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Use git the proper way


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Use git the proper way

  1. 1. use git the proper way or How I learned to stop worrying and love rebase Jaime Buelta
  3. 3. INDEX LOCAL REPOSITORY (staging area) (HEAD) WORKPATHThe files in your What you are Tracked by git hard drive going to commit
  5. 5. different names for a commit HEAD master HEAD^SHA1: 01d1d5ac9bc28e10902f99a15f9fd979d449adb2 b12 origin/HEAD origin/master
  6. 6. Version control systemsare communication tools They DONT replace ALL communication (just make it easier)
  8. 8. BASIC LOCAL WORKFLOWgit add (append to index)git rm (append removal of file to index)git checkout file (retrieve file from index)git reset HEAD file (remove from index)
  9. 9. WORKING WITH THE STASHgit stash (push your workpath to the stash)git stash pop (retrieve last changes on stash)git stash list (list all changes on stash)git stash drop (remove last changes on stash)
  10. 10. COMMIT STRATEGIEScommit small, commit ofteneach commit should be an atomicrelated change of the codeadd reference numberdouble check before committing
  11. 11. MEASURE TWICE, CUT ONCEgit status (show index and workpath status)git log [–graph] (show commit log)graphical tools to show log gitg (Linux), gitx (Mac), tig (Command line), gitk, SourceTree git gui (can add individual lines to the index)
  12. 12. USE A DIFFTOOL
  13. 13. DIFF AND DIFFTOOLgit diff git diff id diff between workpath diff between workpath and id and index git diff id id2git diff -- file diff between id1 and id2 diff one filegit diff --cached diff between index and HEAD
  14. 14. REMOTE REPOSITORYgit fetch (get changes from remote repo)git pull (get remote branch and apply on top of local)git push (try to apply local changes to remote repo)git pull = fetch + mergegit pull --rebase = fetch + rebase
  15. 15. MERGE VS REBASE develop new_feature new_feature new_featuredevelop develop merge rebase
  16. 16. WORKING WITH BRANCHESgit checkout branch (change to local branch)git checkout -b branch (create new branch)git branch –track branch origin/branch (track remote branch)git merge branch (merge branch into current branch)git rebase branch (rebase current branch on top o of branch)
  17. 17. NOT ALL BRANCHES ARE CREATED EQUALLocal branches (so be careful when pushing changes)Feature/experimental branch (that should be merged back to the main branch)“Pointer” branch (a particular previous commit of permanent branch, like master)Main, permanent branch (develop/master)
  18. 18. BRANCH STRATEGIESWhen working on a feature, merge back often toavoid big discrepancies with main branchIn general, try to use rebase instead of mergeIf hotfixing, use cherry-pick to keep main branch up-to-dateLimit the number of branches
  19. 19. RECOVERING THE PASTgit checkout id (change to id commit)git checkout id -- file (change only file to id commit)
  20. 20. WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG (AND YOU KNOW WHAT IT IS)Try not to push your error to the repositorygit commit --amend (fix your last commit)git reset (change your index/HEAD) git reset –soft (dont change your workspace) git reset –hard (change your workspace)
  21. 21. WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG (MERGE CONFLICTS)Use a mergetool!Double-Check before committingMerging often avoid long and difficult mergeconflicts
  22. 22. WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG ON A REBASE/MERGE/PULL (AND YOU KNOW WHAT IT IS)git reflog (show branch tag in previous commands)
  23. 23. UNDO A REBASE new_feature master ORIG_HEAD rebasegit reset –hard ORIG_HEAD
  24. 24. TOO LATE, I PUSHED MY CHANGES...git revert commit (new commit undoing specified commit)
  25. 25. WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG(AND YOU HAVE NO CLUE ABOUT WHAT IT IS) git blame file (show each line with writer and SHA) git grep pattern (search pattern in git-tracked files) git log -Spattern (pickaxe - search commits that change pattern) gitk file (show commits related to file) git bisect (walk through commits to find which one introduces a bug)
  26. 26. SOME CONFIGURATION OPTIONSCOLORS! git config color.ui truessh keys to repo No more typing passwordsmerge tool and difftoolautocorrect git config help.autocorrect 2 (0.2 sec)
  27. 27. RESOURCESGit doc (same as man files) git (lot about the internals)Git community book sheet
  28. 28. QUESTIONS? Thanks for your attention @jaimebuelta