Environmental protection is a practice of protecting
the natural environment on individual, organizational
or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the
natural environment and humans. Due to the
pressures of population and technology, the
biophysical environment is being
degraded, sometimes permanently.
Since the 1960s, activity of environmental
movements has created awareness of the various
environmental issues. There is no agreement on the
extent of the environmental impact of human
activity, and protection measures are occasionally
Problems Arising due to Waste Water
Toxic waste reaches humans through animals upon
Great loss of wildlife.
Spread of water borne disease (ex.
Malaria, Cholera, Jaundice etc.)
Presence of coliform micro-orgnisms leading to
Pressure on groundwater reserve leading to
decrease in water table
Legislation for Water Waste
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
The Act was amended in 1988 to conform closely to the provisions of
the EPA, 1986.
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess
Act, 1977 :
This Act provides for a levy and collection of a cess on water consumed
by industries and local authorities. This rule was formulated in 1978
for defining standards and indications for the kind of and location of
meters that every consumer of water is required to install.
Industrial Wastewater Treatment
It covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat
waters that have been contaminated in some way by
anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to
its release into the environment or its re-use.
Brine treatment involves removing dissolved salt ions
from the waste stream. Although similarities to seawater
or brackish water desalination exist, industrial brine
treatment may contain unique combinations of dissolved
ions, such as hardness ions or other
metals, necessitating specific processes and equipment.
Problems Arising due to Air Pollution
Health Effects: The human health effects of poor air quality are
far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and
the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants
depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of
exposure, the individual's health status and genetics.
Ozone Depletion: The primary cause of ozone depletion is the
presence of chlorine-containing source gases (primarily CFCs and
related halocarbons). In the presence of UV light, these gases
dissociate, releasing chlorine atoms, which then go on to catalyze
ozone destruction. The Cl-catalyzed ozone depletion can take place
in the gas phase, but it is dramatically enhanced in the presence of
polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs)
Legislation for Air Pollution
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981:
The Act seeks to combat air pollution by prohibiting the use of
polluting fuels and substances, as well as by regulating appliances
that give rise to air pollution. Under the Act establishing or operating
of any industrial plant in the pollution control area requires consent
from state boards
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules
formulated in 1982: defined the procedures for conducting
meetings of the boards, the powers of the presiding
officers, decision-making, the quorum; manner in which the records
of the meeting were to be set etc. They also prescribed the manner
and the purpose of seeking assistance from specialists and the fee to
be paid to them.
Biological Treatment Of Air Pollution
The biological treatment of air pollution depends on aerobic
microorganisms--mostly mesophilic bacteria--that feed on both
organic and inorganic compounds in the waste gas. The microbes
convert the pollutants into carbon dioxide, water, and salts.
There are two main types of biological treatment technologies:
The material in the biofilter bed provides a diverse culture of
microorganisms that degrade the gaseous pollutants passing
The soluble waste gases and oxygen are continuously absorbed into
water in the scrubber. Biological oxidation occurs in the basin
unit, which often is the activated sludge basin of a wastewater
Impacts Of Solid Waste On Health
Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with
waste, and from infected wounds.
Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected
dust, especially during landfill operations.
Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on
Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste.
Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy
Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small
amounts of hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste.
Treatment of Solid Waste
the municipal solid waste industry has four components:
recycling, composting, landfilling, and waste-to-energy
the functional element of collection includes not only the gathering of
solid waste and recyclable materials, but also the transport of these
materials, after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle
is emptied. This location may be a materials processing facility, a
transfer station or a landfill disposal site.
b. Waste handling and separation, storage and processing at
c. Separation and processing and transformation of solid
d. Transfer and transport.
Given by: Ashish Jaiswal
Submitted to: Dr. Ajai Prakash