Directions• Read through each slide.• When you come upon slides that say “Assignment” record your responses in your notebook. You will hand those responses in at the end of the PowerPoint.• There are 15 questions total
The Birth of Baby America• First US government had a very difficult task• Operating a new government - that has never been tested• Faced with crisis immediately and often!
Alexander Hamilton• First Secretary of the Treasury, which means he is in charge of the USA’s budget.• His first, and most difficult job, was to come up with a plan to pay off the national debt.• He doesn’t have a lot of spare change to work with.• Decides to use tariffs and the National Bank to get the job done.
How will these things pay off the debt?• Tariff is a tax on imported goods (so “stuff” that we buy from other countries)• At this time, Americans bought a lot of “stuff” from Britain, so this will be a good money maker for the USA.• National Bank is simple. Bank owned by the Federal Government that can give out loans. Money made on the loans can be used by the USA to pay “stuff” off!
Hamilton’s A Big Deal – He’s on the Ten Dollar Bill!
Problem 2: Hamilton’s Bank• Starts a giant debate because the Constitution never gave the government the power to create a bank.• Country isn’t even a year old and already there is the question …• How do we follow the rules in the Constitution!?
Strict Interpretation• One way of reading the Constitution is called “Strictly” which means we should follow the Constitution to the letter• Only do what it says you can• If it doesn’t say you can do it ….• THEN YOU CAN’T• It’s like when you play a board or card game and do exactly as the rules say!
Loose Interpretation• Another way of reading the Constitution is called “loosely” which means several things: s• sometimes things need to be done that aren’t listed in the Constitution• … if the Constitution doesn’t say we can do something, THEN WE CAN DO IT.• … the Constitution does say the government can do things that are “necessary and proper”• ... so this means the government can do whatever it has to right?
Loosely continued ...• … so if the government needs to do something that is “necessary and proper” it can do anything?!• This is like playing a board game or a card game and making adjustments to the game to make it more fun, faster, or stop fighting!
The Battle• Hamilton’s ideas starts a huge debate not on how to balance the budget, but on how to interpret the Constitution.• In a sense it’s like arguing over how to play a board game or a card game.
End Result• Congress, Supreme Court, and Washington side with Hamilton and he gets his bank.• This debate plants the seeds of political parties in the USA.• Political parties are groups of voters/leaders who join together because they have similar opinions and goals.
The Sides• Strict interpreters: Madison and Jefferson will eventually form the political party called the Democrat-Republicans.• Loose interpreters: Washington and Hamilton would eventually form the Federalist Party.
Problem One: The War Debt• The new USA owes 52 million dollars.• 1) Go to page 293 in your textbooks. Do history skills #1• 2) The debates caused by Hamilton’s bank would eventually lead to the creation of what groups in the USA?
Problem 3: Frontier• Washington wanted to • Americans out there tame the frontier. aren’t exactly law• Problems … abiding. • Native Americans are putting up quite a fight. • British interference • Spanish interference
Whiskey Rebellion• Problem:• No money on frontier – so Americans use whiskey as money.• No money? No Problem? Hamilton taxes Whiskey.• Frontier rebels against his tax.
Washington’s Response• Solution: • We have• Washington uses his representation in the war powers to crush government now – the rebellion with the rebellions will not be army and arrests the tolerated. leaders. • Washington sets a• WHY DOES GW DO new precedent … THIS? rebellion is not an acceptable form of resistance and they will be put down.
Assignment• Read “The Whiskey • 3) Why were farmers Rebellion” on pages angry about the tax? 284-285. • 4) Were the farmers wrong to rebel? • 5) Was Washington wrong to use the army against them?
Indian Wars• Problem:• Americans “pouring” into the frontier.• Indians fight – trying to defend their lands and their way of life.
Indian War Solution• Solution: • USA takes the first• Conquer the frontier!? step in conquering the frontier by winning the Battle of Fallen Timbers. • Losing tribes sign over modern day Ohio over to us. • We stick surviving tribe members onto reservations or push them West.
What Happened to the Unbeatable Frontier Indians?• The Native Americans • Indian population in had no problems the frontier is very low stomping the British, – constant warfare and the worlds strongest disease. military, why do they • Americans fight lose to the Americans? differently than Europeans.
Supply Problems for NatAms – Supply and Demand of Furs• Simply put, no furs – no goods.• As a tribe, if you run out of trappable fur land – then you run out of ways to pay for European goods and/or weapons.
From the Indian Perspective …• This is our land not yours – our people have been living here for thousands of years.• We hunt and gather – how will we survive without our land?• We will fight to keep Americans off of it!
From the US Perspective …• Native Americans were not seen as Americans. Infact, they were seen as an enemy that had to be conquered.• US policy was this:• You NatAms are on our land. Hand it over or we will take it over.• Once you NatAms do this we may let you stay on a tiny chunk of land OR we will send you further West.
What this means for history …• The USA will claim large tracks of land, but it won’t be theirs until the Native Americans are forced to recognize this.• Usually NatAms are forced to recognize this through warfare.• From 1800 – 1885 the USA and Native Americans will fight each other.• Ultimately, the USA will win and all NatAm tribes will be placed on reservations.
Assignment• 6) What are the USA and Native Americans fighting over?• 7) Why is it getting harder and harder for Native Americans to successfully resist American expansion?
Britain• Problem: • Solution:• They’re stinkers! • We meet with the• Dragging their feet on British and come up leaving frontier with Jay’s Treaty territory. • Treaty means the• Still trying to get a British finally agree to few more pelts from leave US territory. the NatAms before we kick them out.
Spanish• Problem: • Solution:• They are “flexing their • We meet with the muscle” and letting us Spanish and come up know that they can with Pickney’s Treaty make things difficult • Agree on borders for us. • Free travel of the• Trading weapons to Mississippi River. NatAms for furs. • Opened the port of New Orleans to the USA
Assignment• 8) How were our problems with Britain and Spain solved?
Problems in Europe …• Long story short -• Majority of France is poor - because they pay all the taxes. The wealthy don’t have to pay a dime in taxes.• After a couple hundred years - the people of France get sick of it and successfully rebel.• Create a constitutional monarchy, but it’s not good enough.• Things go sour …
French Revolution?• In France, revolutionaries start killing all the rich people and the nobility.• Then the revolutionaries start killing each other.• This makes the rest of Europe very nervous!• What if our poor people want to kill us!?
Assignment• Read “The French • 9) Why would the Revolution” on French Revolution pages 285-6 make leaders in England or Austria nervous?
The Napoleonic Wars France vs. Everybody• France is incredibly unstable.• European countries invade France - hoping to restore order (and stop the revolution from spreading to their country)• In response to the invasion, French Revolutionaries kill the King and Queen of France.• Then “The people” in France form an army and drive the invaders out!• The leader of the “peoples” army - was Napoleon.
The Napoleonic Wars cont … France vs. Everybody• Napoleon and his People’s Army turn out to be very capable and drive out the invaders.• Then Napoleon returns the favor and invades present day Austria and Germany.• This ignited a war that would drag in all of Europe!
What does this mean for the USA?• France is still our ally and a “republic”…• So technically we are obligated to join the war on their side.• Britain is our biggest trading partner. If we go to war against them, then it could cost us a lot of money. We really need money right now, so warfare would hurt the pocket book!!!
Plus …• France is at war with everyone!!!• We have a very small army and it’s tied up on the frontier.• We have a very small navy and they are tied up chasing pirates.
The Decision• George Washington decides to declare neutrality.• The stance is simple – the USA is staying out of other people’s problems.
Assignment• Read page 286 “Remaining Neutral”• 10) Is being a neutral a good policy or should we be backing our ally France? Explain your answer.
Washington - FYI• Washington was the USA’s first president and when he left office, he left with two pieces of advice:
Piece of Advice One• Avoid foreign entanglements.• In short:• No alliances• Stay out of world drama• Stay on a friendly basis with everyone.
Piece of Advice Two:• Avoid party politics.• What are party politics?• Simple: the actions taken by the party benefit the party first common good second.
Assignment• 11) What do you think of Washington’s advice of being neutral and avoiding party politics?
Did they Listen?• Yes • No• Neutrality would be • Washington was firm US foreign policy up believer in being to 1941. neutral but others were not! • Parties began forming in his second term – his warning was too late.
The Federalists • Strong national• The Federalist Party government • Fear of mob rule (didn’t trust voters/common people) • Loose interpretation of the Constitution • Favored the National Bank • Economy based on shipping and industry • Supported by wealthy and educated • Favored Britain
The Democrat-Republicans• The Democrat- • Limited national government Republicans • Fear of rule by one person or powerful few • Strict interpretation • Opposed National Bank • Favored farming • Supported by farmers and trades people. • No national debt • Favored France
The First Election with Political PartiesJohn Adams (F) VS. Thomas Jefferson (DR)
The Winners? - FYI• President: John Adams • In this time period the• VP: Thomas Jefferson top vote getter would become President and the next highest vote getter would be Vice President. • We don’t do it that way anymore.
Assignment• 12) Why do you think we don’t have the top two vote getters be President and Vice- President together anymore?
Fortress Britain - FYI• A term given to the island of Britain.• No invading army has successfully invaded Britain since 1033 AD – and three world powers have tried.• However, Fortress Britain has one weakness and that is it is very dependent on shipping …
Problems in France• To break Fortress Britain, France begins attacking US ships bound for Britain.• They hit about 300 ships.• USA sends a delegation (group of officials) to talk to France about this problem.
XYZ Affair• Three unidentified ministers (who were later code named minister X, Y, and Z) approached our delegation.• Essentially demanded a 10 million dollar loan and a 250,000 bribe before they’d allow the delegation to meet with French officials to discuss the shipping problem.
The results• The USA is mad!• No money for you France!• No more treaties with you France!• After the XYZ Affair we are no longer official allies with France!
Assignment• Read problems with France pages 289-290• 13) What political party is going to look good after the XYZ affair and what party is going to look bad? WHY?• 14) As a result, who will probably have more power in Washington DC?
Alien Sedition Acts - FYI• A lovely example of party politics.• DR’s are really peppering the Federalists in newspapers.• Federalists see the early 1800’s as a time of crisis – and don’t appreciate DR’s attempts to smear them.• SO Federalists pass the Alien Sedition Acts.
Specifics - FYI• Targeted immigrants • Sedition is a fancy word• Increased waiting time to for treason. become a US citizen. • Law said it was• Can arrest or deport treasonous and illegal to disloyal aliens (so any speak or write badly of the alien who is DR) government during a war.• Why’d they do this? • Why’d they do this?• Aliens and immigrants typically supported the • Federalists could legally DR party and this would go after Democratic- weaken DR support. Republicans now.
WHY Don’t DR’s Stop the Alien and Sedition Acts?• Democratic-Republics don’t have the numbers to overturn the Alien and Sedition Acts.• Federalists control all three branches of government.• However, the DR’s control the states so they fight back with something called States’ Rights
States’ Rights• Basically says a state can nullify, or get rid of, a federal law if the state views the law as unconstitutional.• The state is protecting the people by putting itself in-between them and the federal government.• Doesn’t really catch on – BUT it will have huge implications in the future!
Assignment• Read “The Alien and Sedition Acts” pages 290-291.• 15) Are the Alien and Sedition Acts Constitutional? Explain your answer?