An Energy Aware QOS
Routing Protocol For
Wireless Sensor Network
Guided By Prepared By
Bhadreshsinh Gohil Jaimin M Raval
Asst. Prof. WiMC
GTU-PG School 131060753026
• An Energy Aware QOS Routing Protocol
• Literature Review
• Performance Result
• In Wireless Sensor Networks led to many new routing protocols
designed for sensor network. Almost all routing protocol considered
energy efficiency as the ultimate objective.
• But after introduction of video and imaging sensors data requires
both energy and QOS aware routing protocol.
• An Energy Aware QOS Routing Protocol finds a least-cost, end-to-end
delay ,calculation of link cost.
• Adjusting the service rate for real time and non real time data at the
What is Ad Hoc Network ?
• Dynamically formed.
• Infrastructure less network.
• Wireless Multihop Network.
• No need any Access point.
• They can be deployed anywhere without the need for any fixed
infrastructure. like base stations.
• An intermediate node is used to forward packets.
• Each node participates in routing by forwarding data for other nodes.
• Each node acts as a router and a host.
• Fast network establishment.
• Ad Hoc network used for disaster Management, Emergency situation
and main used in War Zone.
• Sensor networks are a subclass of Ad hoc networks.
What is QOS ?
• Quality of Service was define by ITU(International Telecommunication
Union) in 1994.
• QOS is the ability to provide different priority to different application, user
to guarantee a certain level of performance.
• Example:- Bit rate, Delay, Jitter, Bandwidth, Packet dropping probability.
• Bit Rate:- define as number of bits that are processed pre unit. Which bits
are transferred from one location to another location.
• Delay:- can be define as the time that required to receive packet from the
• Jitter:- Is define as a variation in the delay of received packets.
• Bandwidth:- Range of frequency / width.
An Energy Aware QOS Routing Protocol
• Our aim is find out an optimal path to the gateway in terms of energy
• End-to-End delay which is required in real time data.
• In this protocol we are calculate the link costs for each node and use
the k-least cost path algorithm to find a set of candidate routes.
• In this protocol we introduce the Queuing model.
• Queuing model is specifically designed for real time and non real time
traffic in each sensor.
•Classifier:- which check the different
type of the incoming packet and sends
it to the appropriate queue.
•Scheduler:- which determines the
order of packets to be transmitted from
the queues according to the bandwidth
ratio “r” of each type of traffic on that
•Class-based queuing model used to
support best-effort and real-time traffic
generated by imaging sensors.
• All sensors are battery-operated with
active mode or stand by mode.
• Sensor have a one or multiple command
• In a disaster management environment
show in fig. there are fire truck, rescue
vehicles, helicopters are example of
mobile command nodes.
• A gateway is responsible for organizing
the activities at sensor nodes, data
collected by sensor nodes,
communication with sensor node and
interacting with command node.
• The gateway node is assumed to know its
location, e.g. Via use of GPS.
• In the architecture, sensor nodes are
grouped into clusters controlled by a
single command node.
• Sensor are only capable of radio-based
• Every Cluster has a gateway node that
manages sensor in the cluster.
• The command node will inform each
gateway node of the ID and location of
sensors in its cluster.
• Sensor receive commands from and
sending reading to its gateway node,
gateway can track event or target using
reading from sensors in any cluster by
• Gateway should able to route sensor data
to other gateway, interface with the
• In Ethernet, Virtual local area networks may be used to separate
different QOS levels.
• Example:- In fibre-to-the-home switches typically offer several
Ethernet ports connected to the different VLANs.
• One VLAN may be used for internet access (low priority).one for IP TV
(higher priority) and one for IP Telephony(highest priority).
• Different internet service providers may use the different VLANs.
• A TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) based MAC is used for nodes
to send data to the gateway.
There are used different types of Energy Aware QOS routing
1.SAR(Sequential Assignment Routing)
• SAR is the first protocol for sensor network that includes the QOS in
• Multi-path approach, maintain tables at each sensor.
• Select one of the paths according to the energy resources and QoS on
• But SAR more focus on the Energy Consumption.
2 . Speed
•Each node maintain information about its neighbours and uses greedy geo-graphic
forwarding to find the paths.
•But Speed does not assume more powerful gateway or cluster heads.
3 . CEDAR(Core Extraction Distributed Ad Hoc Routing)
•Uses the idea of core nodes(dominating set)of the network while
determining the path , data flow in many to one manner.
•If any node in the core is broken, it will cost too much resource to
reconstruct the core.
•This QOS routing protocol specifically design for TDMA based network.
• Find a least cost path.
• Calculate cost for each link , line 1.
• Find appropriate r-values ,calculated for
paths from imaging sensor to the gateway,
• r-value is calculate on the current path ,line
• If value is not between 0 to 1,then extended
Dijsktra algorithm for k-shortest path.
• Find r-value form different path , line 9.
• If r-value is in the range of 0 to 1 then value
is store in list.
• Otherwise rejected the connection line 15.
• Find the maximum r-value from list, line 17.
r-value goes down while end-to-end
delay gets looser r-value with Real time data
Average delay per packet decreases
with increasing probability
Average lifetime node will increase
since not all packets reach their.
Average delay per packet increases
with buffer size increases
Increases number of transmission
power then decreases average lifetime
• In this seminar, The protocol finds QOS paths for real time data with
• Queuing model used for distributed real time data and non real time
• Used of the k-least cost algorithm we are try to find out the r-value
• Simulation results show our protocol performance with respect to
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Sensor Networks, “Baltimore, MD 21250, July 2003.
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Sydney, Australia, 2004.
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Brisbane, Australia, 2004.
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