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Database madness with
         & SQL Alchemy

      Jaime Buelta
     jaime.buelta@gmail.com
 wrongsideofmemphis.worpress....
A little about the project
●
    Online football management game
●
    Each user could get a club and control it
●
    We ...
Pylons application
●
    Pylons is a “framework of frameworks”, as
    allow to custom made your own framework
●
    Very ...
Databases used
●
    MongoDB
●
    MS SQL Server
    ●
        Legacy data
●
    MySQL
    ●
        Our static data
MS SQL Server
●
    Legacy system
    ●
        Clubs
    ●
        Players
    ●
        Leagues


             WE CANNOT...
MySQL
●
    Static data
    ●
        Clubs
    ●
        Players
    ●
        Leagues
    ●
        Match Engine definit...
MongoDB
●
    User data
    ●
        User league
        –   Each user has his own league
    ●
        User team and pla...
SQL Alchemy
●
    ORM to work with SQL databases
●
    Describe MySQL DB as classes (declarative)
●
    Highly related to ...
Definition of our own MySQL DB
Base = declarative_base()                        class Role(Base, BaseHelper):
class BaseHe...
Connection to MS SQL Server
●
    FreeTDS to be able to connect from Linux
●
    pyodbc to access the conection on the pyt...
Connect to database
import pyodbc
import sqlalchemy as sa
from sqlalchemy.ext.sqlsoup import SqlSoup
def connect():
  retu...
You still have to define the
              relationships!
# tblPerson
db.tblPerson.relate('skin_color', db.tblColour,
    ...
Cache
●
    SQL Alchemy does not have an easy
    integrated cache system.
    ●
        None I know, at least!
    ●
    ...
And now for something completely different
mongoengine
●
    Document Object Mapper for MongoDB and
    Python
●
    Built on top of pymongo
●
    Very similar to Dj...
Connection to DB
import mongoengine
mongoengine.connect('my_database')



           BE CAREFUL WITH DB NAMES!
     If the...
Definition of a Collection
import mongoengine
class Team(mongoengine.Document):
 name = mongoengine.StringField(required=T...
Querying and retrieving from DB
Team.objects # All the objects of the collection
Team.objects.get(name='my_team')
Team.obj...
Get partial objects


                       User.objects.get(user_id=id)
Time (ms)




                        User.objec...
Careful with default attributes!
>>> import mongoengine
>>> class Items(mongoengine.Document):
...   items =mongoengine.Li...
EmbededDocument vs Document

    Team           Team




                 Player_id

    Player


                  Player
Embed or reference?
●   Our DB is mostly a big User object (not much non-
    static shared data between users)
●   On Mon...
Our case
●   Practically all is embedded in a big User object.
●   Except for the CPU controlled-teams in the same
    lea...
Other details
●
    As each player has lots of stats, instead of
    storing each one with a name (DictField), we
    orde...
sharding
      mongod    mongod    mongod

      mongod    mongod    mongod

      mongod    mongod    mongod

       shar...
Thanks for your attention!

  Questions?
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Database madness with_mongoengine_and_sql_alchemy

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Database madness with_mongoengine_and_sql_alchemy

  1. 1. Database madness with & SQL Alchemy Jaime Buelta jaime.buelta@gmail.com wrongsideofmemphis.worpress.com
  2. 2. A little about the project ● Online football management game ● Each user could get a club and control it ● We will import data about leagues, teams, players, etc from a partner ● As we are very optimistic, we are thinking on lots of players! ● Performance + non-relational data --> NoSQL
  3. 3. Pylons application ● Pylons is a “framework of frameworks”, as allow to custom made your own framework ● Very standard MVC structure ● RESTful URLs ● jinja2 for templates ● jQuery for the front end (JavaScript, AJAX)
  4. 4. Databases used ● MongoDB ● MS SQL Server ● Legacy data ● MySQL ● Our static data
  5. 5. MS SQL Server ● Legacy system ● Clubs ● Players ● Leagues WE CANNOT AVOID USING IT!
  6. 6. MySQL ● Static data ● Clubs ● Players ● Leagues ● Match Engine definitions ● Other static parameters...
  7. 7. MongoDB ● User data ● User league – Each user has his own league ● User team and players ● User data – Balance – Mailbox – Purchased items
  8. 8. SQL Alchemy ● ORM to work with SQL databases ● Describe MySQL DB as classes (declarative) ● Highly related to SQL ● Can describe complex and custom queries and relationships ● Low level ● Conection with legacy system using Soup to autodiscover schema
  9. 9. Definition of our own MySQL DB Base = declarative_base() class Role(Base, BaseHelper): class BaseHelper(object): ''' Roles a player can take ''' @classmethod __tablename__ = 'roles' def all(cls): metadata = meta.metadata '''Return a Query of all''' return meta.Session.query(cls) name = sa.Column(sa.types.String(5), primary_key=True, nullable=False) @classmethod full_name = sa.Column(sa.types.String(25)) def one_by(cls, **kwargs): description = sa.Column(sa.types.String(50)) return cls.all().filter_by(**kwargs).one() def __repr__(self): def save(self): return '<{0}>'.format(self.name) ''' Save method, like in Django ORM''' meta.Session.add(self) meta.Session.commit()
  10. 10. Connection to MS SQL Server ● FreeTDS to be able to connect from Linux ● pyodbc to access the conection on the python code ● Quite painful to make it to work BE CAREFUL WITH THE ENCODING!
  11. 11. Connect to database import pyodbc import sqlalchemy as sa from sqlalchemy.ext.sqlsoup import SqlSoup def connect(): return pyodbc.connect('DSN=db_dsn;UID=user;PWD=password') # force to Unicode. The driver should be configured to UTF-8 mode engine = sa.create_engine('mssql://', creator=connect, convert_unicode=True) connection = engine.connect() # use Soup meta = MetaData() meta.bind = connection db = SqlSoup(meta)
  12. 12. You still have to define the relationships! # tblPerson db.tblPerson.relate('skin_color', db.tblColour, primaryjoin=db.tblColour.ColourID == db.tblPerson.SkinColourID) db.tblPerson.relate('hair_color', db.tblColour, primaryjoin=db.tblColour.ColourID == db.tblPerson.HairColourID) db.tblPerson.relate('nationality_areas', db.tblArea, primaryjoin=db.tblPerson.PersonID == db.tblPersonCountry.PersonID, secondary=db.tblPersonCountry._table, secondaryjoin=db.tblPersonCountry.AreaID == db.tblArea.AreaID) ... country_codes = [ area.CountryCode for area in player.Person.nationality_areas]
  13. 13. Cache ● SQL Alchemy does not have an easy integrated cache system. ● None I know, at least! ● There is Beaker, but appears to be quite manual ● To cache static data (no changes), some information is cached the old way. ● Read the database at the start-up and keep the results on global memory
  14. 14. And now for something completely different
  15. 15. mongoengine ● Document Object Mapper for MongoDB and Python ● Built on top of pymongo ● Very similar to Django ORM
  16. 16. Connection to DB import mongoengine mongoengine.connect('my_database') BE CAREFUL WITH DB NAMES! If the DB doesn't exist, it will be created!
  17. 17. Definition of a Collection import mongoengine class Team(mongoengine.Document): name = mongoengine.StringField(required=True) players = mongoengine.ListField(Player) meta = { 'indexes':['name'], } team = Team(name='new') team.save()
  18. 18. Querying and retrieving from DB Team.objects # All the objects of the collection Team.objects.get(name='my_team') Team.objects.filter(name__startswith='my') Team.objects.filter(embedded_player__name__startswith='Eric') NO JOINS! Search on referenced objects will return an empty list! Team.objects.filter(referenced_player__name__startswith) = []
  19. 19. Get partial objects User.objects.get(user_id=id) Time (ms) User.objects.only('name', 'level').get(user_id=id) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 # Get all fields user.reload()
  20. 20. Careful with default attributes! >>> import mongoengine >>> class Items(mongoengine.Document): ... items =mongoengine.ListField(mongoengine.StringField(),default=['starting']) >>> i = Items() >>> i.items.append('new_one') >>> d = Items() >>> print d.items ['starting','new_one'] # Use instead items = mongoengine.ListField(mongoengine.StringField(), default=lambda: ['starting'])
  21. 21. EmbededDocument vs Document Team Team Player_id Player Player
  22. 22. Embed or reference? ● Our DB is mostly a big User object (not much non- static shared data between users) ● On MongoDB your object can be as big as 4MiB* ● Performance compromise: ● Dereference objects has an impact (Everything embedded) ● But retrieve big objects with non-needed data takes time (Reference objects not used everytime) ● You can retrieve only the needed parts on each case, but that adds complexity to the code. * Our user is about 65Kb
  23. 23. Our case ● Practically all is embedded in a big User object. ● Except for the CPU controlled-teams in the same league of the user. ● We'll keep an eye on real data when the game is launched. The embedded objects have to be saved from the parent Document. Sometimes is tricky. Careful with modifying the data and not saving it
  24. 24. Other details ● As each player has lots of stats, instead of storing each one with a name (DictField), we order them and assign them slots on a list ● Pymongo 1.9 broke compatibility with mongoengine 0.3 Current branch 0.4 working on that, but not official release yet
  25. 25. sharding mongod mongod mongod mongod mongod mongod mongod mongod mongod shard shard shard C1 mongod mongos C2 mongod
  26. 26. Thanks for your attention! Questions?

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