Chapter 8 handout blks_ 10-18-2011

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  • Figure: 10-14 Title: Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission. Caption: Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission.
  • Figure: 10-04 Title: The eukaryotic cell cycle. Caption: Interphase and cell division are the two major phases of the cell cycle.
  • Figure: 10-09 Title: Cytokinesis in an animal cell. Caption: Cytokinesis in an animal cell.
  • Figure: 10-10 Title: Cytokinesis in a plant cell. Caption: Cytokinesis in a plant cell.
  • Figure: 10-07 Title: The cell cycle in a plant cell. Caption: Interphase and mitosis in the African blood lily. The chromosomes are stained bluish-purple, and the spindle microtubules are stained pink to red. Compare these micrographs with the drawings of mitosis in an animal cell shown in Figure 10-8. (Each micrograph is of a different single cell that has been fixed and stained at a particular stage of mitosis. Only chromosomes and microtubules have been stained.)
  • Figure: 10-06 Title: A human male’s chromsomes. Caption: To make this picture, one male’s chromosomes were stained and photographed. Individual chromosomes were then cut out of the photo and arranged in descending order of size. The two chromosomes above each number are a pair that is similar in size and staining patterns and that has similar genetic material. In a set like this from a female, there would be two X chromosomes and no Y chromosome. Notice that the Y chromosome is much smaller than the X chromosome.
  • Figure: 10-03 Title: Mitotic and meiotic cell division in humans. Caption: Mitotic and meiotic cell division in humans.
  • Figure: 10-13UN01 Title: Anaphase I and genetic variability. Caption: Anaphase I and genetic variability.
  • Chapter 8 handout blks_ 10-18-2011

    1. 1. Chapter 8 CELL DIVISION I. Why Do Cells Divide? II. The Cell Cycle in Prokaryotes III. The Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes A. The Cell Cycle and Mitosis and Cancer B. Meiosis 1. Chromosome Numbers 2. The Human Life Cycle 3. Meiotic Cell Division: Meiosis I and II 4. Biological significance C. Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
    2. 2. I. Why Do Cells Divide? - for ________________ , and _____________ (asexual or sexual) Paramecium : Asexual reproduction Yeasts: Asexual reproduction (Budding) Growth and Development
    3. 3. II. The Cell Cycle and Cell Division in Prokaryotes *Cell division involves _________________ *Chromosomes - packages of ___________, the hereditary material (+ proteins) *Gene - a segment of __________ that encodes for a protein , which in turn is responsible for a particular trait
    4. 5. 1 attachment site cell wall plasma membrane circular DNA 3 4 5 2 Fig. 8-3 p. 114 _______________ (asexual reproduction in bacteria) II. The Cell Cycle in Prokaryotes
    5. 6. III. The Cell Cycle and Cell Division in Eukaryotes A. The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Mitosis: - occurs in ________ cells (body cells) - daughter cells are genetically __________________
    6. 7. Fig. 8-7 p. 117 The Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes G1 G2 S
    7. 11. Fig. 8-10. Cytokinesis in animal cells: _______________________ formation (Telophase) p. 123
    8. 12. Figure 8-11. Cytokinesis in Plant Cells: ______________________ formation (Telophase) p. 123
    9. 13. (d) Anaphase: Sister chromatids have separated, and one set has moved toward each pole. (a) Interphase in a seed cell: The chromosomes (blue) are in the thin, extended state and appear as a mass in the center of the cell. The spindle microtubules (red) extend outward from the nucleus to all parts of the cell. (b) Late prophase: The chromosomes (blue) have condensed and attached to the spindle microtubules (red). (e) Telophase: The chromosomes have gathered into two clusters, one at the site of each future nucleus. (c) Metaphase: The chromosomes have moved to the equator of the cell. (f) Resumption of interphase: The chromosomes are relaxing again into their extended state. The spindle microtubules are disappearing, and the microtubules of the two daughter cells are rearranging into the interphase pattern. Cell Cycle & Mitosis in a Plant Cell
    10. 14. Mitosis in Whitefish Blastula
    11. 15. WHITEFISH CELLS (MITOSIS)
    12. 16. Mitosis in Onion Root Tip
    13. 17. p. 119 HEALTH WATCH: CANCER
    14. 18. p. 119 HEALTH WATCH: CANCER
    15. 19. III. B. Meiosis 1. Chromosome Numbers homologous pair of chromosomes - similar in size, shape and _______________________________ diploid (2N) - _____ sets of chromosomes (full complement) haploid (N) - _________ set of chromosomes
    16. 20. Fig. 8-6 p. 116 The karyotype of a human male Sex chromosomes
    17. 21. Organisms Chromosome #s Bacteria 1 Human 46 (23 pairs) Cat 38 Dog 78 Corn 20 Amoeba 50 Chimpanzee 48
    18. 22. juvenile fertilized egg mitotic cell division, differentiation and growth fusion of gametes sperm egg mitotic cell division, differentiation, and growth adults meiotic cell division (in testes) meiotic cell division (in ovaries) Fig. 8-8 p. 118 (N) (2N) (N)   III. B. 2. The Human Life Cycle
    19. 23. III. B. Meiosis 3. Meiotic Cell Divisions: Meiosis I & II a) occurs in ___________ sex cells (germ cells) b) produces ______________ gametes that are genetically ______________________
    20. 24. Fig. 8-12 p. 124
    21. 25. Fig. 8-12 p. 125
    22. 26. Fig. 8-14 Crossing Over (Prophase I)
    23. 27. Fig. 8-13 p. 127 a) The four possible arrangements of homologous pairs at Metaphase I The 8 possible sets of chromosomes after Metaphase I
    24. 28. III. B. Meiosis 4. Biological Significance a) Meiosis is the key to ______________ b) __________ reproduction is possible c) Ensures that the of each species is maintained throughout generations
    25. 29. III. C. Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis (in Animal Cells) Table 8-1 p. 127 Feature Mitosis Meiosis Cells in which it occurs __________ or body cells Gamete -producing cells Number of daughter cells 2 , genetically _________ 4 , genetically different Final chromosome # Diploid Haploid Number of cell divisions 1 2 Function in animals Development, growth, Gamete production for repair and maintenance; sexual reproduction asexual reproduction

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