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Environmental Benefits of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology in Public Transit  Jairo A. Sandoval and W. Scott Wayne, PhD Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines & Emissions Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV American Public Transportation Association 2007 Bus Technical, Maintenance and Procurement Workshop New Orleans, LA October 29, 2007 FTA REPORT No. 26-7003-07.2
[object Object],Background
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Presentation Overview
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Objectives
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Objectives (cont.)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Emissions Evaluated
Methodology ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Total Mass Emissions =  ∑  * Miles Traveled Test emissions [g/mile]
Methodology (cont.) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Baseline (2003) Transit Bus Fleet ,[object Object],[object Object],Distribution by fuel/powertrain type in 2003
Distribution by Model Year Model year bins according to applicable EPA emissions regulation
Emissions from Baseline Fleet (2003) Total annual VMT: 2,420.8 million miles  (a)  Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed  (a) thousands of gallons Total Emissions Diesel 49,938 15,886 2,611   65,669 1,494 6,497,649 589,135 CNG/LNG 7,609 1,194 308 5,879 6,318 7 796,630 100,393 Diesel Hybrid 489 5 0.6   220 0.5 35,865 3,361 Total 58,036 17,085 2,920 5,879 72,207 1,502 7,330,143 692,889 Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Impacts of “Natural” Procurements
Distributions by vehicle model year: 2009 2003 Replaced All Pre-1990 diesel buses Power Source 2004-2006 2007-2009 Total Diesel 4,730 3,982 8,712 CNG 1,159 1,164 2,323 LNG 62 70 132 Diesel Hybrid 287 749 1,036 Gasoline-Electric Hybrid 85 46 131 Biodiesel 32 27 59 Hydrogen 25 4 29 Propane (LPG) 19 4 23 Gasoline 5 1 6 Total 6,404 6,047 12,451
Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change    6%    36%    30%    17%    15%    43%    1%    2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02 Reductions in CO and NMHC due largely to advent of diesel particulate filters. Lower CO emissions from stoichiometric CNG buses offset the increase in number of CNG buses
Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change    6%    36%    30%    17%    15%    43%    1%    2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02 Particulate Filters “mandated” on all 2007 and newer diesel buses + increase in inherently low PM emitting CNG buses NO x  reductions largely attributable to reduction in NO x  limit from 2.5 g/bhpr to 1.2 g/bhphr in 2007
Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change    6%    36%    30%    17%    15%    43%    1%    2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02 Very modest increase in CO 2  and fuel consumption despite increase in number of buses and miles traveled … largely offset by increase in hybrid buses Methane emissions increase due to higher number of CNG buses
Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change    6%    36%    30%    17%    15%    43%    1%    2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02
Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
(a)  Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b)  Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table  CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed  (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel    1,723    377 -    3,291    201    35,251    2,664 CNG    689    341    422    4,239    205    220,758    2,154 Diesel Hybrid    1,776    366 -    4,418    202    491,352    50,658 Gasoline Hybrid    6,178    211 -    5,963    199    74,114    2,833 Biodiesel (B20)  (a)    384    166 -    369    38    25,087    3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel    16%    19% -    5%    24% 0% 0% CNG    6%    17%    6%    7%    24%    3% 0% Diesel Hybrid    16%    18% -    7%    24%    7%    7% Gasoline Hybrid    57%    10% -    10%    23%    1% 0% Biodiesel (B20)  (b)    4%    8% -    1%    4% 0%    1% Conventional & hybrid diesel buses have similar reductions in CO, NMHC and PM emissions because they benefit from the same engine advancements. Diesel hybrid buses gain an advantage in NO x  emissions over conventional diesels.
(a)  Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b)  Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table  CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed  (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel    1,723    377 -    3,291    201    35,251    2,664 CNG    689    341    422    4,239    205    220,758    2,154 Diesel Hybrid    1,776    366 -    4,418    202    491,352    50,658 Gasoline Hybrid    6,178    211 -    5,963    199    74,114    2,833 Biodiesel (B20)  (a)    384    166 -    369    38    25,087    3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel    16%    19% -    5%    24% 0% 0% CNG    6%    17%    6%    7%    24%    3% 0% Diesel Hybrid    16%    18% -    7%    24%    7%    7% Gasoline Hybrid    57%    10% -    10%    23%    1% 0% Biodiesel (B20)  (b)    4%    8% -    1%    4% 0%    1% Conventional diesel, stoichiometric CNG, diesel hybrid and gasoline hybrid offer near identical reductions in particulate emissions.
(a)  Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b)  Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table  CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed  (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel    1,723    377 -    3,291    201    35,251    2,664 CNG    689    341    422    4,239    205    220,758    2,154 Diesel Hybrid    1,776    366 -    4,418    202    491,352    50,658 Gasoline Hybrid    6,178    211 -    5,963    199    74,114    2,833 Biodiesel (B20)  (a)    384    166 -    369    38    25,087    3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel    16%    19% -    5%    24% 0% 0% CNG    6%    17%    6%    7%    24%    3% 0% Diesel Hybrid    16%    18% -    7%    24%    7%    7% Gasoline Hybrid    57%    10% -    10%    23%    1% 0% Biodiesel (B20)  (b)    4%    8% -    1%    4% 0%    1% Gasoline hybrids offer the largest overall NOx reductions
(a)  Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b)  Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table  CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed  (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel    1,723    377 -    3,291    201    35,251    2,664 CNG    689    341    422    4,239    205    220,758    2,154 Diesel Hybrid    1,776    366 -    4,418    202    491,352    50,658 Gasoline Hybrid    6,178    211 -    5,963    199    74,114    2,833 Biodiesel (B20)  (a)    384    166 -    369    38    25,087    3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel    16%    19% -    5%    24% 0% 0% CNG    6%    17%    6%    7%    24%    3% 0% Diesel Hybrid    16%    18% -    7%    24%    7%    7% Gasoline Hybrid    57%    10% -    10%    23%    1% 0% Biodiesel (B20)  (b)    4%    8% -    1%    4% 0%    1% B20 used in older model buses without DPFs results in slight increase in NO x  emissions and modest decrease in PM emissions. B20 also results in a modest increase in gallons of fuel consumed due to lower energy content; however biodiesel displaces use of imported petroleum.
(a)  Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b)  Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table  CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed  (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel    1,723    377 -    3,291    201    35,251    2,664 CNG    689    341    422    4,239    205    220,758    2,154 Diesel Hybrid    1,776    366 -    4,418    202    491,352    50,658 Gasoline Hybrid    6,178    211 -    5,963    199    74,114    2,833 Biodiesel (B20)  (a)    384    166 -    369    38    25,087    3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel    16%    19% -    5%    24% 0% 0% CNG    6%    17%    6%    7%    24%    3% 0% Diesel Hybrid    16%    18% -    7%    24%    7%    7% Gasoline Hybrid    57%    10% -    10%    23%    1% 0% Biodiesel (B20)  (b)    4%    8% -    1%    4% 0%    1% Diesel-hybrid buses appear to offer the greatest overall environmental advantage.
Global Warming Potential (a)  B20 Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Tailpipe only If B100 in  all the fleet: Life cycle emissions ↓  ~ 40%
Observations & Conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Comments of Biodiesel Implementation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Recommendations
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Future work – Bus inventory modeling
[object Object],[object Object],Related Publications

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Environmental Benefits of Alternative Transit Fuels

  • 1. Environmental Benefits of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology in Public Transit Jairo A. Sandoval and W. Scott Wayne, PhD Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines & Emissions Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV American Public Transportation Association 2007 Bus Technical, Maintenance and Procurement Workshop New Orleans, LA October 29, 2007 FTA REPORT No. 26-7003-07.2
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. Distribution by Model Year Model year bins according to applicable EPA emissions regulation
  • 11. Emissions from Baseline Fleet (2003) Total annual VMT: 2,420.8 million miles (a) Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed (a) thousands of gallons Total Emissions Diesel 49,938 15,886 2,611   65,669 1,494 6,497,649 589,135 CNG/LNG 7,609 1,194 308 5,879 6,318 7 796,630 100,393 Diesel Hybrid 489 5 0.6   220 0.5 35,865 3,361 Total 58,036 17,085 2,920 5,879 72,207 1,502 7,330,143 692,889 Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02
  • 12.
  • 13. Distributions by vehicle model year: 2009 2003 Replaced All Pre-1990 diesel buses Power Source 2004-2006 2007-2009 Total Diesel 4,730 3,982 8,712 CNG 1,159 1,164 2,323 LNG 62 70 132 Diesel Hybrid 287 749 1,036 Gasoline-Electric Hybrid 85 46 131 Biodiesel 32 27 59 Hydrogen 25 4 29 Propane (LPG) 19 4 23 Gasoline 5 1 6 Total 6,404 6,047 12,451
  • 14. Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change  6%  36%  30%  17%  15%  43%  1%  2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02 Reductions in CO and NMHC due largely to advent of diesel particulate filters. Lower CO emissions from stoichiometric CNG buses offset the increase in number of CNG buses
  • 15. Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change  6%  36%  30%  17%  15%  43%  1%  2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02 Particulate Filters “mandated” on all 2007 and newer diesel buses + increase in inherently low PM emitting CNG buses NO x reductions largely attributable to reduction in NO x limit from 2.5 g/bhpr to 1.2 g/bhphr in 2007
  • 16. Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change  6%  36%  30%  17%  15%  43%  1%  2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02 Very modest increase in CO 2 and fuel consumption despite increase in number of buses and miles traveled … largely offset by increase in hybrid buses Methane emissions increase due to higher number of CNG buses
  • 17. Estimated Emissions of 2009 Fleet Number of Buses CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed thousands of gallons Total Annual Emissions Diesel 50,003 9,577 1,667   53,981 843 6,289,918 573,989 CNG/LNG 10,064 1,331 364 6,902 7,229 9 1,003,149 125,818 Diesel Hybrid 1,525 12 2   489 1 107,814 9,805 Total 61,592 10,920 2,032 6,902 61,699 853 7,400,881 709,612 Relative Change  6%  36%  30%  17%  15%  43%  1%  2% Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel 4.31 0.75   24.32 0.38 2,833 3.51 CNG/LNG 2.98 0.81 15.45 16.18 0.02 2,245 3.22 Diesel Hybrid 0.18 0.03   7.22 0.02 1,592 6.26 2003 - Average Emissions Levels per Bus CO g/mile NMHC g/mile CH 4 g/mile NO x g/mile PM g/mile CO 2 g/mile Fuel Economy mile/gal Diesel   6.98 1.15   28.84 0.66 2,853 3.51 CNG/LNG   3.44 0.89 16.94 18.21 0.02 2,296 3.14 Diesel Hybrid   0.22 0.03   9.87 0.02 1,608 6.02
  • 18.
  • 19. (a) Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b) Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel  1,723  377 -  3,291  201  35,251  2,664 CNG  689  341  422  4,239  205  220,758  2,154 Diesel Hybrid  1,776  366 -  4,418  202  491,352  50,658 Gasoline Hybrid  6,178  211 -  5,963  199  74,114  2,833 Biodiesel (B20) (a)  384  166 -  369  38  25,087  3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel  16%  19% -  5%  24% 0% 0% CNG  6%  17%  6%  7%  24%  3% 0% Diesel Hybrid  16%  18% -  7%  24%  7%  7% Gasoline Hybrid  57%  10% -  10%  23%  1% 0% Biodiesel (B20) (b)  4%  8% -  1%  4% 0%  1% Conventional & hybrid diesel buses have similar reductions in CO, NMHC and PM emissions because they benefit from the same engine advancements. Diesel hybrid buses gain an advantage in NO x emissions over conventional diesels.
  • 20. (a) Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b) Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel  1,723  377 -  3,291  201  35,251  2,664 CNG  689  341  422  4,239  205  220,758  2,154 Diesel Hybrid  1,776  366 -  4,418  202  491,352  50,658 Gasoline Hybrid  6,178  211 -  5,963  199  74,114  2,833 Biodiesel (B20) (a)  384  166 -  369  38  25,087  3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel  16%  19% -  5%  24% 0% 0% CNG  6%  17%  6%  7%  24%  3% 0% Diesel Hybrid  16%  18% -  7%  24%  7%  7% Gasoline Hybrid  57%  10% -  10%  23%  1% 0% Biodiesel (B20) (b)  4%  8% -  1%  4% 0%  1% Conventional diesel, stoichiometric CNG, diesel hybrid and gasoline hybrid offer near identical reductions in particulate emissions.
  • 21. (a) Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b) Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel  1,723  377 -  3,291  201  35,251  2,664 CNG  689  341  422  4,239  205  220,758  2,154 Diesel Hybrid  1,776  366 -  4,418  202  491,352  50,658 Gasoline Hybrid  6,178  211 -  5,963  199  74,114  2,833 Biodiesel (B20) (a)  384  166 -  369  38  25,087  3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel  16%  19% -  5%  24% 0% 0% CNG  6%  17%  6%  7%  24%  3% 0% Diesel Hybrid  16%  18% -  7%  24%  7%  7% Gasoline Hybrid  57%  10% -  10%  23%  1% 0% Biodiesel (B20) (b)  4%  8% -  1%  4% 0%  1% Gasoline hybrids offer the largest overall NOx reductions
  • 22. (a) Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b) Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel  1,723  377 -  3,291  201  35,251  2,664 CNG  689  341  422  4,239  205  220,758  2,154 Diesel Hybrid  1,776  366 -  4,418  202  491,352  50,658 Gasoline Hybrid  6,178  211 -  5,963  199  74,114  2,833 Biodiesel (B20) (a)  384  166 -  369  38  25,087  3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel  16%  19% -  5%  24% 0% 0% CNG  6%  17%  6%  7%  24%  3% 0% Diesel Hybrid  16%  18% -  7%  24%  7%  7% Gasoline Hybrid  57%  10% -  10%  23%  1% 0% Biodiesel (B20) (b)  4%  8% -  1%  4% 0%  1% B20 used in older model buses without DPFs results in slight increase in NO x emissions and modest decrease in PM emissions. B20 also results in a modest increase in gallons of fuel consumed due to lower energy content; however biodiesel displaces use of imported petroleum.
  • 23. (a) Fuel consumed is expressed in Diesel-equivalent gallons (b) Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Greater Use of Alternative Fuels & Technology Reductions are in addition to those shown in the previous table CO tons NMHC tons CH 4 tons NO x tons PM tons CO 2 tons Fuel Consumed (a) thousands of gallons Clean Diesel  1,723  377 -  3,291  201  35,251  2,664 CNG  689  341  422  4,239  205  220,758  2,154 Diesel Hybrid  1,776  366 -  4,418  202  491,352  50,658 Gasoline Hybrid  6,178  211 -  5,963  199  74,114  2,833 Biodiesel (B20) (a)  384  166 -  369  38  25,087  3,876 Percent Incremental Change Clean Diesel  16%  19% -  5%  24% 0% 0% CNG  6%  17%  6%  7%  24%  3% 0% Diesel Hybrid  16%  18% -  7%  24%  7%  7% Gasoline Hybrid  57%  10% -  10%  23%  1% 0% Biodiesel (B20) (b)  4%  8% -  1%  4% 0%  1% Diesel-hybrid buses appear to offer the greatest overall environmental advantage.
  • 24. Global Warming Potential (a) B20 Implemented in the older diesel buses of the fleet Tailpipe only If B100 in all the fleet: Life cycle emissions ↓ ~ 40%
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