• People have more disposable
• Companies give more paid holidays
than they used to.
• Travel has become cheaper
(particularly air travel)
• Holiday providers now use the
internet to sell their products to
people directly which also makes
• Improvements in transport (e.g. more airports)
have made it quicker and easier to travel to
• Countries in more unusual destinations such as
the middle east and Africa have got better at
marketing themselves as tourist attractions. This
means more people are aware of them.
• Many countries have invested in infrastructure
for tourism to make them more attractive to
• New york
• Rome Beaches
• The Caribbean
• Tourism creates jobs for local people.
• It also increases the income of other
businesses that supply the tourism industry.
• Tourism is important to the economy of both
rich and poor countries e.g. tourism in
France generated 35 million euros In 2006
and 2 million jobs.
• Poorer countries tend to be more dependant
on income from tourism than richer ones.
• There were 32 million overseas visitors to
Britain in 2008.
• The UK is popular with tourists because of its:
• Historic landmarks
• Churches and cathedrals
• London is particularly popular for its museums,
theatres and shopping.
• London is the destination for half of all visitors
to the uk.
• In 2007 tourism contributed £114 billion to the
economy and employed 1.4 million people.
The lake district National park
• Gets around 15 Million visitors per year
• Tourists come to enjoy the scenery- for
example the large lakes and mountains
• There are many activities available:
• Pony trekking
• Bird watching
• Boat rides
• Rock climbing
• There are also cultural attractions e.g. the
Beatrix potter and wordsworth museums.
Strategies are needed to cope with the impact of tourists
Tourists cause traffic congestion, erode footpaths and drop
Coping with the extra traffic
• Public transport in the area is being improved so people
leave their cars at home.
• There are campaigns to encourage people to use the new
Coping with the erosion of footpaths
• Solutions include encouraging visitors to use less vulnerable
areas and instead changing the line of paths and using more
hard wearing material for paths.
• Protecting wildlife and farmland
• There are signs to remind visitors to take their litter home
and covered bins are provided at popular sites.
• There have been campaigns to encourage visitors to enjoy
the countryside responsibly.
There are plans to make sure the Lake district
continues to attract tourists.
• The official tourism strategy for Cumbria is to
attract an extra 2 million visitors by 2018.
• Public transport will be improved to make it
• There is to be widespread advertising.
• Farms will be encouraged to provide services
such as quad biking, clay pigeon shooting and
archery alongside traditional farming.
• Timeshare developments are to be increased.
Mass Tourism is organised tourism for large
numbers of people.
Mass tourism has both positive and negative
Economic Impacts • Brings Money into local
• Creates jobs for local people.
• Increases the income of
industries that supply tourism
• A lot of the profit made from
tourism is kept by the large travel
companies rather than going to
the local economy.
Social Impacts • Lots of jobs means young
people are more likely to stay
in the area.
• Improved roads,
communications benefit local
• Income from tourism can be
reinvested in local community
• The tourism jobs available to
locals are often badly paid and
• Traffic congestion caused by
tourists can inconvenience local
• The behaviour of some tourists
can offend locals.
Environmental impacts • Income from tourism can be
reinvested in protecting the
• Transporting lots of people long
distances releases greenhouse
gasses that cause global
• Tourism can increase litter and
• Tourism can lead to the
destruction of natural habitats
There are ways to reduce the negative impacts of mass tourism:
• Improving Public transport encourages people to use it, which reduces traffic
congestion and pollution.
• Limiting the number of people visiting sensitive environments.
• Providing lots of bins helps reduce litter.
The importance of Tourism needs to be maintained
Areas that rely heavily on tourism need to make sure tourists
Here are a few ways they can do this:
• BULID NEW FACILITIES
• REDUCE TOURIST IMPACTS WHICH MAKE THE AREA LESS
• ADVERTISE AND MARKET THE ARE TO ATTRACT NEW
• IMPROVE TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE
• OFFER NEW ACTIVITIES
• MAKE IT CHEAPER TO VISIT.
Kenya is in East Africa
It gets over 700 00 visitors per year.
There are a few reasons why people visit
• A fascinating tribal culture and lots of
wildlife including the big five ( Rhino,
lion, elephant, buffalo and leopard)
• A warm Climate with sunshine all year
• Beautiful scenery including savannah,
mountains, forests, beaches and coral
Economic Impacts • Tourism contributes 15% of
the country's gross national
• In 2003 around 219 000
people worked in the tourist
• Only 15% of the money earned
through tourism goes to locals.
The rest goes to big companies
Social Impacts • The culture and customs of
the native maasai tribe are
preserved because things like
traditional dancing are often
displayed for tourists.
• Some Maasai tribes people were
forced off their land to create
• Some Muslim people in Kenya
are offended by the way female
Environmental impacts • There are 23 national parks In
Kenya e.g. Nairobi national
park. Tourists have to pay
money to get in. This money
is used to maintain the
national parks which help
protect the environment and
• Safari vehicles have destroyed
vegetation and caused soil
• Wild animals have been affected
• Coral reefs have been damaged.
Extreme environments are becoming popular
There are many reasons why tourists are attracted to
• They're ideal settings for adventure holidays activities
such as jeep tours, river rafting and trekking.
• Some people want something different and more
exciting to do on holiday.
• A lot of people enjoy an element of risk.
• Some wildlife can only be seen in these areas.
• Some scenery can only be seen in extreme places.
There are also reasons why tourism is
increasing in extreme environments
• Improvements of transport have made
it quicker and easier to get to some of
• People are keen to see places like
Antarctica for themselves while they
have the chance.
• Tourism to extreme environments is
quite expensive but people now have
more disposable income.
• Adventure holidays are becoming more
popular because of TV programmes
The ecotourism's in extreme environments are usually
delicately balanced, because its so difficult to survive in the
harsh conditions there. The presence of tourists can upset
this fragile balance and cause serious problems.
Here's an example of how tourism can damage the
environment in the Himalayas:
• Trees are cut down to provide fuel for trekkers and other
tourists leading to deforestation.
• Deforestation destroys habitats.
• Deforestation means there are fewer trees to intercept
rain. Which can lead to flooding.
• Tree roots normally hold the soil together so
deforestation also leads to soil erosion.
• Tourists cause footpath erosion
• Rivers become polluted by sewerage
The Antarctica is becoming more popular with Tourists
• Antarctica is a continent at the earths South pole.
• It covers an area of about 14 million km 2 and about 98% is covered with ice.
• The number of tourists visiting Antarctica each year is rising e.g. there were 7413
in 1996/1997 season but 46000 in the 2007/2008 season.
• Tourists are attracted by the scenery and wildlife.
• Tourism has environmental impacts in Antarctica
• Antarctica is cold and doesn’t get much sunshine in winter so the land
ecosystems are very fragile- it takes a long time for them to recover from damage.
The sea ecosystem is delicately balanced, this means that tourists can have a
massive impact on the environment there:
• Tourists can trample plants, disturb wildlife and drop litter.
• There are fears that tourists could introduce non-native species or diseases that
could wipe out existing species.
• Spillage of fuel from ships is also a worry as fuel spills kill molluscs and fish as well
as the birds that feed on them.
Ecotourism is tourism that
doesn’t harm the environment
and benefits the local people.
Conservation-protecting and managing the environment.
Stewardship-taking responsibility for conserving the
Ideally conservation and stewardship should involve local
people and local organisations so that local people benefit
Ecotourism is usually a small scale activity, with only
small numbers of visitors going to an area at a time. This
helps keep the environmental impact of tourism low.
Environmental benefits Economic benefits Benefits for local
• Local people are
encouraged to conserve
the environment rather
than use it for damaging
• It reduces poaching and
hunting of endangered
• Ecotourism projects try
to reduce the use of
• Waste that tourists
create is disposed of
• Ecotourism creates jobs
for local people (e.g. as
guides or in tourist
lodges) which helps the
local economy grow.
• Local people not
directly employed in
tourism can also make
money by selling local
crafts to visitors or
supplying the tourist
industry with goods.
• People have better and
more stable incomes in
ecotourism than in
other jobs e.g. farming
• Many ecotourism
community projects e.g.
schools, water tanks
and health centres.
1. Sustainable development means improving the
quality of life for people but doing it in a way that
doesn’t stop people in the future getting what
2. Ecotourism helps areas to develop by increasing
the quality of life for local people- the profits
from ecotourism can be used to build schools or
3. The development is sustainable because its done
without damaging the environment- without
ecotourism people may have to make a living to
improve their lives by doing something that
harms the environment e.g. cutting down trees.