Documents, Data, Events Document created by Humans. Text, Music, Movies Data collected by Humans Photos, Audio, … Events happen. Most documents describe events and objects in those. Most data is collected for events.
Facebook, Twitter, Google +, … Sensor networks Billions of sensor getting connected Ambitious projects Planetary Skin by Cisco and NASA Smart Planet by IBM
Can things in real world be connected to other things? Does this even make sense?
Five Senses connect us to the world. We use our sensors (vision, audio, …) to experience the world. Sensors could be the interface between the Cyberspace and the Real World. Sensors are placed for ‘detecting events’. How do you decide what sensors to put at any place? Would you put a sensor if nothing interesting ever happens at a place?
People Structural Things PlacesCausal Time Experiences Experiential Events
Objects -- popular in the West. Relationships and Events – popular in the East. Objects and Events – seems to be the new trend. The Web has re-emphasized the importance of every object and event being connected to others -- East Meets West.
Consider a Web in which each node Is an event Has informational as well as experiential data Is connected to other nodes using Referential links Structural links Relational links Causal links Explicit links can be created by anybody This EventWeb is connected to other Webs.
SN are web-based services that allow individuals to: construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site. Node in a SN Professor at University of California, IrvineStudied Electronics and Communications at Indian Institute of Technology, KharagpurLives in Professor at University of California, IrvineStudied Electronics and Communications at Indian Institute of Technology, Irvine, CaliforniaMarried to Sudha JainKnows English, HindiFrom NagpurBorn on June 8 KharagpurLives in Irvine, CaliforniaMarried to Sudha JainKnows English, HindiFrom NagpurBorn on June 8
Professor atUniversity of California,IrvineStudied Electronics andCommunications at IndianInstitute of Technology,KharagpurLives in Irvine,CaliforniaMarried to SudhaJainKnows English,HindiFrom NagpurBorn onJune 8
Connecting Information PeopleAggregation Situation Alerts and DetectionCompositionAnd QueriesResources
All traditional Persistent Web sources Micro blogs Status updates Tweets Streams Micro Events All sensors ‘Chirping’ Internet of Things People input in any form
Result of Exponential growth in connectivity Sensor Networks Evolution of Sharing Culture Technology for Collective Knowledge
Each Micro-blog: What’s on your mind? What’s happening? Share What’s New … Really an event reported by Humans. Can associate experiential data along with information. Time and location can be associated.
Billions of disparate kinds of sensors being placed everywhere. Each sensor detects ‘basic events’ and broadcasts it in a simple form. Develop a system to process these micro-events and make them useful.
‘Chirps’ could be of different types Define behaviors like: Heavy traffic Popular event going on People leaving X area Violence starting ... Use for Macro-behvior analysis
Representa*ons Examples More abstrac*on, Level 3: Number of accidents Proper*es Symbolic Rep. Less detail (Events) Characteriza*ons Level 2: Average speed, Transforma*ons Aggrega*on Proper*es Occupancy rate (Emage) Level 1: Uniﬁed representa*on Proper*es Speed at Exit 7 (STT Data)Less abstrac*on, More detail Level 0: Raw data Loop … sensors e.g. Waze, 511 33
Representa*ons Examples More abstrac*on, Level 3: Proper*es Badly affected areas Symbolic Rep. Less detail (Events) Characteriza*ons Level 2: Mean traffic smoke Transforma*ons Aggrega*on Proper*es exposure time (Emage) Per capita Asthma tweets Level 1: Uniﬁed representa*on Proper*es Pollen count in NYC (STT Data)Less abstrac*on, More detail Level 0: Raw data Tweets Pollen Fire Traffic congestion counts reports 34
From Micro-behavior to Macro-behavior Studied in many fields: Economics Thermodynamics Systems Biology Web facilitates this for many novel applications
Divide space (world) into small Pixels of appropriate size. Assume that each event is a particle of a specific type. Create a Social Image for specific type of events. A time-ordered sequence of these emages will be similar to a video representing spatio- temporal changes in events of that type.
S. No Operator Input Output 1 Selection σ Temporal Temporal E-‐mage Set E-‐mage Set 2 Arithmetic & K*Temporal E-‐mage Temporal E-‐mage Set Logical⊕ Set 3 Aggregation α Temporal E-‐mage set Temporal E-‐mage Set 4 Grouping γ Temporal E-‐mage Set Temporal E-‐mage Set 5 Characterization : • Spatial φ • Temporal E-‐mage Set • Temporal Pixel Set • Temporal τ • Temporal Pixel Set • Temporal Pixel Set 6 Pattern Matching ψ • Spatial φ • Temporal E-‐mage Set • Temporal Pixel Set • Temporal τ • Temporal Pixel Set • Temporal Pixel Set 38
Macro situation Alert Level=High Date=12/09/10 Micro event Situational Control Action e.g. “Arrgggh, I controller “Please visit have a sore nearest CDC throat” • Goal center at 4th St (Loc=New York, • Macro Situation immediately” Date=12/09/10) • RulesLevel 1 personal threat + Level 3 Macro threat -> Immediateaction
1. For centralized agencies Most of what we have done so far2. For individuals who subscribe Asthma3. Alerts based on (implicit subscription): user’s (FB) interests, events attending, trips, sports, music, fan pages… Maybe we can derive asthma, from FB details?4. I’m bored! What’s around me? (based on a generic interest set) NowLedger
Brand monitoring Epidemic monitoring Political campaigns Decision making: e.g. iphone new store
Concerts, Campaigns, Memorabilia, Book stores, (anything you are a fan of) Your friends Only show content whose ‘information’ is high. If your friend normally lives 500 miles away and is NOW within 5 miles then alert. If he is always within 2 miles, don’t alert.
Food Drinks Movies Concerts Academic Professional
Direct the innovation and R&D towards the needs of the World’s middle class – the Middle of the Pyramid (MOP). Expand the Middle to cover the Bottom.
Health Education Agriculture Social For addressing all life elements.
Resource ingestion Situation analysis ‘Real Time’ matching of needs and availability of resources Interaction environments User engagement, … and many others
Event Based Experience Centric Centered around YOU No Country Left Behind