SPECIALLY PREPARED BY -Chapter IV ( Food Security of India ) TAANISHA Siddhant Jaiyesh Nandani Jaiswal Nakul Chaudhary Puneet Khurana Ashish Gosowami Rishabh Garg Gurpreet Singh
INTRODUCTIONFood security refers to the availability of food andones access to it. A household is considered food -secure when its occupants do not live in hunger orfear of starvation.According to the World Resources Institute,global per capita food production has beenincreasing substantially for the past severaldecades. In 2006, MSNBC reported that globally,the number of people who are overweight hassurpassed the number who are undernourished -the world had more than one billion people whowere overweight, and an estimated 800 million whowere undernourished.According to a 2004 article from the BBC, China,the worlds most populous country, is sufferingfrom an obesity epidemic. In India, the second -most populous country in the world, 30 millionpeople have been added to the ranks of the hungrysince the mid-1990s and 46% of children areunderweight.
PREFACEA text book of social science is a book for class IX andX. Economics is an integral component of generaleducation up to secondary level. Economics is verycrucial subject which enables the learner to knowabout the society of the world in which you are living .The present series has been written strictly inaccordance with latest syllabus issued by N.C.E.R.T forthe year 2010 and onwards.Main features of the series : Brief Subject matter. A judicious use of table , web chart and illustration to make the subject matter lucid and clear . The book presentation cantinas high quality photographs that were carefully selected to aid understanding , add realism and heighten the interest of the reader . Simple , lucid and student friendly language. Glossary of difficult term Recapitulation to have a quicker view. Strictly in accordance with the latest syllabus
ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe National Council of Education research andTraining acknowledges the valuable contributionof all the involved in the development ofeconomics Presentation.We also acknowledge the contribution made byMrs. Aradhna Malik Mam , teacher of D.A.V PublicSchool Rajendra Nager , Ghaziabad.We are thankful for all the my friends andParents for taking contribution to make thiswonderful Presentation.
FOOD SECURITY ININDIAFood security means availability,accessibility and affordability of foodto all people at all times.
What is Food Security? Food security refers to the availability of food and ones access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not livein hunger or fear of starvation. According to the WorldResources Institute, global per capita food production has been increasing substantiallyfor the past several decades. In 2006, MSNBC reported thatglobally, the number of people who are overweight hassurpassed the number who areundernourished - the world had more than one billion people who were overweight, and an estimated 800 million who were undernourished
Food security has following dimensions:-(a) availability of food means foodproduction within the country, foodimports and the previous years stockstored in government granaries.(b) accessibility means food is within reachof every person.(c) affordability implies that an individualhas enough money to buy sufficient,safe and nutritious food to meet onesdietary needs. Thus, food security is ensured in a country only if - (1) enough food is available for all the persons. (2) all persons have the capacity to buy food of acceptable quality. (3) there is no barrier on access to food.
Why food Security? The poorest section of thesociety might be food insecure most of the times whilepersons above the poverty line might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster/calamity like earthquake, drought, flood,tsunami, widespread failure of crops causing famine, etc.How is food security Special Video on the half of Food Security affected during a calamity? Due to a natural calamity, say drought, total production of foodgrains decreases. It creates a shortage of food in the affected bares. Due toshortage of food, the prices go up. At the high prices, some people cannot afford to buyfood. If such calamity happensin a very wide spread area or is stretched over a longer time period.
Food and Agriculture Organization In the 1970s, food security was understood as the “availability at all times of adequate supply of basic foodstuffs” (UN, 1975). Accordingly, there has been a substantial shift in Amartya Sen added a new the understanding of food security. The 1995 dimension to food security World Food Summit declared, “Food security atand emphasized the “access” the individual, household, regional, national and to food through what he global levels exists when all people, at all times, called ‘entitlements’ have physical and economic access to sufficient,combination of what one can safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary produce, exchange in the needs and food preferences for an active and market along with state or healthy life” (FAO, 1996, p.3). other socially provided supplies.
A Famine is characterized Do you know who were affected the most by by wide spread deaths the famine? due to starvation The agricultural laborers, fishermen, transport workers and other casual laborers were affectedA Famine is characterised by wide the most by dramatically increasing price of rice. spread deaths due to starvation They were the ones who died in this famine and epidemics caused by forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of bodyresistance due to weakening from Year Production Imports Exports Totalstarvation. The most devastating ( Lakh ) ( Lakh ) ( Lakh ) Availability famine that occurred in India was the FAMINE OF BENGAL in 1938 85 - - 85 1943. This famine killed thirty 1939 79 04 - 83 lakh people in the province of Bengal. 1940 82 03 - 85 1941 68 02 - 70 1942 93 - 01 92 1943 76 03 - 79
FOOD INSECUREApproximately one out of six people are "foodinsecure", including 17 million children, according tothe U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Who are food-insecure? Although a large section of people suffer from food and nutrition insecurity in India, the worst affected groups are landless people with little or no land to depend upon, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self- employed workers and destitute including beggars. In the urban areas, the food insecure families are those whose working members are generally employed in ill-paid occupations and casual labour market.
STORY OF RAMU ANDAHMADRamu works as a casual laborer in agriculture in Raipurvillage. Ahmad is a rickshaw puller in Bangalore.
About Ramu About AhmadRamu works as a casual labourer in agriculture in Raipur Ahmad is a rickshaw puller in Bangalore. He has shiftedvillage. His eldest son Somu who is 10 years old also from Jhumri Taliah along with his 3 brothers, 2 sistersworks as a pali to look after the cattle of the Sarpanch and old parents. He stays in a jhuggi. The survival of allof the village Satpal Singh. Somu is employed for the members of his family depends on his daily earningswhole year by the Sarpanch and is paid a sum of Rs from pulling rickshaw. However, he does not have a1,000 for this work. Ramu has three more sons and two secured employment and his earnings fluctuate everydaughters but they are too young to work on the field. day. During some days he gets enough earning for himHis wife Sunhari is also (part time) working as house to save some amount after buying all his day-to-daycleaner for the livestock, removing and managing cow necessities. On other days, he barely earns enough todung. She gets ½ litre milk and some cooked food along buy his daily necessities. However, fortunately, Ahmadwith vegetables for her daily work. Besides she also has a yellow card, which is PDS Card for below povertyworks in the field along with her husband in the busy line people. With this card, Ahmad gets sufficientseason and supplements his earnings. Agriculture being quantity of wheat, rice, sugar and kerosene oil for hisa seasonal activity employs Ramu only during times of daily use. He gets these essentials at half of the marketsowing, transplanting and harvesting. He remains price. He purchases his monthly stock during aunemployed for about 4 months during the period of particular day when the ration shop is opened forplant consolidation and maturing in a year. He looks for below poverty people. In this way, Ahmad is able towork in other activities. Some times he gets eke out his survival with less than sufficient earningsemployment in brick laying or in construction activities for his big family where he is the only earning member.in the village. By all his efforts, Ramu is able to earnenough either in cash or kind for him to buy essentialsfor two square meals for his family. However, during thedays when he is unable to get some work, he and hisfamily really face difficulties and sometimes his smallkids have to sleep without food. Milk and vegetables arenot a regular part of meals in the family. Ramu is foodinsecure during 4 months when he remains unemployedbecause of the seasonal nature of agriculture work.
LAND DEGRADATIONLand degradation is a concept in which the valueof the biophysical environment is affected by oneor more combination of human-induced processesacting upon the land.
Land degradation Land degradation is a concept in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by one or morecombination of human-induced processes acting upon theland. It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Natural hazardsare excluded as a cause, however human activities can indirectly affectphenomena such as floods and bushfires. It is estimated that up to 40% of the worlds agricultural land is seriously degraded.
Overgrazing by livestock can lead to land Cause of land degradation degradation Land clearance, such as clearcutting and deforestation Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices Livestock including overgrazing Inappropriate Irrigation and over drafting Urban sprawl and commercial development Land pollution including industrial waste Vehicle off-roading Quarrying of stone, sand, ore and minerals
A buffer stock scheme is commonly implementedas intervention storage, the "ever -normal granary”BUFFER STOCKSCHEME
What is Buffer stock? A buffer stock scheme (commonlyimplemented as intervention storage, the "ever-normal granary") is an attempt to use commodity storage for the purposes of stabilising prices in an entire economy or, more commonly, an individual (commodity) market. Specifically, commodities are bought when there is a surplus in the economy, stored, and are then sold from these stores when there are economic shortages in theeconomy. Their usefulness is debated by economists.
Operation of Buffer Stocks :- Single price scheme Two price scheme• As illustrated, the term "buffer stock scheme" • Most buffer stock schemes work along the same can also refer to a scheme where the floor price rough lines: first, two prices are determined, a and ceiling price are equal: in other words, an floor and a ceiling (minimum and maximum intervention in the market to ensure a fixed price). When the price drops close to the floor price. In order for such stores to be effective, the price (after a new rich vein of silver is found, for figure for "average supply" must be adjusted example), the scheme operator periodically to keep up with any broad trends (usually government) will start buying up the toward increased yield. That is, it must truly be stock, ensuring that the price does not fall an average of probable yield outcomes at that further. given point in time.
PUBLIC DISTRIBUTIONSYSTEMDramatic changes in food consumption patterns havetaken place in India in the post Green Revolutionperiod.
Changes in FoodConsumption Pattern Dramatic changes in food consumption patterns have taken place in India in the post Green Revolutionperiod. Between 1972-73 and1993-94, the food basket has become much morediversified, with the share of cereals seeing a dramatic decline of ten percentage points in most regions.
MSP and FoodProcurement Policy The stock of food grains available with thegovernment agencies as on 1 July 2002 was 63.01 million tonnes (mt) — 21.94 mt of rice and 41.07 mt of wheat. This was well above the prescribed buffer stock norms.
Public Distribution System and Food SubsidyIt is now well recognized thatthe availability of food grains is not a sufficient condition to ensure food security to the poor. It is also necessary that the poor have sufficient Year Amount % of total Govt.means to purchase food. The (Rs crore ) Expenditure capacity of the poor to 1990-91 2450 2.33 purchase food can be 1991-92 2850 2.56 ensured in two ways – by 1992-93 2785 2.27 raising the incomes or 1993-94 5537 3.9 supplying food grains at 1994-95 4509 2.8 subsidized prices. While 1995-96 4960 2.78 employment generation 1996-97 5166 2.46 programmers attempt the 1997-98 7500 3.23 first solution, the PDS is the 1998-99 8700 3.11 mechanism for the second 1999-2000 9200 3.03 option. 2000-2001 12125 3.61 2001-2002 17612 4.83 2002-2003 21200 5.17
Targeted PublicDistribution System The PDS in its original form was widely criticized for its failure to serve the below poverty line (BPL) population, its urban bias, negligible coverage in the states with the highest concentration of the ruralpoor and lack of transparent and accountable arrangements for delivery. Realizing this, thegovernment streamlined the system by issuing special cards to BPL families andselling food grains under PDS to them at speciallysubsidized prices with effect from June 1997.
ECONOMICAPPROACHESThere are many economic approaches advocated toimprove food security in developing countries. Threetypical approaches are listed below. The first is typicalof what is advocated by most governments andinternational agencies. The other two are morecommon to non-governmental organizations (NGO’s).
Westernized view Conventional thinking in westernized countries is that maximizing the farmers profitis the surest way of maximizing agricultural production; the higher a farmer’s profit, the greater the effort that will be forthcoming, and the greater the risk the farmer is willing to take.Place into the hands of farmersthe largest number and highest quality tools possible (tools isused here to refer to improved production techniques, improved seeds, secure land tenure, accurate weather forecasts, etc.) However, it is left to the individual farmer topick and choose which tools to use, and how to use them, as farmers have intimate knowledge of their own land and local conditions.
Food justice An alternative view takes a collective approach to achieve food security. It notes thatglobally enough food is produced to feed the entire worldpopulation at a level adequate toensure that everyone can be freeof hunger and fear of starvation. That no one should live without enough food because of economic constraints or social inequalities is the basic goal. This approach is often referredto as food justice and views foodsecurity as a basic human right. It advocates fairer distribution of food, particularly grain crops, as a means of ending chronic hunger and malnutrition. The core of the Food Justicemovement is the belief that what is lacking is not food, but the political will to fairly distributefood regardless of the recipient’s ability to pay.