Linux16 RPM


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Linux16 RPM

  1. 1. Red Hat Package Manager RPM 1
  2. 2. What is RPM? • RPM stands for Red Hat Package Manager. • RPM command is used for installing, uninstalling, upgrading, querying, listing, and checking RPM packages on your Linux system. 2
  3. 3. What is RPM? • With root privilege, you can use the rpm command with appropriate options to manage the RPM software packages. 3
  4. 4. What is RPM? • The Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) is a toolset used to build and manage software packages on UNIX systems. • Distributed with the Red Hat Linux distribution and its derivatives, RPM also works on any UNIX as it is open source. 4
  5. 5. What is RPM? • Package management is rather simple in its principles, though it can be tricky in its implementations. • Briefly, it means the managed installation of software, managing installed software, and the removal of software packages from a system in a simplified manner. 5
  6. 6. What is RPM? • RPM arose out of the needs to do this effectively, and no other meaningful solution was available. • RPM uses a proprietary file format, unlike some other UNIX software package managers. 6
  7. 7. What is RPM? • This can be problematic if you find yourself needing to extract one component from the package and you don't have the RPM utility handy. • Luckily a tool like Alien exists to convert from RPM to other formats. It can be possible, through tools like Alien, to get to a file format you can manage using, say, tar or ar. 7
  8. 8. What is RPM? • The naming scheme of RPM files is itself a standardized convention. • RPMs have the format (name)-(version)- (build).(platform).rpm. • For example, the name cat-2.4-7.i386.rpm would mean an RPM for the utility "cat" version 2.4, build 7 for the x86. When the platform name is replaced by "src", it's a source RPM. 8
  9. 9. Why Package Management...? • At first glance you may say to yourself, "I can manage this myself. It's not that many components ..." In fact, for something as small as, say, cat, which has one executable and one man page, this may be so. 9
  10. 10. Why Package Management...? • But consider, say, KDE, which has a mountain of components, dependencies, and likes to stick them everywhere. Keeping track of it all would be tough, if not impossible. 10
  11. 11. Why Package Management...? • Package management makes it all easier. By letting a program maintain the information about the binaries, their configuration files, and everything else about them, you can identify which ones are installed, remove them easily or upgrade them readily, as well. 11
  12. 12. Why Package Management...? • Installation becomes a snap. You select what you want, and ask the system to take care of the dirty work for you. Unpack the program, ensure that there is space, place things in the right order, and set them up for you. It's great, it's like having a valet take care of your car when you go to a restaraunt. 12
  13. 13. Why Package Management...? • Dependencies, or additional requirements for a software package, are also managed seamlessly by a good package manager. 13
  14. 14. Why Package Management...? • Management of installed packages is also greatly facilitated by a good package management system. It keeps a full list of software installed, which is useful to see if you have something installed. More importantly, it makes upgrading a breeze. 14
  15. 15. Why Package Management...? •  Lastly, this makes verification of a  software package quite easy to do. By  knowing what packages are installed, and  what the properties of the components  are, you can quickly diagnose a problem  and hopefully fix it quickly. 15
  16. 16. Why Package Management...? •  Lastly, this makes verification of a  software package quite easy to do. By  knowing what packages are installed, and  what the properties of the components  are, you can quickly diagnose a problem  and hopefully fix it quickly. 16
  17. 17. Installation Using RPM • This is the most basic RPM function, and  one of the most popular: the installation of  new software packages using RPM. To do  this, give rpm the -i flag and point it to an  RPM:         # rpm -i (package) 17
  18. 18. Installation Using RPM • This will install the package if all goes well  and send you back to a command prompt  without any messages. Pretty boring, and  worse if you want to know what happened  you're out of luck. Use the -v flag to turn  on some verbosity: # rpm -iv (package) 18
  19. 19. Installation Using RPM • All that gets printed out is the package  name, but no statistics on the progress or  what it did. You can get a hash marked  output of the progress is you use the -h  flag. People seem to like using -ivh  together to get a "pretty" output:        #  rpm -ivh (package) 19
  20. 20. Installation Using RPM • For example, In the MySQL-client-3.23.57- 1.i386.rpm file: MySQL-client – Package Name 3.23.57 – Version 1 – Release i386 – Architecture 20
  21. 21. Installation Using RPM 1) The following rpm command installs  Mysql client package. # rpm -ivh MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm  Preparing...####################################  [100%]  1:MySQL-client ############################## [100%] 21
  22. 22. Installation Using RPM rpm command and options • -i : install a package • -v : verbose • -h : print hash marks as the package  archive is unpacked. 22
  23. 23. Installation Using RPM • Sometimes RPM will whine about a  dependency which is installed but isn't  registered. Perhaps you installed it not  using an RPM for the package (ie  OpenSSL). To get around this, you can  force it to ignore dependencies: •         rpm -ivv --nodeps (package) 23
  24. 24. Installation Using RPM • On rare occassion RPM will mess up and  insist that you have a package installed  when you don't. While this is usually a sign  that something is amiss, it can be worked  around. Just force the installation: •         rpm -ivv --force (package) 24
  25. 25. Installation Using RPM 2) Query all the RPM Packages using rpm – qa • -q query operation • -a queries all installed packages 25
  26. 26. Installation Using RPM • To identify whether a particular rpm  package is installed on your system,  combine rpm and grep command as  shown below. Following command checks  whether cdrecord package is installed on  your system. # rpm -qa | grep 'cdrecord' 26
  27. 27. Installation Using RPM 3) Query a Particular RPM Package using  rpm -q • The above example lists all currently  installed package. After installation of a  package to check the installation, you can  query a particular package and verify as  shown below: 27
  28. 28. Installation Using RPM 28
  29. 29. Installation Using RPM 4) Query RPM Packages in a various format using rpm –queryformat • Rpm command provides an option – queryformat, which allows you to give the header tag names, to list the packages. Enclose the header tag with in {}. 29
  30. 30. Installation Using RPM 30
  31. 31. Installation Using RPM 5) Which RPM package does a file belong to? – Use rpm –qf • Let us say, you have list of files and you would want to know which package owns all these files. rpm command has options to achieve this. • The following example shows that /usr/bin/mysqlaccess file is part of the MySQL-client-3.23.57-1 rpm. 31
  32. 32. Installation Using RPM 32
  33. 33. Installation Using RPM 6) Locate documentation of a package that owns file using rpm –qdf • Use the following to know the list of documentations, for a package that owns a file. The following command, gives the location of all the manual pages related to mysql package. 33
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  35. 35. Installation Using RPM 7) Information about Installed RPM Package using rpm -qi • rpm command provides a lot of information about an installed pacakge using rpm -qi as shown below: 35
  36. 36. Installation Using RPM 36
  37. 37. Installation Using RPM • If you have an RPM file that you would like to install, but want to know more information about it before installing, you can do the following: 37
  38. 38. Installation Using RPM 38
  39. 39. Installation Using RPM -i : view information about an rpm -p : specify a package name 39
  40. 40. Installation Using RPM 8) List all the Files in a Package using rpm – qlp • To list the content of a RPM package, use the following command, which will list out the files without extracting into the local directory folder. 40
  41. 41. Installation Using RPM 41
  42. 42. Installation Using RPM 9) List the Dependency Packages using rpm –qRP 42
  43. 43. Installation Using RPM 10) Find out the state of files in a package using rpm –qsp The following command is to find state (installed, replaced or normal) for all the files in a RPM package. 43
  44. 44. Installation Using RPM 44
  45. 45. Installation Using RPM 11)Verify a Particular RPM Package using rpm –Vp Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in the package with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the rpm database. In the following command, -V is for verification and -p option is used to specify a package name to verify. 45
  46. 46. Installation Using RPM 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Installation Using RPM • 12. Verify a Package Owning file using rpm -Vf • The following command verify the package which owns the given filename. 48
  49. 49. Installation Using RPM • 13. Upgrading a RPM Package using rpm –Uvh • Upgrading a package is similar to installing one, but RPM automatically un- installs existing versions of the package before installing the new one. If an old version of the package is not found, the upgrade option will still install it. 49
  50. 50. Installation Using RPM 50
  51. 51. Installation Using RPM • 14. Uninstalling a RPM Package using rpm -e • To remove an installed rpm package using -e as shown below. After uninstallation, you can query using rpm -qa and verify the uninstallation. 51
  52. 52. Installation Using RPM • 15. Verifying all the RPM Packages using rpm -Va • The following command verifies all the installed packages. 52
  53. 53. Installation Using RPM 53
  54. 54. Bibliography 1) 2) pm-command-examples/ 3) name=Howto&pagename=RPM- HOWTO/intro.html