Dean Amory - essential knowledge for coaches


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Dean Amory - essential knowledge for coaches

  1. 1. 871
  2. 2. EssentialEssential KnowledgeKnowledge forfor PersonalPersonal CoachesCoaches Dean Amory 872
  3. 3. Title: Essential Knowledge for Personal Coaches Compiled by: Dean Amory Publisher: Edgard Adriaens, Belgium ISBN: 978-1-4716-6926-2 © Copyright 2011, Edgard Adriaens, Belgium, - All Rights Reserved. This book has been compiled based on the contents of trainings, information found in other books and using the internet. It contains a number of articles and coaching models indicated by TM or © or containing a reference to the original author. Whenever you cite such an article or use a coaching model in a commercial situation, please credit the source or check with the IP -owner. If you are aware of a copyright ownership that I have not identified or credited, please contact me at: 873
  4. 4. The greatest good you can do for another is not just to share your riches, but to reveal to him his own. – Benjamin Disrael Cover picture: Freedom - - zenos frukadis - philadelphia 874
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS 4/ INTRODUCTION..............................................................877 4/ USEFUL SKILLS ..............................................................878 4.1. PROBLEM SOLVING ...................................................878 4.2 DEALING WITH OBSTACLES AND RESISTANCE901 4.3 FIXING GOALS..............................................................934 4.4 MOTIVATING OTHERS ..............................................949 4.5 SURFING THE FLOW SPIRAL ...................................956 4.6 INCREASING SELF ESTEEM .....................................976 4.7 RESOLVING CONFLICT .............................................995 4.8 DYSFUNCTIONAL PERSONALITY TYPES...........1008 4.9 DEALING WITH DIFFICULT PEOPLE ...................1013 4.10 LEARNING STYLES .................................................1034 4.11 CHANGE MANAGEMENT .......................................1050 4.12 THE GRIEF CYCLE ...................................................1082 4.13 KNOWING AND NOT KNOWING...........................1089 4.14 RELAPSE PREVENTION..........................................1156 4.15 BRAINSORTMING.....................................................1159 4.16 DESENTISATION.......................................................1175 4.17 BUILDING ASSERTIVENESS ..................................1176 4.18 ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS.........................................1178 4.19 THE JOHARI WINDOW............................................1180 4.20 DECISION MAKING..................................................1183 4.21 TIME MANAGEMENT ..............................................1188 4.22 STRATEGIC PLANNING ..........................................1223 4.23 ACTION PLANNING..................................................1244 4.24 THE POWER OF HABITS .........................................1254 4.25 THE ART OF DELEGATION...................................1258 4.26 AFFIRMATIONS AND POSITIVE THINKING .....1266 4.27 STAGES OF THE CHANGE CONTINUUM............1275 875
  6. 6. 4.28 CONGRUENCE ..........................................................1280 4.29 AUTHENTICITY........................................................1282 4.30 PARADIGMS ..............................................................1286 4.31 BALANCE ...................................................................1290 4.32 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (E.Q.)...................1297 4.33 THE FIVE FREEDOMS.............................................1305 4.34 GENDER DIFFERENCES.........................................1311 4.35 PITFALLS FOR COACHING...................................1314 4.36 FEAR ............................................................................1315 4.37 TEAMWORKING AND TEAMROLES ...................1322 4.38 ANGER MANAGEMENT ..........................................1326 4.39 LEADERSHIP STYLES..............................................1358 4.40 SWOT ANALYSIS.......................................................1392 4.41 THINGS YOU WISH YOU HAD KNOWN SOONER1416 4.42 HOW TO INFLUENCE PEOPLE..............................1447 4.43 THE MINTO PYRAMID PRINCIPLE......................1457 5 EXAMPLES OF COACHING DOCUMENTS ..............1460 5.1 EXAMPLE OF GENERAL INFORMATON FORM1460 5.2 EXAMPLE OF COACHING AGREEMENT............1466 5.3 EXAMPLE OF COACHING COMMITMENTS.......1471 5.4 EXAMPLE OF ASSESSMENT FORM ......................1473 876
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION This is the third part in a series of three books about Personal coaching. Part 1, “Personal Coaching” is about what Personal Coaching is and offers a surview of the most popular models for Personal Coaching (or “Life Coaching”) and Self Coaching. Part 2, “Techniques for Personal Coaching and Self Coaching” introduces you to the most powerful coaching techniques in use and describes the most successful questions and strategies for coaching. Part 3, “Essential Knowledge for Personal Coaches”, is a practical standard reference work highlighting the knowledge and skills that are indispensable for anybody who is considering life coaching as a career or as a serious self coaching process, Dean Amory's Complete Life Coaching and Personal Coaching Course is your best guide for coaching your coachees and yourself towards maximizing your life potential and achieving a happier and more fulfilled life. Personal Coaching is an invaluable training manual for anybody who takes life coaching seriously. 877
  8. 8. 4/ Useful Skills 4.1 PROBLEM SOLVING The ability to respond effectively to problems is associated with improved treatment outcome. Supporting development of problem solving skills can be clinically useful and is best achieved through: - a combination of verbal and written information - demonstration (when possible) - learning through practice and feedback Developing problem solving skills can consist of identifying occasions when the coachee has solved other problems and noting the steps they took. Effective problem solving can be learned. It consists of five steps: 1. Orientation Stand back from the problem; view it as a challenge, not a catastrophe. How might someone else solve this? 2. Define the problem it is important to be specific Coachee: ‘My wife and I do not get on’ Clinician: ‘Give me an example of what you mean’ Coachee: ‘She doesn’t like me being out on Friday nights’ 3. Brainstorm solutions At this stage, anything goes. Identify as many solutions as possible — discourage evaluation and a search for quality. 878
  9. 9. 4. Decision making The coachee (with your help, but not direction) reviews the positives and negatives of each of the options, and their ability to implement them, and makes an informed choice of the best option(s) to embrace. 5. Implementation A plan of action is developed and the option is implemented. Sometimes it is useful to rehearse the option (where possible) to test out the viability of the strategy and to increase self-efficacy (confidence). It is not the coach’s responsibility to solve the coachee’s problems, but to teach a skill that he or she can use in a variety of circumstances. IDEAL METHODE OF PROBLEM SOLVING Whatever issue you are faced with, some steps are fundamental:  Identify the problem  Define the problem  Examine the options  Act on a plan  Look at the consequences 879
  10. 10. There are several stages to solving a problem: 1) Evaluating the problem  Clarifying the nature of a problem  Formulating questions  Gathering information systematically  Collating and organising data  Condensing and summarising information  Defining the desired objective 880
  11. 11. 2) Managing the problem  Using the information gathered effectively  Breaking down a problem into smaller, more manageable, parts  Using techniques such as brainstorming and lateral thinking to consider options  Analysing these options in greater depth  Identifying steps that can be taken to achieve the objective 3) Decision-making  deciding between the possible options for what action to take  deciding on further information to be gathered before taking action  deciding on resources (time, funding, staff etc) to be allocated to this problem 4) Resolving the problem  Implementing action  Providing information to other stakeholders; delegating tasks  Reviewing progress 5) Examining the results  Monitoring the outcome of the action taken  Reviewing the problem and problem-solving process to avoid similar situations in future At any stage of this process, it may be necessary to return to an earlier stage – for example, if further problems arise or if a solution does not appear to be working as desired. 881
  12. 12. Source: university of Kent 882
  13. 13. B. Robert Holland set out a typical problem solving process in his manual “Sequential analysis” with the following steps: Step 1 Analytical problem solving Scientific problem solving What is the problem? What question do you want your analysis to answer? Visualise the difference between the results you get and the results you want. Define the discrepancy between the results you get and what you expect. Where does the problem lie? How can be picture the current situation? Visualise the structure elements of the present situation causing the result. State the traditional assumptions of the theory that give rise to the discrepancy. Why does the problem exist? How can we isolate the problem? Analyse each element whether it is the cause. Create hypothesis that give alternative structures to eliminate the discrepancy. What can we do about it? What options do we have? Formulate the logical alternative changes. Devise experiments that will exclude false hypothesis. What should we do about it? What recommendation can we give? Create a new structure incorporating the changes. Reformulate the theory on the basis of the experimental results. 883
  14. 14. Questions and observerations for Problem Solving and Decision Making 1. Definition of the problem 1. What can you see that causes you to think there's a problem? 2. Where is it happening? 3. How is it happening? 4. When is it happening? 5. With whom is it happening? (HINT: Don't jump to "Who is causing the problem?" When we're stressed, blaming is often one of our first reactions. To be an effective manager, you need to address issues more than people.) 6. Why is it happening? 7. Write down a five-sentence description of the problem in terms of "The following should be happening, but isn't ..." or "The following is happening and should be: ..." As much as possible, be specific in your description, including what is happening, where, how, with whom and why. (It may be helpful at this point to use a variety of research methods. Defining complex problems: If the problem still seems overwhelming, break it down by repeating steps 1-7 until you have descriptions of several related problems. Verifying your understanding of the problems: It helps a great deal to verify your problem analysis for conferring with a peer or someone else. Prioritize the problems: If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you should address first. 884
  15. 15. Note the difference between "important" and "urgent" problems. Often, what we consider to be important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more attention. For example, if you're continually answering "urgent" phone calls, then you've probably got a more "important" problem and that's to design a system that screens and prioritizes your phone calls. Understand your role in the problem: Your role in the problem can greatly influence how you perceive the role of others. For example, if you're very stressed out, it'll probably look like others are, too, or, you may resort too quickly to blaming and reprimanding others. Or, you are feel very guilty about your role in the problem, you may ignore the accountabilities of others. 2. Look at potential causes for the problem  It's amazing how much you don't know about what you don't know. Therefore, in this phase, it's critical to get input from other people who notice the problem and who are effected by it.  It's often useful to collect input from other individuals one at a time (at least at first). Otherwise, people tend to be inhibited about offering their impressions of the real causes of problems.  Write down what your opinions and what you've heard from others.  Regarding what you think might be performance problems associated with an employee, it's often useful to seek advice from a peer or your supervisor in order to verify your impression of the problem.  Write down a description of the cause of the problem and in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why. 885
  16. 16. 3. Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem At this point, it's useful to keep others involved (unless you're facing a personal and/or employee performance problem). Brainstorm for solutions to the problem. Very simply put, brainstorming is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best idea. It's critical when collecting the ideas to not pass any judgment on the ideas -- just write them down as you hear them. (A wonderful set of skills used to identify the underlying cause of issues is Systems Thinking.) 4. Select an approach to resolve the problem  When selecting the best approach, consider:  Which approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term?  Which approach is the most realistic to accomplish for now? Do you have the resources? Are they affordable? Do you have enough time to implement the approach?  What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative? (The nature of this step, in particular, in the problem solving process is why problem solving and decision making are highly integrated.) 5. Plan the implementation of the best alternative (this is your action plan) 1. Carefully consider "What will the situation look like when the problem is solved?" 2. What steps should be taken to implement the best alternative to solving the problem? What systems or processes should be changed in your organization, for example, a new policy or procedure? Don't resort to solutions where someone is "just going to try harder". 886
  17. 17. 3. How will you know if the steps are being followed or not? (these are your indicators of the success of your plan) 4. What resources will you need in terms of people, money and facilities? 5. How much time will you need to implement the solution? Write a schedule that includes the start and stop times, and when you expect to see certain indicators of success. 6. Who will primarily be responsible for ensuring implementation of the plan? 7. Write down the answers to the above questions and consider this as your action plan. 8. Communicate the plan to those who will involved in implementing it and, at least, to your immediate supervisor. (An important aspect of this step in the problem-solving process is continually observation and feedback.) 6. Monitor implementation of the plan Monitor the indicators of success: 1. Are you seeing what you would expect from the indicators? 2. Will the plan be done according to schedule? 3. If the plan is not being followed as expected, then consider: Was the plan realistic? Are there sufficient resources to accomplish the plan on schedule? Should more priority be placed on various aspects of the plan? Should the plan be changed? 7. Verify if the problem has been resolved or not One of the best ways to verify if a problem has been solved or not is to resume normal operations in the organization. Still, you should consider: 887
  18. 18. 1. What changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future? Consider changes to policies and procedures, training, etc. 2. Lastly, consider "What did you learn from this problem solving?" Consider new knowledge, understanding and/or skills. 3. Consider writing a brief memo that highlights the success of the problem solving effort, and what you learned as a result. Share it with your supervisor, peers and subordinates. Rational Versus Organic Approach to Problem Solving Rational A person with this preference often prefers using a comprehensive and logical approach similar to the guidelines in the above section. For example, the rational approach, described below, is often used when addressing large, complex matters in strategic planning. 1. Define the problem. 2. Examine all potential causes for the problem. 3. Identify all alternatives to resolve the problem. 4. Carefully select an alternative. 5. Develop an orderly implementation plan to implement that best alternative. 6. Carefully monitor implementation of the plan. 7. Verify if the problem has been resolved or not. A major advantage of this approach is that it gives a strong sense of order in an otherwise chaotic situation and provides a common frame of reference from which people can communicate in the situation. A major disadvantage of this approach is that it can take a long time to finish. Some people might argue, too, that the world is much too chaotic for the rational approach to be useful. 888
  19. 19. Organic Some people assert that the dynamics of organizations and people are not nearly so mechanistic as to be improved by solving one problem after another. Often, the quality of an organization or life comes from how one handles being “on the road” itself, rather than the “arriving at the destination.” The quality comes from the ongoing process of trying, rather than from having fixed a lot of problems. For many people it is an approach to organizational consulting. The following quote is often used when explaining the organic (or holistic) approach to problem solving. “All the greatest and most important problems in life are fundamentally insoluble … They can never be solved, but only outgrown. This “outgrowing” proves on further investigation to require a new level of consciousness. Some higher or wider interest appeared on the horizon and through this broadening of outlook, the insoluble lost its urgency. It was not solved logically in its own terms, but faded when confronted with a new and stronger life urge.” From Jung, Carl, Psychological Types (Pantheon Books, 1923) A major advantage of the organic approach is that it is highly adaptable to understanding the chaotic changes that occur in projects and everyday life. It also suits the nature of people who shun linear and mechanistic approaches to projects. The major disadvantage is that the approach often provides no clear frame of reference around which people can communicate, feel comfortable and measure progress toward solutions to problems. Source: solving.htm 889
  20. 20. Problem Solving: Definition, terminology, and patterns by Hidetoshi Shibata Copy rights © H. Shibata all reserved, 1997, 1998 Problem Solving Terminology Systems Thinking 890
  21. 21. Problem Solving is very important but problem solvers often misunderstand it. This report proposes the definition of problems, terminology for Problem Solving and useful Problem Solving patterns. We should define what is the problem as the first step of Problem Solving. Yet problem solvers often forget this first step. Further, we should recognize common terminology such as Purpose, Situation, Problem, Cause, Solvable Cause, Issue, and Solution. Even Consultants, who should be professional problem solvers, are often confused with the terminology of Problem Solving. For example, some consultants may think of issues as problems, or some of them think of problems as causes. But issues must be the proposal to solve problems and problems should be negative expressions while issues should be a positive expression. Some consultants do not mind this type of minute terminology, but clear terminology is helpful to increase the efficiency of Problem Solving. Third, there are several useful thinking patterns such as strategic thinking, emotional thinking, realistic thinking, empirical thinking and so on. The thinking pattern means how we think. So far, I recognized fourteen thinking patterns. If we choose an appropriate pattern at each step in Problem Solving, we can improve the efficiency of Problem Solving. This report will explain the above three points such as the definition of problems, the terminology of Problem Solving, and useful thinking patterns. Definition of problem A problem is decided by purposes. If someone wants money and when he or she has little money, he or she has a problem. But if someone does not want money, little money is not a 900
  22. 22. problem. For example, manufacturing managers are usually evaluated with line-operation rate, which is shown as a percentage of operated hours to potential total operation hours. Therefore manufacturing managers sometimes operate lines without orders from their sales division. This operation may produce more than demand and make excessive inventories. The excessive inventories may be a problem for general managers. But for the manufacturing managers, the excessive inventories may not be a problem. If a purpose is different between managers, they see the identical situation in different ways. One may see a problem but the others may not see the problem. Therefore, in order to identify a problem, problem solvers such as consultants must clarify the differences of purposes. But oftentimes, problem solvers frequently forget to clarify the differences of purposes and incur confusion among their problem solving projects. Therefore problem solvers should start their problem solving projects from the definition of purposes and problems Terminology of Problem Solving We should know the basic terminology for Problem Solving. This report proposes seven terms such as Purpose, Situation, Problem, Cause, Solvable Cause, Issue, and Solution. Purpose Purpose is what we want to do or what we want to be. Purpose is an easy term to understand. But problem solvers frequently forget to confirm Purpose, at the first step of Problem Solving. Without clear purposes, we can not think about problems. Situation Situation is just what a circumstance is. Situation is neither 901
  23. 23. good nor bad. We should recognize situations objectively as much as we can. Usually almost all situations are not problems. But some problem solvers think of all situations as problems. Before we recognize a problem, we should capture situations clearly without recognizing them as problems or non-problems. Without recognizing situations objectively, Problem Solving is likely to be narrow sighted, because problem solvers recognize problems with their prejudice. Problem Problem is some portions of a situation, which cannot realize purposes. Since problem solvers often neglect the differences of purposes, they cannot capture the true problems. If the purpose is different, the identical situation may be a problem or may not be a problem. Cause Cause is what brings about a problem. Some problem solvers do not distinguish causes from problems. But since problems are some portions of a situation, problems are more general than causes are. In other words causes are more specific facts, which bring about problems. Without distinguishing causes from problems, Problem Solving can not be specific. Finding specific facts which causes problems is the essential step in Problem Solving. Solvable Cause Solvable cause is some portions of causes. When we solve a problem, we should focus on solvable causes. Finding solvable causes is another essential step in Problem Solving. But problem solvers frequently do not extract solvable causes among causes. If we try to solve unsolvable causes, we waste time. Extracting solvable causes is a useful step to make 902
  24. 24. Problem Solving efficient. Issue Issue is the opposite expression of a problem. If a problem is that we do not have money, the issue is that we get money. Some problem splvers do not know what Issue is. They may think of "we do not have money" as an issue. At the worst case, they may mix the problems, which should be negative expressions, and the issues, which should be positive expressions. Solution Solution is a specific action to solve a problem, which is equal to a specific action to realize an issue. Some problem solvers do not break down issues into more specific actions. Issues are not solutions. Problem solvers must break down issues into specific action. Thinking patterns This report lists fourteen thinking patters. Problem solvers should choose appropriate patterns, responding to situations. This report categorized these fourteen patterns into three more general groups such as thinking patterns for judgements, thinking patterns for thinking processes and thinking patterns for efficient thinking. The following is the outlines of those thinking patterns. Thinking patterns for judgements In order to create a value through thinking we need to judge whether what we think is right or wrong. This report lists four judging patterns such as strategic thinking, emotional thinking, realistic thinking, and empirical thinking. 903
  25. 25. Strategic thinking Focus, or bias, is the criterion for strategic thinking. If you judge whether a situation is right or wrong based on whether the situation is focused or not, your judgement is strategic. A strategy is not necessarily strategic. Historically, many strategists such as Sonfucis in ancient China, Naplon, M. Porter proposed strategic thinking when they develop strategies. Emotional thinking In organizations, an emotional aspect is essential. Tactical leaders judge whether a situation is right or wrong based on the participantsf emotional commitment. They think that if participants can be positive to a situation, the situation is right. Realistic thinking  Start from what we can do  Fix the essential problem first These two criteria are very useful. Starting is very important, even if we do very little. We do not have to start from the essential part. Even if we start from an easier part, starting is a better judgement than a judgement of not-starting in terms of the first part of realistic thinking. Further, after we start, we should search key factors to make the Problem Solving more efficient. Usually, 80 % of the problems are caused by only 20 % of the causes. If we can find the essential 20 % of the causes, we can fix 80 % of problems very efficiently. Then if we try to find the essential problem, what we are doing is right in terms of the second part of realistic thinking. Empirical thinking When we use empirical thinking, we judge whether the situation is right or wrong based on our past experiences. Sometimes, this thinking pattern persists on the past criteria 904
  26. 26. too much, even if a situation has changed. But when it comes to our daily lives, situations do not change frequently. Further, if we have the experience of the identical situation before, we can utilize the experience as a reliable knowledge data base. Thinking patterns for thinking processes If we can think systematically, we do not have to be frustrated when we think. In contrast, if we have no systematic method, Problem Solving frustrate us. This reports lists five systematic thinking processes such as rational thinking, systems thinking, cause effect thinking, contingent thinking, and the Toyotafs five times WHYs method . Rational thinking Rational thinking is one of the most common Problem Solving methods. This report will briefly show this Problem Solving method. 1. Set the ideal situation 2. Identify a current situation 3. Compare the ideal situation and the current situation, and identify the problem situation 4. Break down the problem to its causes 5. Conceive the solution alternatives to the causes 6. Evaluate and choose the reasonable solution alternatives 7. Implement the solutions We can use rational thinking as a Problem Solving method for almost all problems. Systems thinking Systems thinking is a more scientific Problem Solving approach than the rational thinking approach. We set the system, which causes problems and analyze them based on systemsf 905
  27. 27. functions. The following arre the system and how the system works. System  Purpose  Input  Output  Function  Inside cause (Solvable cause)  Outside cause (Unsolvable cause)  Result In order to realize Purpose, we prepare Input and through Function we can get Output. But Output does not necessarily realize Purpose. Result of the Function may be different from Purpose. This difference is created by Outside Cause and Inside Cause. We can not solve Outside Cause but we can solve Inside Cause. For example, when we want to play golf, Purpose is to play golf. If we can not play golf, this situation is Output. If we can not play golf because of a bad weather, the bad weather is Outside Cause, because we can not change the weather. In contrast, if we cannot play golf because we left golf bags in our home, this cause is solvable. Then, that we left bags in our home is an Inside Cause. Systems thinking is a very clear and useful method to solve problems. Cause effect thinking Traditionally, we like to clarify cause and effect relations. We usually think of finding causes as solving problems. Finding a cause and effect relation is a conventional basic Problem Solving method. 906
  28. 28. Contingent thinking Game Theory is a typical contingent thinking method. If we think about as many situations as possible, which may happen, and prepare solutions for each situation, this process is a contingent thinking approach. Toyota fs five times WHYs At Toyota, employees are taught to think WHY consecutively five times. This is an adaptation of cause and effect thinking. If employees think WHY and find a cause, they try to ask themselves WHY again. They continue five times. Through these five WHYS, they can break down causes into a very specific level. This five times WHYs approach is very useful to solve problems. Thinking patterns for efficient thinking In order to think efficiently, there are several useful thinking patterns. This report lists five patterns for efficient thinking such as hypothesis thinking, conception thinking, structure thinking, convergence divergence thinking, and time order thinking. Hypothesis thinking If we can collect all information quickly and easily, you can solve problems very efficiently. But actually, we can not collect every information. If we try to collect all information, we need so long time. Hypothesis thinking does not require collecting all information. We develop a hypothesis based on available information. After we developed a hypothesis, we collect minimum information to prove the hypothesis. If the first hypothesis is right, you do not have to collect any more information. If the first hypothesis is wrong, we will develop 907
  29. 29. the next hypothesis based on available information. Hypothesis thinking is a very efficient problem-solving method, because we do not have to waste time to collect unnecessary information. Conception thinking Problem Solving is not necessarily logical or rational. Creativity and flexibility are other important aspects for Problem Solving. We can not recognize these aspects clearly. This report shows only what kinds of tips are useful for creative and flexible conception. Following are portions of tips.  To be visual.  To write down what we think.  Use cards to draw, write and arrange ideas in many ways.  Change positions, forms, and viewpoints, physically and mentally. We can imagine without words and logic, but in order to communicate to others, we must explain by words and logic. Therefore after we create ideas, we must explain them literally. Creative conception must be translated into reasonable explanations. Without explanations, conception does not make sense. Structure thinking If we make a structure like a tree to grasp a complex situation, we can understand very clearly. Upper level should be more abstract and lower level should be more concrete. Dividing abstract situations from concrete situations is helpful to clarify the complex situations. Very frequently, problem solvers cannot arrange a situation clearly. A clear recognition of a complex situation increases efficiency 908
  30. 30. of Problem Solving. Convergence divergence thinking When we should be creative we do not have to consider convergence of ideas. In contrast, when we should summarize ideas we must focus on convergence. If we do convergence and divergence simultaneously, Problem Solving becomes inefficient. Time order thinking Thinking based on a time order is very convenient, when we are confused with Problem Solving. We can think based on a time order from the past to the future and make a complex situation clear. Source: Hidetoshi Shibata Copy rights © H. Shibata all reserved, 1997, 1998 - 909
  31. 31. 4.2 DEALING WITH OBSTACLES AND RESISTANCE 44..22..11HHOOWWTTOORREEMMOOVVEEOOBBSSTTAACCLLEESSTTOOPPEERRSSOONNAALLGGRROOWWTTHH Do you know how to calculate the amount of fear holding you back in life? Take a pen and a piece of paper. On top of the page, write down your current age, for instance 34 years old. At the bottom, indicate how old you intend to grow before you die. Death at 80 is a reasonable target. Now comes the mathematical part of the exercise. Draw a straight line connecting your current age with your death. That line represents the number of days that you have left on earth. In our example, the difference between 80 and 34 leaves you with 46 years, that is, almost 17.000 days. The last part of the game consists of deciding how you are going to use those 17.000 days. Now, draw a vertical line on your page, which divides your future in two areas. On the left side of the line, you can write down safe and commonplace goals. On the right side, difficult and disruptive ambitions. The rules of the exercise allow you to list as many activities as you wish, provided that you don't run out of time to live. Boring projects are easy to name and quantify. They include, amongst others, looking for better jobs, cleaning the house and going on holidays. Don’t forget mundane tasks such as working five days a week, watching television, walking the dog, washing your car once per month and shopping for new clothes. When your remaining term of 46 years is up, you are dead. 910
  32. 32. You only need to worry about the opposite side of the line if you have unused time, which is unlikely. The truth is that most people will allocate their complete lifespan to left-side tasks. What about the right side of the line? Does anyone actually write down adventurous, risky goals? Are there people foolish enough to risk total failure in order to pursue their dreams? Is it not better to stick to attainable objectives? This is the type of activities that usually come up under the label difficult and disruptive: 1. Live in Paris for a year (500 days, including preparation and removals) 2. Start up and grow a global business (3000 days) 3. Write twenty great books (3000 days) 4. Save and invest until you are able to live from dividends (6000 days) 5. Learn to cook according to good nutrition principles (300 days) 6. Lose weight and acquire habits that allow you to stay in good shape (500 days) One could argue that this game is useless, since it has no winner and no loser. Since the same individual appears on both sides of the line, what is the point? What is the purpose of the exercise? The answer is that, paradoxically, the subjects on each side of the line are different persons. One of them is boring, the other fearless. One of them is aimless, the other determined. One of them is predictable, the other exciting. The lesson is that, one day, the 46 years will be consumed all the same. At the end, results will be trivial or spectacular, meaningless or irreplaceable. 911
  33. 33. If you don't like the outcome of your calculations, take a blank piece of paper, draw a new vertical line, and start the exercise again. After a few times, you will get quite good at it. At one point, you will begin to fear boring activities more than risky ones. If you are already there, congratulations, now you know how to win the game. TheThe ArtArt ofof ObstacleObstacle RemovalRemoval One of the best ways to go faster is to remove the things that slow you down. This obstacle removal is an integral part of many agile methods including Scrum and Lean. Sometimes it is obvious where an obstacle is. There are a few small things that can be done easily to go faster. But to get going really fast, we need to have a deeper understanding of obstacles... and the Art of Obstacle Removal. What are Obstacles? An obstacle is any behavior, physical arrangement, procedure or checkpoint that makes getting work done slower without adding any actual contribution to the work. Activities that do add value to our work may be slowed down by obstacles, but are not obstacles in and of themselves. Obstacles and Waste Obstacles are the causes of waste in a process. There are many types of waste, and for every type of waste there are many possible sources (obstacles). Types of Obstacles Personal Personal obstacles are related to us as individuals. There are several levels at which these obstacles can show up. Outside factors in our lives such as illness or family obligations can become obstacles to our work at hand. These obstacles are 912
  34. 34. hard to remove or avoid. Even if we would want to avoid an obstacle such as illness, it is hard to do anything about it in an immediate sense. However, as part of our commitment to the group we are working with, we should consider doing things to generally improve our health. Good sleep, healthy and moderate eating, exercise and avoidance of illness-causing things and circumstances are all possible commitments we can make to the group. Likewise, we can make sure our personal affairs are in order so that unexpected events have the least impact possible. This topic is vast and there are many good sources of information. Physical Environment Obstacles in the physical environment can consist of barriers to movement or communication, or a lack of adequate physical resources. Sometimes these obstacles are easy to see because their effects are immediate. For example, if a team room lacks a whiteboard for diagrams, keeping notes, etc., then the team may not be able to communicate as effectively. Other physical obstacles are not so obvious. The effects of physical environment can be subtle and not well-understood. Poor ergonomics take weeks, months or years for their effects to be felt... but it is inevitable. A too-small team room can lead to a feeling of being cooped up and desperation to get out... and eventually to resentment. Again this can take weeks or months. Knowledge A lack of knowledge or the inability to access information are obstacles. A team composed of junior people who don't have diverse experience and who don't have a good knowledge of the work they are doing will have trouble working effectively. There may be barriers preventing the team from learning. Common barriers include over-work leading to a lack of time or mental energy for learning. With junior people in particular, there is a 913
  35. 35. lot of pressure to be productive and that can often be at the expense of a solid foundation of learning. Other times, knowledge-related barriers can be more immediate. If a critical piece of information is delayed or lost this can have a large impact on an Agile team that is working in short cycles. The team may be temporarily halted while they wait for information. Building effective information flow is critical to a team's performance. Organizational Bureaucratic procedures, organizational mis-alignment, conflicting goals, and inefficient organizational structures can all be significant obstacles. One of the best sources of information about this is the two books by Jim Collins: Good to Great (Review) and Built to Last Cultural Sometimes the beliefs we have about how to work can become obstacles to working more effectively. These beliefs are often in place because they have been part of what we think makes us successful. Cultural assumptions can come from our families, our communities, our religious affiliation and our national identity. In organizational culture, one thing I constantly see is a public espoused value of teamwork, but a conflicting behavior of individual performance reviews and ranking. This is cultural. It is also a barrier to the effective functioning of an Agile team. For corporate environments I highly recommend the Corporate Culture Survival Guide by Edgar Schein. 914
  36. 36. Dis-Unity Dis-unity is one of the most subtle and common forms of obstacle. Competition, legal and cultural assumption of the goodness of opposition and habits of interaction including gossip and backbiting all combine to make united action and thought very difficult. This is an extremely deep topic. There are many tools and techniques available to assist with team building. If you are interested in this topic, I highly recommend reading The Prosperity of Humankind. Eliminate Waste Waste is the result of activities or environmental conditions that prevent a team from reaching its goal. The opposite of waste is something that adds value (more, faster or higher quality) to the desired result. The whole notion of eliminating waste comes from lean manufacturing. More recently, Mary and Tom Poppendieck applied this idea to software in their book Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit for Software Development Managers. In this (excellent) book, the authors list the wastes of manufacturing and the wastes of software. As wastes are eliminated or reduced, a team will function faster and with higher quality. However, not all waste can be eliminated. Sometimes waste is legislated, sometimes waste is an unavoidable by-product of work, sometimes mistakes are made, and sometimes it takes a great deal of effort to eliminate a waste. 915
  37. 37. Here I have summarized and generalized these types of wastes so that they apply in any situation: TheThe SevenSeven WastesWastes 1. waiting - caused by delays, unreadiness, or simple procrastination 2. partially done work or inventory - caused by sub-optimal workflow 3. extra processing or processes - caused by poor organization or bureaucracy 4. defects and rework - caused by insufficient skill, tools, inspection or filtering 5. movement of people or work - caused by physical separation 6. overproduction or extra features - caused by working towards speculative goals 7. task switching - caused by multiple commitments In order to eliminate waste, first waste has to be detected and identified, then the underlying causes of the waste have to be identified, and finally changes to the work environment need to be made to both eliminate the cause of the waste and the waste itself. Many agile work practices help with this process. Value stream mapping is one particular tool that can be used by a team or organization to identify wasteful activities. The team describes the amount of time that work takes to go through each activity in their overall work process. Next, the team determines if each activity adds value or does not add value to the end goal. All activities are subject to speed improvements, and activities that do not add value are subject to elimination. In order to determine the causes of waste, special attention should be paid to incentives and motivations. Wasteful behavior often exists because there is some incentive for people to do it. 916
  38. 38. Sometimes these incentives are explicit, but sometimes they are the side-effects of other things going on in the team's environment. Changing the incentives can be an effective way of reducing waste. By eliminating waste, the team will find it has reduced frustrations, and enabled greater productivity and creativity. The team will also increase its speed and delivery of value, and at the same time reduce defects. Removing Obstacles The ability to identify obstacles and understand why they are causing problems is only the first step in removing obstacles. In Agile Work, the person primarily responsible for identifying and removing obstacles is the Process Facilitator. The Process Facilitator has several approaches available for the removal of obstacles. A process facilitator has similar responsibilities to a change agent. Direct Deal with the obstacle directly without involving other people. This can be as simple as getting up and moving an obstacle impairing vision, or as nuanced as running interviews and workshops throughout an organization to gradually change a cultural obstacle. Command and Control Identify the obstacle and give precise instructions for its removal to a person who will directly perform the removal. This can sometimes work if removing an obstacle takes a great deal of time, effort or specialized skills that you yourself do not possess. However, the overall approach of command and control is not recommended for Agile environments since it is disempowering. 917
  39. 39. Influence Identify the obstacle and suggest means to deal with it to a person who has the authority or influence to get others to deal with it. This indirect method of obstacle removal can be slow and frustrating. However it usually has better long-term effects than command and control. Support Offer to assist and encourage the removal of obstacles that have been identified by other people. In many respects this is a very effective method. It can assist with team-building and learning by example. People are usually grateful for assistance. Coaching Train others on the art of obstacle removal including obstacle identification, types of obstacles and strategies for dealing with obstacles. Observe people's attempts to remove obstacles and give them feedback on their actions. Creating a Culture of Obstacle Removal Encourage and measure obstacle removal at all organizational levels until it becomes habitual. In many ways this is the essence of the lean organization. 918
  40. 40. StrategiesStrategies forfor DealingDealing withwith ObstaclesObstacles Diagrams are a great way of communicating the essense of a concept. Feel free to share the following diagrams with anyone (but of course keep the copyright notice on them). Remove Remove the obstacle altogether. This method of dealing with an obstacle is usually the most immediately effective, but is also one of the most difficult methods. 919
  41. 41. The best way to actually remove an obstacle is to get at the root cause of the obstacle and change that. This type of change results in the longest-lasting and most stable elimination of an obstacle. Move Aside Take the obstacle and put it in a place or situation where it is no longer in the path of the team. In a team's physical environment, this may be as simple as changing the tools that the team is using. For example, if the team is all in a room together, move computer monitors that are blocking team member's views of each other. If there is a useless checkpoint that work results have to go through, get management to eliminate it. Shield Build a shield or barrier to hide the obstacle so that it's effects no longer touch your team. 920
  42. 42. If a team is distracted by noisy neighbors, put up a sound barrier. If a team is unable to see their computers due to late afternoon sunlight, put up window shades. If a manager is bothering the team with meetings or tasks unrelated to the work of the team, then put yourself between the team and the manager (or get someone in upper management to do that). Shielding is excellent for immediate relief, but remember that the obstacle is still there and may become a problem again if the shield cannot be maintained. Transform Change the structure or form of the obstacle so that it no longer affects effectiveness. 921
  43. 43. In general, this method requires a great deal of creativity and open-mindedness. This is one that works particularly well on people who are obstacles: convert them into friends of the team! For example if the team needs approval of an expert who is not part of the team, this can cause extra work preparing documentation for this person and long delays while the expert revies the documents. If the expert becomes part of the team, then they are well-informed of the work being done and can give approval with very little overhead. If done well, this can be a very long-lasting method of dealing with an obstacle. Make sure that the transformation is true and that it takes hold... and beware that the obstacle doesn't revert back to its old nature. Counteract Find an activity that negates the effects of the obstacle by boosting effectiveness in another area. As a coach or Process Facilitator, this is what we spend our time in early in a team's adoption of Agile Work: we get them to work in the same room, use iterations and adaptive planning, we focus them on delivering work valued by the stakeholders as defined 922
  44. 44. by the Product Owner. All these things are enhancing the team's ability to get work done without actually directly dealing with any obstacles. Watch out for barriers avoided this way to come back and bite you later on. Removing Obstacles and Learning Organizational learning, as well as adult learning have a strong relationship to obstacle removal. Organizational learning can be either single-loop or double-loop learning. Adult learning can be either normal or transformative. We can approach obstacle removal from a surface level where we only deal with the immediate symptom, or we can work at a deeper level where we deal with the symptom and its chain of preceding causes. One effective method for examining the deeper causes is the 5-why's exercise Obstacles Inherent in Agile Agile methods do not perfectly eliminate all obstacles. Some obstacles that are inherent in agile methods include overhead due to planning meetings at the start of iterations, the use of a dedicated process facilitator. As well, the use of iterations can become a barrier to certain types of work items: repeating items, investment in infrastructure, one-off tasks that are not directly related to the work at hand. At some point, our teams will have matured to the point where agile methods are no longer necessary and we can pick and choose what parts of agile we use. 923
  45. 45. 4.2.2 DEALING WITH RESISTANCE There's old wisdom that advises that we can only lean against that which resists. This suggests that there might just be something good, or at least useful, about resistance. Discovering what this is and learning to work with it is key to understanding reluctance to change. After all, change often occurs as a direct result of resistance. Great men, such as Nelson Mandela, are testimony to this. Resistance can be viewed as alternative, negative, or wrong. But we need to balance this with a healthy view of resistance which points to positive processes rather than placid acceptance. Benjamin Franklin valued this, telling us that questioning authority is the first responsibility of every citizen. It helps to understand that resistance is a normal response and that trying to avoid any resistance is futile. Accepting this immediately allows a different response to resistance in which we anticipate it and work with it. Why people resist change:  Don’t see a need to change  Needs are being met  Invested in what they have now  Don’t know how to change  Poor communication regarding change  Change comes from an external source and they haven’t embraced it  Fears: losing control, failure  Don’t know why they should do it  No negative consequences  New situation worse than existing one 924
  46. 46. There are in fact many reasons people resist change, most of these reasons however have a common source. Fear. Most of us hold a deep fear of change and our ability to adapt. Many of the reasons for people's reluctance or refusal to change are related to the fear of change. These fears can also be related to loss associated with the change. All change involves loss at some level and this can be difficult to contemplate. Loss associated with change can be very practical such as loss of work, colleagues, or office environment. Or it can be less obvious, relating to concerns about loss of status, self esteem, or ability to perform new work. Fear of change can leave us feeling lost, confused, and torn between the need to take action and doing nothing. How to recognise resistance There are a number of behaviours that are signs and symptoms of an adverse reaction to change. These include:  Aggression and anger  Unusual flare-ups of emotion  overt resistance 925
  47. 47.  Coachees portraying themselves as innocent victims of unreasonable expectations  Insensitive and disagreeable behaviour  Not meeting key performance areas (missing meetings , failing assignments, not responding to emails, for example)  Late arrival  Not responding, not listening, seems disinterested  Active attempts to disrupt or undermine the project Of course, each of these do not necessarily mean that people are opposing change. They might be indicators, but could just as easily be indicators of other issues in the person's life. Real resistance usually occurs after people's uncertainties and questions regarding change have not been adequately answered. How to deal with it The best laid plans and systems fail if the people side of change management is ignored. Resistance to change is a normal response, so plan for it, expect it and accept it. Resistance does not mean that the change is bad, or that the management of change has failed. Nor does it mean that those resisting change are 'bad seeds' that need to be weeded out! Rather anticipate resistance and direct your energy to facilitating what Kurt Lewin would refer to as the Unfreezing and Change/Transition stages. Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis is a powerful strategic tool to help you analyse aspects of the change that may lead to resistance. Assessing resistance to change is an important part of a change impact assessment that should be conducted very early in the process. 926
  48. 48. Even if you're introducing small changes don't assume that that these will be easier for people to accept - especially if they already feel threatened or have low trust in the process. If you're aware of any indicators of resistance to change then you'll need to take some time out to listen to people's concerns. Yup, listen. Don't talk, just listen (or get someone else they trust to listen). The clue to overcoming resistance is understanding that you cannot avoid resistance, but you can manage it. Remember that people experience change in personal ways. Addressing people's values when you encounter resistance to change can reduce any negative impact of resistance. Changing your attitude towards resistance is what's needed to ensure successful change. Anticipating resistance to change is part of a successful change management strategy and will help to keep people motivated and positive about change. Here are some great tips: 1. Let your client speak his peace and/or vent if necessary. Give him space to express himself. If you react emotionally and try to stop him, argue, or immediately explain why he is off base, you will just fuel the fire. Sometimes letting off steam is the first step to opening to a healing path and moving in a more positive direction. 2. Reflect back to the client what you heard her say, so she knows that she has been listened to. “Wow, you are really angry at your boss, and you don’t see any other option but to retaliate.” Or “Your daughter won’t move out and support herself, and you are completely frustrated.” Or “I’m hearing that you are disappointed that you haven’t made more progress in coaching thus far.” When your client feels heard and acknowledged, he may lighten up and be willing to see and explore more healthy options. 927
  49. 49. 3. Reflect back to the client behaviors that might be a sign of resistance, of which the client may be unaware. “You’ve been [late to your sessions] [cancelled] three times now. Is there anything going on that you are having a hard time with that may be uncomfortable to look at?” Or “You’ve had the same situation going on with your last three jobs. Do you see any connection between what’s going on out there and what’s happening inside of you?” 4. Dealing with “Yes, but. . . ”s: “I’ve made three suggestions for reframes on your situation that could help you feel freer and move beyond what is troubling you, and you’ve answered “Yes, but. . . “ to each of them. Are you really ready or willing to get beyond this?” 5. Illuminate cost and payoff. “What do you think is the payoff for you continuing to feud with your ex-? What is the cost? What would be the payoff of harmonizing? What would be the cost?” 6. Direct approach: “I have been working with you on this for _______ length of time now, and it sounds to me like you have a pretty strong investment, for whatever reason, in this situation continuing. Is there any way you can see yourself shifting on this? I hope you will. If not, let’s not talk about this anymore, and let’s turn our attention to issues you’d rather make progress on.” You may even tell the client that you do not see anything more you can do for her at this point, and if she wants to continue coaching, you will need to see some movement. 7. Tune into your intuition. The above suggestions may all work in different situations, yet every coaching situation is unique. If you sincerely ask inside yourself, you will receive guidance as to how to deal with a particular form or moment of resistance. Sometimes you may need to be gentle and soft, and other situations may require a firmer stand or compassionate confrontation. Set your intention that your sessions will be 928
  50. 50. resistance free, and if any instances of resistance come up, you will know how to deal with them and move on. 8. Check in with yourself as to what beliefs, feelings, attitudes, or expectations within yourself that your client may be reflecting. Are you worried about having a resistant client? Do you question your ability as a coach? Do you have judgments about something that the client is reflecting? Why have you attracted this person or this moment with this person into your experience? The clearer you get about your intentions, your purpose, and your confidence, the clearer your clients will get about the situations and energies they bring to your practice. 9. Sometimes resistant clients can become your biggest success stories. At the first retreat I presented, a woman bucked me and the program at every turn. On the last day of the program something clicked for her and she came to me with a big smile and proclaimed “I finally got it!” Her healing and transformation were as powerful as her resistance had been. She ultimately came to many more programs and was a “star student.” Excuses the coach will hear for tasks not being accomplished Trying: “I implemented a numeracy strategy and it didn’t work, but I did what the consultant said to do.” Blame: “Manny said he’d have the data reports ready last Friday but he didn’t get them to me until yesterday.” Doubt: “Group projects never work in math classes. Students need to be held individually accountable.” Reacting: “You expect me to find time to add something else?” Delay: “It’s a good idea, and I’ll get to it as soon as I finish the work on next month’s science fair.” 929
  51. 51. INQUIRY –A Best Practice Ask Questions that Promote Discovery for the Other Person Ask Questions that Focus on the Person Being Coached Powerful Questions Invite clarity, action, and discovery at a new level Create greater possibility for expanded learning and fresh perspective Powerful Requests Powerful requests are ways to cause change; to stir thought forward and cause action. “I request that you . . .” “I have a bold request for you.” The Power of Story Listening Stories make sense of experience in ways that integrate emotion and meaning –facilitating movement, direction, and purpose. Stories evoke power. FEED FORWARD instead of feedback. Is there a problem with feedback? Feedback focuses on a past, what has already occurred –not on opportunities in the future. Not fun. Feedforwardlooks at future actions, is fun as well as not negative. Some Powerful Coaching Questions (adapted from Co-Active Coaching by Whitworth, Kimsey-House Sandahl)  What do you think will happen?  What’s you back-up plan?  How does it look to you? 930
  52. 52.  How do you feel about it?  What do you mean?  Can you say more?  What do you want?  How will you know that you have reached it?  What will it look like?  How does this fit with your plans/values?  What do you think that means?  May we explore that some more?  What are your other options?  Would you like to brainstorm this idea?  Will you give an example?  What would it look like?  Will you tell me more about it?  Is there more?  How can you make it be fun?  If you could do it over again, what would you do differently?  If it were you, what would you have done?  What have you tried so far?  How is this working?  What is the action plan?  What support do you need to accomplish …?  What will you take away from this?  What are the possibilities?  What’s moving you forward?  What’s stopping you?  What resources do you need to help you decide?  What action will you take? And after that?  Where do you go from here? When will you do that?  What are your next steps? By when? 931
  53. 53. Powerful Coaching Inquiries (adapted from Co-Active Coaching by Whitworth, Kimsey-House Sandahl) An inquiry is a type of powerful question that is not meant to be answered immediately, but instead, offers the “coachee” an opportunity for reflection, discovery and learning.  What do I want?  What am I tolerating?  Where am I not being realistic/practical?  What is the difference between a wish and a goal?  Where is my attention?  If my whole attention is focused on producing the result, what will I have to give up?  What is working for me?  What will it take to keep me on track?  What am I willing/unwilling to change?  What am I settling for?  What is it to be creative/passionate/focused/a leader?  What is it to speak/act from my heart?  What does it mean to be proactive/centered/optimistic?  What is present when I am at my best?  What motivates me?  What am I resisting?  If I were at my best, what would I do right now?  What are my assumptions?  Where do I limit myself?  Where do I hold back?  What are my expectations?  How can I have this be easy?  Who can I get to play with me on this project?  What have I learned about myself? 932
  54. 54. Kurt Lewin - Change Management Model Kurt Lewin emigrated from Germany to America during the 1930's. Lewin is recognised as the founder of social psychology which immediately points to his interest in the human aspect of change. His interest in groups led to research focusing on factors that influence people to change, and three stages needed to make change successful. Unfreeze, Change, Freeze Kurt Lewin proposed a three stage theory of change commonly referred to as Unfreeze, Change, Freeze (or Refreeze). It is possible to take these stages to quite complicated levels but I don't believe this is necessary to be able to work with the theory. But be aware that the theory has been criticised for being too simplistic. A lot has changed since the theory was originally presented in 1947, but the Kurt Lewin model is still extremely relevant. Many other more modern change models are actually based on the Kurt Lewin model. I'm going to head down a middle road and give you just enough information to make you dangerous...and perhaps a little more to whet your appetite! Let's look at each of the three stages: Stage 1: Unfreezing The Unfreezing stage is probably one of the more important stages to understand in the world of change we live in today. This stage is about getting ready to change. It involves getting to a point of understanding that change is necessary, and getting ready to move away from our current comfort zone. This first stage is about preparing ourselves, or others, before the change (and ideally creating a situation in which we want the change). 933
  55. 55. The more we feel that change is necessary, the more urgent it is, the more motivated we are to make the change. Right? Yes, of course! If you understand procrastination (like I do!) then you'd recognise that the closer the deadline, the more likely you are to snap into action and actually get the job started! With the deadline comes some sort of reward or punishment linked to the job. If there's no deadline, then the urge to change is lower than the need to change. There's much lower motivation to make a change and get on with it. Unfreezing and getting motivated for the change is all about weighing up the 'pro's' and 'con's' and deciding if the 'pro's' outnumber the 'con's' before you take any action. This is the basis of what Kurt Lewin called the Force Field Analysis. Force Field Analysis is a fancy way of saying that there are lots of different factors (forces) for and against making change that we need to be aware of (analysis). If the factors for change outweigh the factors against change we'll make the change. If not, then there's low motivation to change - and if we feel pushed to change we're likely to get grumpy and dig in our heels. This first 'Unfreezing' stage involves moving ourselves, or a department, or an entire business towards motivation for change. The Kurt Lewin Force Field Analysis is a useful way to understand this process and there are plenty of ideas of how this can be done. Stage 2: Change - or Transition Kurt Lewin was aware that change is not an event, but rather a process. He called that process a transition. Transition is the inner movement or journey we make in reaction to a change. This second stage occurs as we make the changes that are needed. 934
  56. 56. People are 'unfrozen' and moving towards a new way of being. That said this stage is often the hardest as people are unsure or even fearful. Imagine bungey jumping or parachuting. You may have convinced yourself that there is a great benefit for you to make the jump, but now you find yourself on the edge looking down. Scary stuff! But when you do it you may learn a lot about yourself. This is not an easy time as people are learning about the changes and need to be given time to understand and work with them. Support is really important here and can be in the form of training, coaching, and expecting mistakes as part of the process. Using role models and allowing people to develop their own solutions also help to make the changes. It's also really useful to keep communicating a clear picture of the desired change and the benefits to people so they don't lose sight of where they are heading. Stage 3: Freezing (or Refreezing) Kurt Lewin refers to this stage as freezing although a lot of people refer to it as 'refreezing'. As the name suggests this stage is about establishing stability once the changes have been made. The changes are accepted and become the new norm. People form new relationships and become comfortable with their routines. This can take time. It's often at this point that people laugh and tell me that practically there is never time for this 'freezing' stage. And it's just this that's drawn criticism to the Kurt Lewin model. In todays world of change the next new change could happen in weeks or less. There is just no time to settle into comfortable routines. This rigidity of freezing does not fit with modern thinking about change being a continuous, sometimes chaotic process in which great flexibility is demanded. 935
  57. 57. So popular thought has moved away from the concept of freezing. Instead, we should think about this final stage as being more flexible, something like a milkshake or soft serv icecream, in the current favourite flavour, rather than a rigid frozen block. This way 'Unfreezing' for the next change might be easier. Given today's pace of change this is a reasonable criticism. But it might help to get in touch with what Kurt Lewin was actually saying. In 1947 he wrote: A change towards a higher level of group performance is frequently short-lived, after a shot in the arm, group life soon returns to the previous level. This indicates that it does not suffice to define the objective of planned change in group performance as the reaching of a different level. Permanency of the new level, or permanency for a desired period, should be included in the objective. (Kurt Lewin, Frontiers of Group Dynamics, Human Relations, Volume 1, pp. 5-41) Lewin's concern is about reinforcing the change and ensuring that the desired change is accepted and maintained into the future. Without this people tend to go back to doing what they are used to doing. This is probably what Kurt Lewin meant by freezing - supporting the desired change to make sure it continues and is not lost. More modern models of change, such as the ADKAR model, are more explicit about this step and include Reinforcement as one of their phases. I've also read this final step of freezing referred to as the lock-in effect. Establishing stability only happens when the new changes are locked-in. Thinking about change as a journey might make you think that a journey has a beginning , middle, and an end. While this is useful when thinking about the process of change the reality is that this journey doesn't have an end. Lots of rest stops maybe! Some opportunities for settling down for a while. But no end. So be 936
  58. 58. careful about thinking that a change process has a definite end, as the Lewin change management model might seem to suggest. In what ways do you think this model might be useful for you? I've found the Kurt Lewin model useful to frame a process of change for people that is quite easy to understand. Of course each stage can be expanded to aid better understanding of the process. Applying the concepts of Unfreezing, and especially the Force Field Analysis, at a personal level can give us insight and help us better understand how we deal with change. Force Field Analysis - Kurt Lewin Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis is a powerful strategic tool used to understand what's needed for change in both corporate and personal environments. Best of all - it's easy to use and has complete credibility as a professional tool. We'll use a little basic science to introduce the concept, after which you'll find enough information to allow you to unleash your knowledge of force fields on colleagues! The concept Let's start with a simple science experiment (this really is relevant, so stay with me for a moment please). You'll need to sit down for this one. You're sitting? Good. Now, what's keeping you in the chair? Well, there are two answers really. One is gravity which is pushing you down into the chair. A driving force, if you like. The other is the chair itself, which provides an opposing force, pushing up against gravity, and stopping you falling to the ground. 937
  59. 59. So it would seem that while you are sitting you're in an equilibrium of sorts. Two forces keep you there. Gravity pushes down, keeping you in the chair, and the chair resists this, stopping you from falling to the ground. Two equal forces, a driving force and a resisting or restraining force, working to keep the equilibrium or status quo. Agreed? Okay, now let's play. Let's say we want to move away from this equilibrium and get you to fall to the floor. What could we do? Well, on the one hand we could increase the amount of gravity. The chair will give way eventually and you will fall. On the other hand, we could leave gravity alone and decide to weaken the chair to get the same result. If you've followed me this far then you've just completed a force field analysis and understood the basic concepts of the force field analysis. It also helps to explain why our science experiment is relevant. You see, Kurt Lewin applied exactly this thinking to his theory of change within social situations - to people. May the Force be with you, or against you. Kurt Lewin wrote that An issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces - those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces). This is much the same as the experiment we just did and is summarised in the diagram below. 938
  60. 60. So before change the force field is in equilibrium between forces favourable to change and those resisting it. Lewin spoke about the existence of a quasi-stationary social equilibrium. For change to happen the status quo, or equilibrium must be upset – either by adding conditions favourable to the change or by reducing resisting forces. What Kurt Lewin proposes is that whenever driving forces are stronger than restraining forces, the status quo or equilibrium will change. Now that's useful. Especially if we apply this to understanding how people move through change and why they resist change. There will always be driving forces that make change attractive to people, and restraining forces that work to keep things as they are. 939
  61. 61. Successful change is achieved by either strengthening the driving forces or weakening the restraining forces. The force field analysis integrates with Lewin’s three stage theory of change as you work towards unfreezing the existing equilibrium, moving towards the desired change, and then freezing the change at the new level so that a new equilibrum exists that resists further change. Using the Force Field Analysis Lewin's force field analysis is used to distinguish which factors within a situation or organisation drive a person towards or away from a desired state, and which oppose the driving forces. These can be analysed in order to inform decisions that will make change more acceptable. 'Forces' are more than attitudes to change. Kurt Lewin was aware that there is a lot of emotion underlying people's attitude to change. To understand what makes people resist or accept change we need to understand the values and experiences of that person or group. Developing self awareness and emotional intelligence can help to understand these forces that work within us and others. It’s the behaviour of others that will alert you to the presence of driving and restraining forces at work. The following steps are a guide to using the force field analysis. You might find it useful to follow the process using the Force Field Analysis Application Tool available . 1. Define the change you want to see. Write down the goal or vision of a future desired state. Or you might prefer to understand the present status quo or equilibrium. 940
  62. 62. 2. Brainstorm or Mind Map the Driving Forces - those that are favourable to change. Record these on a force field diagram. 3. Brainstorm or Mind Map the Restraining Forces - those that are unfavourable to, or oppose change. Record these on the force field diagram. 4. Evaluate the Driving and Restraining forces. You can do this by rating each force, from 1 (weak) to 5 (strong), and total each side. Or you can leave the numbers out completely and focus holistically on the impact each has. 5. Review the forces. Decide which of the forces have some flexibility for change or which can be influenced. 6. Strategise! Create a strategy to strengthen the driving forces or weaken the restraining forces, or both. If you've rated each force how can you raise the scores of the Driving Forces or lower the scores of the Restraining Forces, or both? 7. Prioritise action steps. What action steps can you take that will achieve the greatest impact? Identify the resources you will need and decide how to implement the action steps. Hint: Sometimes it's easier to reduce the impact of restraining forces than it is to strengthen driving forces. Criticism of the force field analysis usually focuses on the subjectivity of attributing scores to the driving or restraining forces. Some writers suggest the model applies within limited settings and that there are situations outside of these settings in which Lewin’s theory may be less applicable. At the end of the day the force field analysis is a tool that may or may not be useful in your situation. You can decide this or allow others to make a decision. 941
  63. 63. The force field analysis is backed by the Lewin change management model and has, over time, developed credibility as a professional change management tool Sources: lesson-18/ Unleashing Potential – The Promise of Coaching Yvonne Freitas McGookin Matt Aspin change.html 942
  64. 64. 4.3 EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING A study revealed that amongst people with the same background, the top three percent outperform the next twenty- seven percent by a factor of ten. One of very few differences between these two groups was their attitude to goal setting. The top three percent have clear, written goals. For the twenty- seven percent group to join the top group would only take a shift in some attitudes and a realization that the art of goal setting would make them more successful to an amazing degree. In order to be effective, goal setting should be : - consistent with the coachee’s stage of change’ (e.g. a ‘pre- contemplator’ may resist a goal of total abstinence, but mayembrace reducing the risk of infection) - negotiated. Negotiation is not bestowed on a coachee . It is a strategy to influence behaviour. Negotiated goals are more likely to generate patient commitment and adherence. - realistic - specific and achievable. A broad goal may be broken down into several component parts - short-term; so that progress can be monitored and success quickly realised - solution-focused and defined in positive terms. Changing behaviour will be more successful if couched in positive terms of acquisition, rather than reduction; presence, not absence (e.g. increasing the number of days without smoking as opposed to decreasing the number of smoking days) 943
  65. 65. FIVE EASY STEPS TO SMART GOAL SETTING In order to have a good chance of being accomplished, a goal has to be specific. The point is, you need to know HOW TO SET SMART GOALS if you want to make SMART decisions in your life. Developing the skill of smart goal setting has the potential to make a significant difference in your life - it provides a solid platform for:  Starting personal and business projects  Making strategic decisions  Creating excellent action plans which incorporate your short and long term development goals If you don't know how to set SMART GOALS, then you may well not be realizing your full potential. Any SMART person will tell you the same thing: “if you don't know where it is you want to go, you are going to wind up somewhere else!” This would be so sorry, because you don't want to invest your precious time into any adventures without knowing exactly what it is you want to achieve, both in the short and long term. A lot of people go into a venture, having some vague idea about what they want to achieve and where they want to be in 6 months, 1 year, 5 and 10 years down the track. Well, I'm here to tell you that unless those ideas can be translated into specific 944
  66. 66. and measurable SMART GOALS, they are wasting their time - they just ain't gonna get there………sorry! WRITE YOUR GOALS DOWN - Think about your DREAMS and aspirations - where do you see yourself down the track, what are you doing, who are you doing it with, who do you want to help, do you own the house of your dreams, the car of your dreams, are you traveling the world, etc, - You get the picture………! The problem is that the words GOALS and DREAMS all too often become synonymous and that is where confusion sets in! Of course, there is nothing wrong with having a vision for your business and your life,. In fact it is absolutely a key ingredient for success. However, if you think a goal looks like this: I would like to be financially free, able to give up my JOB, stay at home and look after my kids, take them on world trips and live in a million dollar house Then think again!!! That's a dream alright, the kind you have in your pillow at night! But it's NOT a Goal! Sure, it could be your vision and it could become your reality, but in order to achieve this wildly inspiring picture you need to immerse yourself in some real goal setting activity, not just dreams! 945
  67. 67. So let's cut to the chase! What is SMART goal setting? S M A R T is a mnemonic used in management. S M A R T is a way to evaluate that the objectives for a particular project are relevant and appropriate for that project. S M A R T Objectives are an integral part of Management By Objectives (MBO). Management by objectives has been used extensively by managers as a planning tool. It is a process by which managers and employees work together and agree on specific and defined objectives for a particular project. This process ensures that both managers and employees agree on and are committed to the project outcomes. The origin of the term S M A R T objectives is unknown, however, Peter Drucker in his 1954 book The Practice of Management outlined a system that was very similar to S M A R T objectives as part of his discussion on Management by Objectives (MBO). The process of writing S M A R T objectives or smart goal setting has become a business management tool used extensively for project management and also for performance appraisal purposes. Learning how to write and use SMART goal setting is a skill you definitely want to master if you want to be successful in YOUR life and in YOUR business! 946
  68. 68. Success does not just happen to the lucky, nor is working hard sufficient. It is all about developing skills for success and those skills are many and varied. If you really want to make your life hum, you'll develop the skill of SMART goal setting and include this process as an integral part of your action plan. Smart goal setting adds clarity, focus and purpose to every action plan. Without objectives, planning is often non existent or at best done at the same time that you are about to take action! This is problematic and not good practice. Plans can often change as a result of either a lack of time to consider all options or because there was no predetermined outcome in the first place. In other words, you are flying by the seat of your pants instead of having a well thought through plan of attack. So what do you do if you've got NO IDEA how to set goals for your life and you need some goal setting tips - some simple techniques to get started? Well, I've got GREAT NEWS for you! It is really not that complex if you follow……… The 5 Easy Steps to SMART goal setting! Before we get started on those 5 Easy Steps, I want to make sure you are 100% clear on the following: 947
  69. 69. Firstly, what is an objective or goal? An objective or goal is a specific statement describing a RESULT. Secondly, why set goals? Setting and clarifying goals is an essential part of the path to success. Thirdly - what do objectives or goals provide for YOU?  Direction for activities  A clear process for defining expected results  The criteria against which actual accomplishments can be measured  Targets to motivate performance improvements  A common sense of purpose, which enhances teamwork SMART goal setting is one of the most positive and rewarding habits you can develop in your personal life, as it is in any business. It is a process by which you can evaluate the current situation and develop strategies to move forward. Moving forward is what gives you the growth and success that most people aspire too. If it is your desire to be successful in your life, then you most certainly don't want to accept the status quo. The only way to make sure you are not sitting in exactly the same place you are sitting in today, in 6 months, 1 year or 10 years time is to implement smart goal setting as one of your primary practices. SMART Goal Setting assists YOU to PLAN AHEAD and develop a STRATEGIC APPROACH to creating SUCCESS inYOUR life! 948
  70. 70. Here is how you do it: OK, so that's the goal setting theory - how would you apply this S M A R T model to your life? If a goal or objective is going to be an effective success building tool it needs to be S M A R T. In other words you need to write your goals so that they measure up against the S M A R T criteria from the 5 Easy Steps chart above. 949
  71. 71. Let's take a look at a real life example. How about this: ** I want to save enough in order to be able to buy a new car by the end of next year.” ** Is this a SMART Goal - does it measure up? Let's break up this goal and see if it's SMART using the goal setting form below. Can we can tick all the boxes right? It doesn’t really look like this could be an excellent example of smart goal setting, does it? 950
  72. 72. Let's look at this more closely by evaluating this objective in terms of each of the 5 Easy Steps: STEP ONE - SPECIFIC - is this objective specific? Do we know WHAT we are looking at here? NO, we do not - our objective is too vague: we do not know how much we will have to save, nor what car we want to buy. Vague objectives are not inspiring. We have to be able to visualize our goal: see ourselves enjoying the success when the goal will be met. STEP TWO - MEASURABLE - Do we know HOW MUCH or HOW MANY? You may have a perfectly clear idea about the price of the car you want to buy and the amount of money you will have to save, but you omitted to write the numbers down. In three months from now, how will you know that you are on the good track? How will you know when an extra effort is required? STEP THREE - ACTION ORIENTATED - Does it describe a result? Again, the words save and “buy a car” are too vague I'm afraid. What do they really represent? How would you measure this? How could you know that you are actually saving enough? Can you find a better way to describe the result you are looking for? STEP FOUR - REALISTIC - Is this goal realistic and relevant to the business owner? Again, it doesn’t show from the description of your goal. How much are you earning? How much can you save? How will you spread your saving effort? How will you anticipate possible changes in earnings, expenses, price of the car, unexpected costs, …? In a smart goal you will have taken these elements into account, 951
  73. 73. The key to remember here is this: smart goal setting is about setting goals that are challenging but realistically achievable - no point setting a goal for the sake of it and knowing there isn't a hope that you'll ever achieve it - that would be pretty demoralizing, not to mention slightly stupid! STEP FIVE - TIME-BASED - BY WHEN should this be done? In this case do we have a deadline by which this goal should be achieved in order that we might measure the outcome? The short answer is YES, we do. So, in this example, out of the 5 steps, only one has been correctly defined. How helpful would it be to you if your goals are this vague? - Is this SMART goal setting? ----- Well, NO! The solution to better planning is to define challenging, but realistic goals, then think ahead about what, how and by when exactly you want to achieve, be very specific about your data ... and to plan regular evaluations. The 5 EASY STEPS TO SMART GOAL SETTING. Smart Goal Setting is a very important part of your skill development and overall success in life. Don't ever underestimate the power of this skill to make your life hum! LEARN it, PRACTICE it and APPLY it to YOUR life. You'll be very glad you did! Source: 952
  74. 74. GoalsGoals andand Goal-SettingGoal-Setting Goal-setting is the one activity that sets apart self-developers from those who survive or just get by. Goal-setting enables us to create the future we want to happen rather than live the future that others want to happen. In goal-setting, we take charge. Here are 7 ways to set reachable goals. 1. Start With Your Strengths Although you can base your goals on anything you want, your chances of success are greater if, first, you base them on your strengths and second, on the current opportunities in your field. To find out your strengths, do some self-research, such as a personal SWOT: your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. 2. Put Your Goals In Writing Written goals have a way of transforming wishes into wants, can'ts into cans, dreams into plans and plans into reality. The act of writing clarifies your goals and provides you with a way to check your progress. You can even add reasons to give you more motivation. So don't just think it - ink it! 3. Dream Big One of the factors that restricts the realisation of our full potential is the belief that we shouldn't go for big goals. Yet all the evidence of those who realize big goals is that we can always achieve far more than we think. David Schwartz says in his book The Magic of Thinking Big: Big goals attract big resources like a magnet. 4. Pitch Each Goal Once you have set your ultimate goal, you then need to set the intermediate goals that will get you where you want. Don't pitch these too easily or too ambitiously or they will drop into the 953
  75. 75. Drop Zone. Aim to make them challenging: out of reach, but not out of sight. 5. Express Them Right It's important to express your goals in the right way. • never express your goal in terms of what you don't want; always in terms of what you do want • express your goals in performance terms not reward terms • express your goals in terms of how others benefit • express your goals according to the principles which matter. 6. Set Goals In Terms of Behaviour When we set goals for ourselves, they should be expressed in behavioural terms, rather than in terms of status, rewards or position. That’s because behaviour is something within our power, while status, rewards and position are not. Formulating goals in behavioural terms also means we present a strong positive image of ourselves to our brains. The brain, not knowing the difference between a real or imagined experience, then seeks to act in accordance with the presented image. 7. Pursue Your Goals With Passion The driving force behind your goal-achievement is Desire. You must desire your goals constantly, vividly and with a burning passion, knowing that you have already achieved them and now only need to realise them. If you do, you cannot fail to achieve them. It was said of Michaelangelo that, such was his focus and desire, he could blot out every distraction while working on a project such as the statue of David, until it was completed. Goal-setting is central to maximising our potential because it enables us to create something unique and new in our lives. Goal-setting allows us to feed our goal-oriented brain and puts us in control of our futures. 954
  76. 76. ProgrammingProgramming YourYour GoalsGoals Programming is a computer term that aptly describes what happens when we feed a goal into the network of our minds. We give it the goal and then programme it to achieve it. It then works like a locked-on missile seeking out its target. The following are 7 proven programming techniques that will ensure you land right on target. 1. Affirm What You Want Affirming what you want means stating your goal in the present tense as if you'd already achieved it. The brain takes whatever action needed to comply with the affirmation. Affirmations should be positive, realistic and expressed in emotive words such as “I love…” and “I enjoy…”. All of life’s outstanding achievers use affirmations. World champion boxer Muhammed Ali said, I am the greatest. Composer Ludwig van Beethoven said, I know that I am an artist. 2. Visualise It Visualisation means seeing yourself in your mind's eye having achieved your goal. The secret of visualisation is to do it in such rich detail, and with all your senses, that you are fully there. Ray Kroc, founder of restaurant chain McDonalds, had a regular bedtime routine, in which he would imagine all the day’s problems written on a blackboard. One by one, he would visualise them being solved. As a result, he managed to sleep like a log. 3. Associate Your Goal With Rewards Associate your goal with something you desire such as money, a desired object, or simply the feeling of pleasure and you will be motivated towards it. Alternatively, associate not getting your goal with something you don't want, such as loss of money or physical pain and you will remind yourself of what to avoid. 955
  77. 77. These two feelings, pleasure and pain, are powerful programming forces. 4. Act As If The more you act as if you've already achieved what you want, the more likely you are to achieve it. It's what cricketers do in the nets. Or teams that rehearse fire drills each week. Or entrepreneurs who visit their dream home each day as if they already owned it. The brain cannot tell the difference between actual reality and imagined reality and so will simply believe you have already achieved your goals. 5. De-Bug With Positive Self-Talk Just as a computer programme occasionally gets infected with viruses and bugs, so your own goal-setting programming can get infected with setbacks, doubts, and feelings of failure. That’s when you need an anti-virus mental programme to get rid of the bugs. One such programming is Positive Suggestion which is activated whenever you have thoughts of fear, panic or doom. Simply replace your negative thoughts with positive ones and remind yourself of your progress: “Every day in every way I am getting nearer and nearer my goals.” 6.Leave It Alone Once we feed our goals into our subconscious brains, it’s very important that we let our brains get on with the job without interference. The conscious brain is like the machine operator while the sub-conscious is the machine itself. This means that you have to let go and resist the temptation to analyse or check how it’s doing. When you let go, you let God or, if you like, let good into your life. 7. Pray With Heartfelt Gratitude Prayers are a form of programming that people have practised for centuries. But with one important difference from other 956
  78. 78. kinds of programming. As well as verbalizing or internalizing something you want, you give thanks as if you already possessed it. Such gratitude connects you to a mightier power than you possess and unleashes great forces that work on your behalf. When you practise these 7 programming techniques to achieve your goals, you will achieve with scientific certainty whatever you desire. 957
  79. 79. 4.4 MOTIVATING OTHERS Using Motivation Theories to Help Influence Behavior Written by: N Nayab • Edited by: Ginny Edwards Research has established a relationship between motivation theories and organizational behavior. Read on for an explanation of how employees behave in an organization and how to motivate them to work to their potential. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory The Need Hierarchy theory of Abraham Maslow, first expounded in 1943, ranks amongst the earliest studies linking motivational theory and organizational behavior. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory lists a hierarchy of five need levels: 1. Physiological needs, or the need for basic necessities such as food, water, and shelter 2. Safety needs, or the need for security in both home and work 3. Social needs, or the need for loving, acceptance, and group affiliation 4. Esteem needs, or the need for recognition and acknowledgment, and self-respect 5. Self-actualization needs, or the need to develop to one's fullest potential An employee works his way up the need hierarchy, and on fulfilling a need level, aspires for the next level. For instance, an employee already having attained recognition and 958
  80. 80. acknowledgment no longer remains motivated by rewards such as recognition and acknowledgment, and would instead require opportunities for self-actualization to remain motivated. Conversely, an employee frustrated by the inability to fulfill higher-level needs may strive to fulfill lower level needs. Organizations can motivate employees by identifying the individual employee’s position in the need hierarchy and creating conditions that make it possible for him or her to achieve such needs through efforts in the workplace. For example, good leadership can facilitate better group communications. Alfred Alderfer’s ERG Theory Alderfer’s ERG theory is a modification of Maslow’s need hierarchy theory, and holds motivation dependent on three need dimensions: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. Existence refers to desire for physiological and materialistic well-being, Relatedness refers to the desire to have significant positive relationships with other people of consequence, and growth refers to the desire to grow and use one’s innate abilities to the fullest potential. The theory holds that an individual remains motivated to any of these three need categories:  Need for achievement (nAch), such as the desire to do things in a better or efficient way, to solve complex problems, and the like  Need for affiliation (nAff) such as the desire to establish and maintain good relations with others, to become part of a group, and the like  Need for power (nPower), such as the desire to assume leadership, become a decision making authority, and the like 959