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DNA as an information
storage device
CONTENTS:
 Introduction
 What is DNA?
 Why we are preferring DNA as an
information storage device?
 How information is...
Introductio
n
Since time immemorial mankind has wanted to share
information for later use.
 Starting from the caveman pa...
“ That means cost is increasing
but our budgets are not “
So it’s the time to use innovative substitute
i.e., long lived ,...
What is DNA?
• Deoxyribo nucleic acid
• It is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions.
• Most DNA molecules are d...
Why we are preferring DNA as an
information storage device?
• Companies, governments and universities face an enormous cha...
How
stored

information
in DNA?

is
.

Coding System

Encoding Table

Quaternary number system

DNA sequence

compression
Example for coding of information
First we should use numbers to represent the letters in ASCII code
From ASCII table
V=86...
Example of Existing Technology: DNA Chip

• By adapting methods of microprocessor manufacturing, Affymetrix, a Californiab...
DNA
CHIP
How much information can be stored in DNA?

Goldman and co have been able to store 2.2 petabytes
in one gram of DNA . DNA ...
What did Goldman and group store in DNA?

1. They stored all 154 sonnets of Shakespeare (in ASCII text),
2. The 1953 Watso...
Features of DNA for using it as an information
storage device:

• Long-lived, stable and easily synthesized.
• Needs no ac...
DISADVANTAGES:
•Today the Speed is low .
• Cost is high.
FUTURE ENHANCEMENT:
Goodbye Silicon, Hello DNA. The Future of Data Storage device.

DNA can be used in :

1.DNA Computing
...
Conclusion:
The longer you want to store information, then, the more attractive DNA
becomes. And the cost of sequencing an...
Natural selection and
evolution have used DNA to
store and read out to make
our bodies and we are now
using DNA to store a...
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Dna ppt

dna as an information storage device

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Dna ppt

  1. 1. DNA as an information storage device
  2. 2. CONTENTS:  Introduction  What is DNA?  Why we are preferring DNA as an information storage device?  How information is stored in DNA?  Coding Table  Advantages and Disadvantages  Future Scope  Conclusion
  3. 3. Introductio n Since time immemorial mankind has wanted to share information for later use.  Starting from the caveman paintings and symbols, we have entered into the computer age and digitization.  At present we have so many storage devices like hard discs,magnetic tapes,pen drives etc.  But even so ,the amount of information to be stored is growing exponentially.
  4. 4. “ That means cost is increasing but our budgets are not “ So it’s the time to use innovative substitute i.e., long lived ,stable and easily synthesized . That is nothing but DNA
  5. 5. What is DNA? • Deoxyribo nucleic acid • It is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions. • Most DNA molecules are double-stranded helices. • Each molecule consists of two long biopolymers made of simpler units called nucleotides—each nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase recorded using the letters G, A, T, and C. • DNA is well-suited for biological information storage.
  6. 6. Why we are preferring DNA as an information storage device? • Companies, governments and universities face an enormous challenge Storing the ever-growing flood of digitized information. • Some experts have looked for answers in biology. In recent years, they have found ways to encode trademarks in cells and poetry in bacteria. • But these biological things eventually die. By contrast, DNA is stable, durable and dense. • DNA could hold vastly more information than the same surface volume of a disk drive.
  7. 7. How stored information in DNA? is
  8. 8. . Coding System Encoding Table Quaternary number system DNA sequence compression
  9. 9. Example for coding of information First we should use numbers to represent the letters in ASCII code From ASCII table V=86 V=86 I=73 T=84 Use “A ,T, C & G” to represent the numbers 0=A 1 =T 2=C 3=G VVIT 1112111210211110 TTTCTTTCTACTTTTA Change to quaternary numbers • 86= 1112 • 86= 1112 • 73 = 1021 • 84 = 1110 This A ,G, C, T sequence avoids any reading errors, particularly when encountering repetitive base sequences. Also, rather than synthesize one long string of DNA to code for an entire item of information, they broke the file down to smaller chunks, so that no errors occur during synthesis or read-out. These chunks are then read in an appropriate manner or protocol, providing for 100 per cent accuracy.
  10. 10. Example of Existing Technology: DNA Chip • By adapting methods of microprocessor manufacturing, Affymetrix, a Californiabased company, has created microchips that contain thousands of distinct DNA probes on a glass substrate . • The glass is coated with a grid of tiny spots, ~20mm in diameter, each spot containing millions of copies of a short sequence of DNA. • A computer keeps track of the location of each DNA sequence. After the information was encoded into the DNA, drops of DNA were attached to microarray chips for storage. • The chips were kept at 4°C for three months and then dissolved and sequenced.
  11. 11. DNA CHIP
  12. 12. How much information can be stored in DNA? Goldman and co have been able to store 2.2 petabytes in one gram of DNA . DNA would allow at least 100 million hours of highdefinition video to be stored in a teacup.
  13. 13. What did Goldman and group store in DNA? 1. They stored all 154 sonnets of Shakespeare (in ASCII text), 2. The 1953 Watson-Crick paper on the DNA double helix (in PDF format), 3. A colour photograph of Hinxton (in JPEG) and 4. A clip from the “I have a Dream” speech of Martin Luther King (in MP3 format).
  14. 14. Features of DNA for using it as an information storage device: • Long-lived, stable and easily synthesized. • Needs no active maintenance. • Stores digital files without electricity for thousands of years. • Last for tens of thousands of years . • We can store 2.2 peta bytes in one gram of DNA. • Highly reliable.
  15. 15. DISADVANTAGES: •Today the Speed is low . • Cost is high.
  16. 16. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT: Goodbye Silicon, Hello DNA. The Future of Data Storage device. DNA can be used in : 1.DNA Computing 2.DNA Nanotechnology
  17. 17. Conclusion: The longer you want to store information, then, the more attractive DNA becomes. And the cost of sequencing and synthesising DNA is falling fast., "There's no problem with holding a lot of information in DNA”, "The problem is paying for doing that“. we can't get obsessed with the fact that it may not be practical today. If we do any reasonable projection of current trends 5 or 10 years into the future you see that this is in the sweet spot.
  18. 18. Natural selection and evolution have used DNA to store and read out to make our bodies and we are now using DNA to store and archive the products of our brains……. what a twist!

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