IT 4th Sem
What is Linux ?
Linux is a Unix-like computer
operating system assembled under
the model of free and open source
software development and
distribution. The defining
component of Linux is the Linux
kernel, an operating system kernel
first released 5 October 1991 by
Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and
server use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives
such as Ubuntu and Linux Mint), Red Hat Enterprise Linux (and its derivatives such as
Fedora and CentOS), Mandriva/Mageia, openSUSE(and its commercial derivative SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server), and Arch Linux. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel,
supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill
the distribution's intended use
A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. It derives much of its
basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Such a
system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control,
networking, and peripheral and file system access. Device drivers are either
integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is
• A bootloader - for example GRUB or LILO. This is a program which is executed by the
computer when it is first turned on, and loads the Linux kernel into memory.
• An init program. This is a process launched by the Linux kernel, and is at the root of the
process tree: in other terms, all processes are launched through init. It starts processes such
as system services and login prompts (whether graphical or in terminal mode)
• Software libraries which contain code which can be used by running processes. On Linux
systems using ELF-format executable files, the dynamic linker which manages use of
dynamic libraries is "ld-linux.so". The most commonly used software library on Linux
systems is the GNU C Library. If the system is set up for the user to compile software
themselves, header files will also be included to describe the interface of installed libraries.
• User interface programs such as command shells or windowing environments
Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. The Linux kernel runs on a highly
diverse range of computer architectures.The popularity of Linux on standard desktop
computers and laptops has been increasing over the years. Currently most distributions
include a graphical user environment, with the two most popular environments being
GNOME (which can utilize additional shells such as the default GNOME Shell and
Ubuntu Unity), and the KDE Plasma Desktop
The majority of Linux variants are available for free or at a much lower price than
Microsoft Windows can run between $50.00 - $150.00 US dollars per each license copy.
Although the majority Linux variants have improved dramatically in ease of use, Windows is
still much easier to use for most computer users because of the familiarity of Windows
and because it's more likely they are using a Windows computer at home, in school, or at
Microsoft has made several advancements and changes that have made it a much easier to
use operating system, and although arguably it may not be the easiest operating system,
it is still Easier than Linux.
The majority of Linux variants and versions are notoriously reliable and can often run for
months and years without needing to be rebooted.
Although Microsoft Windows has made great improvements in reliability over the last few
versions of Windows, it still cannot match the reliability of Linux.
Software and applications:-
Linux has a large variety of available software programs, utilities, and games.
However, Windows has a much larger selection of available software.
Because of the large amount of Microsoft Windows users, there is a much larger
selection of available software programs, utilities, and games for Windows.
Many of the available software programs, utilities, and games available on Linux
arefreeware or open source. Even such complex programs such as Gimp,
OpenOffice, StarOffice, and wine are available for free or at a low cost.
Although Windows does have software programs, utilities, and games for free, the
majority of the programs will cost anywhere between $20.00 - $200.00+ US dollars
Linux is and has always been a very secure operating system. Although it still can be
attacked when compared to Windows, it much more secure.
Although Microsoft has made great improvements over the years with security on their
operating system, their operating system continues to be the most vulnerable to
viruses and other attacks.
Today, we have more quality choices of operating systems than
ever before, and choices are always a good thing. Choice inherently
means that there are differences, and with computers, that usually
leads to specialization.IT managers can use various insights to
make informed decisions on the operating system that best meets
their particular needs and priorities of their organizations
Thank you !!!