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Genetic transcription

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Pamphlet with the presentation of two news on Genetic Transcription:
- How 1,000 new genetic variants were discovered in blood groups
- New mechanisms of gene inactivation may prevent aging and cancer

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Genetic transcription

  1. 1. Genetic Transcription Jaime Andrés Mejía Sánchez. Medicine student.
  2. 2. MEDICAL UTILITY We can see that genetic transcription has a great importance in the practice of medicine; And this is reflected in both news. With the discovery of 1.000 new variants in blood groups, we can verify the prevalence of the polymorphism generated during the alternative splicing mechanism. Was something that was omitted before and that ha- ving had knowledge of it before, could have avoided many complications. The results presented in these research give encouragement to health professio- nals and patients to continue struggling to find a cure as occurs with the inactiva- tion of RNA polymerase by the presence of methyl groups in the promoter and the DNA sequence. GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION By: Jaime Andrés Mejía Sánchez Molecular Biology UPB - Lund University. (2017, January 26). How 1,000 new genetic variants were d i s c o v e r e d i n b l o o d groups. ScienceDaily. Retrieved F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 2 0 1 7 f r o m w w w . s c i e n c e d a i l y . c o m / releases/2017/01/170126081721.htm - Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI). (2017, February 23). New mechanisms of gene inactivation may prevent aging and cancer. ScienceDaily. Retrieved F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 2 0 1 7 f r o m w w w . s c i e n c e d a i l y . c o m / releases/2017/02/170223101841.htm - MARTINEZ SÁNCHEZ, Lina María. Biología molecular. 8. ed. Medellín: UPB. Fac. de Medicina, 2015. 117 p. BIBLIOGRAPHY
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Genetic transcription is the process for the synthesis of an RNA molecule from a strand of DNA (3' → 5') by RNA polymerase and it’s transcription factors. This process has several events, which include initiation, elonga- tion, and termination. The control of transcription in eukaryotes, occurs mainly in the initiation and in some occasions in the elongation. 1,000 new genetic variants discovered in blood groups Through the creation of a new computer program, Mattias Möller processed the genomes of 2.504 people, reason why he discover 1.000 hitherto unknown mutations. “…I started from the genes instead, to find variations in DNA which might give rise to a new antigen, likely to cause problems in case of transfusion, for example.” - Mattias Möller. What's next? A future research field is Africa, where there is greater variation between different population groups. Student’s opinion The contribution of this research, can help improve control the presence of adverse reactions in blood trans- fusions, transplants or even in pregnancy. Preventing aging and cancer During aging as well as during the deve- lopment of age-induced diseases like cancer, the activation of genetic informa- tion is increasingly defective. What did they find? For the first time, researchers from the Leibniz Institute on Aging in Jena, verified that a lack of methyl groups even in the gene body, leads to an incorrect gene activation and, as a consequence, abe- rrant proteins are produced, which impinge on the cell structure. Thus, the function and identity of a cell are massively disrupted leading to the emergence of cancer. What do the results entail? If the damage is caused by a problem in DNA methylation, it can be prevent by regulated with chemical compounds. Student’s opinión This research is a breakthrough for cancer therapy. It is important to begin testing ways to traffic methyl groups to non-methylated DNA sequences of cancer cells, as an alterna- tive for stopping the proliferation of these cells.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Initiation Termination Elongation Binding of the RNA polymerase to the promoter sequence (TATA, GC, etc.) Action of topoisomerase on DNA. Beginning of transcription. Nucleic acid and protein complex stabilized by: Binding of DNA to RNA polymerase. Binding of nucleotides between the nascent RNA strand and the template DNA strand, in the enzymatic complex. Binding of RNA with RNA polymerase to the enzyme exit channel. Separation of transcription complex.
  5. 5. How 1,000 new genetic variants were discovered in blood groups January 26, 2017 Lund University
  6. 6. How 1,000 new genetic variants were discovered in blood groups On the surface of the red blood cells are proteins and sugar molecules, in which small differences give rise to different antigens. That antigens have functions such as transporting necessary nutrients or signalling, and are randomly present in all individuals (Different individuals express different antigens).
  7. 7. How 1,000 new genetic variants were discovered in blood groups “Never before has there been a worldwide mapping of blood group genes in healthy individuals. Most previously known blood group variants were discovered when a blood transfusion failed...“ - Mattias Möller. B A + Immune reaction Rejection of the transplanted organ Mild and barely noticeable Rapid breakdown of red blood cells = Death
  8. 8. How 1,000 new genetic variants were discovered in blood groups Mismatch blood can lead to death. Until now the study has focused on the populations of Europe and North America. A future research field is Africa, where there is greater variation between different population groups. Many new antigens are likely to be discovered.
  9. 9. Student’s opinion I suppose that these alterations, variants may be due to an alternative splicing mechanism. I think that the contribution of this research, can help improve control the presence of adverse reactions in blood transfusions, transplants or even in pregnancy. Never take anything for granted, just as we saw on this investigation, everything is constantly changing, and something that is apparently basic, may be more complex than it seems.
  10. 10. New mechanisms of gene inactivation may prevent aging and cancer February 23, 2017 Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI)
  11. 11. New mechanisms of gene inactivation may prevent aging and cancer Previous knowledge:  Gene expression is strictly regulated in order to build tissue-specific cells with tissue-specific attributes.  If methyl groups are enzymatically bound to a ge- ne's starting point, known as the promoter, the res- pective gene is inactivated.  The activation of genetic information deteriorates with aging.
  12. 12. New mechanisms of gene inactivation may prevent aging and cancer Why does the DNA inside the body of the gene also methylate as the promoter? They proved that genes are also aberrantly activated if DNA methylation is missing within the gene body. Here lies why DNA methylation is very often missing in cancer cells.
  13. 13. A lack of DNA methylation at the gene body. ↑ production of aberrant proteins Function and identity of a cell are disrupted New mechanisms of gene inactivation may prevent aging and cancer New target for cancer therapy. Find a way to traffic methyl groups to non-methylated DNA sequences of cancer cells.
  14. 14. Student’s opinion This research is a breakthrough for cancer therapy. It is important to begin testing ways to traffic methyl groups to non-methylated DNA sequences of cancer cells, as an alternative for stopping the proliferation of these cells. It is also very gratifying to know that on the day this therapy is developed, it will represent a less invasive treatment.
  15. 15. M E D I C A L U T I L I T Y
  16. 16. M E D I C A L U T I L I T Y The researches presented in this pamphlet are important from the point of view that although we are members of the same species, there is still a polymorphism that makes us not compatible with any individual, and that must be taken into account at the time of any invasive procedure in the practice of medicine, such as a transfusion, a transplant or a newborn with fetal erythroblastosis.
  17. 17. M E D I C A L U T I L I T Y As for the news of "new mechanisms of inactivation of genes", there is now a very big challenge that is to find the way to apply the treatment in such a way that it is effective and reaches its destination.
  18. 18. M E D I C A L U T I L I T Y It would be wise if scientists were not so limited to develop treatments of this kind, since gene therapy is a procedure that is not invasive and with which the patient is not subjected to stress.
  19. 19.  Lund University. (2017, January 26). How 1,000 new genetic variants were discovered in blood groups. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 25, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170126081721.htm  Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI). (2017, February 23). New mechanisms of gene inactivation may prevent aging and cancer. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 26, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2017/02/170223101841.htm  MARTINEZ SÁNCHEZ, Lina María. Biología molecular. 8. ed. Medellín: UPB. Fac. de Medicina, 2015. 117 p. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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