort expended. Analysis of expenses that a firm experiences through machine ownership and use is very important to understand.
  23. 23. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  PLANNING EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION Although each major type of equipment has different operational characteristics, it is not always obvious which machine is best for a particular project task until and unless site is visited and conditions are judged.
  24. 24. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  PLANNING EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION No two projects are alike; therefore, it is important that the planner begins each new project with a completely open mind and reviews all possible options. Additionally, machines are constantly being improved and new equipment is being introduced.
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY  Identification of Heavy Equipments A. Functional B. Operational A bulldozer pushing a stockpile of material could be (operationally) identified as a support machine for an aggregate production plant. The bulldozer could however be functionally classified as an excavator. The basic purpose is to explain the performance characteristics of a specific equipment and then to describe the most common applications of for that machine.
  26. 26. ASSIGNMENT. 01 Write a 1-page paper each (on MS word ONLY) about: 1. The equipment used to accomplish the construction of Mangla Dam 2. Safety and regulations that impact the construction industry ***To be submitted in NEXT WEEK.
  27. 27. ASSIGNMENT. 01  NOTE: Copied assignments((The person copying and the provider both) & Late submission will be treated as zero marks. Therefore, it is advised to “DO YOUR OWN” assignment and do not copy it from your fellows.

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