GENERAL ASTRONOMY AND SYSTEM OF CELESTIAL COORDS
SCOPE <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>NATURE OF UNIVERSE </li></ul><ul><li>THE  SOLAR SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>MOTI...
MOTION OF BODIES <ul><li>The proper Motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The apparent Motion. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Proper Motion . This Motion is small and the stars appear to maintain their posn relative to each other and to...
<ul><li>The Apparent motion.. This due to the following two motions of the earth:- </li></ul><ul><li>(a)  The earth is spi...
SUN APSE LINE LINE OF SOLICTICE SUMMER AUTUMNAL  EQUINOX FIRST PT OF ARIES LINE OF THE EQUINOXES VERNAL PERIHELION APHILIO...
MOTION OF SUN <ul><li>Sun is a star, emitting energy in the </li></ul><ul><li>form of heat and lt. </li></ul><ul><li>The s...
<ul><li>If sun rise and watched through out the year it will be seen that its posn varies daily.  This daily variation due...
MOTION OF EARTH <ul><li>Daily rotation of earth on its polar axis, once every 24h, at a speed of 18 miles/sec </li></ul><u...
NP SP 23  ½ 23 ½ 66½
SMALL CIRCLE CSP CNP EARTH CELESTIALEQUATOR AXIS GREAT CIRCLE CELESTIAL SPHERE POLE
POLAR AXIS <ul><li>It is axis about which the earth performs its daily rotation. </li></ul>GREAT CIRCLE <ul><li>Is a circl...
NP LAT LONG OBSERVER MERIDIAN STD MERIDIAN PARALLEL  OF LAT LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE EQUATOR
NP LAT LONG OBSERVER MERIDIAN STD MERIDIAN PARALLEL  OF LAT LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE EQUATOR
<ul><li>LATITUDE  Angle between the direction of a plumb line at the  </li></ul><ul><li>place and the plane of the equator...
23  ½ 23 ½ CNP CELESTIAL SPHERE SUMMER  SOLSTICE WINTER  SOLSTICE VERNAL AUTUMNAL
<ul><li>First Point of Aries.   At the movement when the earth is the posn of  vernal equinox, a line from its centre thro...
SYSTEM OF CO-ORDINATES <ul><li>UNIVERSAL SYSTEM (DEC AND RA) </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL SYSTEM ( ALT AND AZIMUTH) </li></ul><...
UNIVERSAL SYSTEM <ul><li>In this sys the posn of a body on the celestial sphere is fixed without ref to the obsr;s posn. T...
CSP CNP ASTRO BODY DECLINATION OF ASTRO BODY EQUATOR DECLINATION
CNP  RA RAOM OBSERVER  MERIDIAN HOUR CIRCLE OF ASTRO BODY RIGHT ASCENSION CELESTIAL EQUATOR CO DEC DEC
LOCAL SYSTEM <ul><li>In this system the body is fixed on the celestial in the terms of altitude and azimuth. Ref plane is ...
ZENITH NADIR SP NP SENSIBLE HORIZON RATIONAL HORIZON
CNP ALTITUDE AND ZENITH DISTANCE PRIME VERTICAL VERTICAL CIRCLE ASTRO BODY ALT ZENITH CO ALT RATIONAL HORIZON ZD
VERTICAL CIRCLE ASTRO BODY ZENITH RATIONAL HORIZON OM CNP ZENITH  ANGLE AZIMUTH ZENITH AZIMUTH AND ZENITH ANGLE
COMBINED SYSTEM <ul><li>In this system posn of a heavenly body  </li></ul><ul><li>is specified in terms of declination and...
CO LAT LHA CO DEC CO ALT CNP STAR  RA LAT EQUATOR OBSR MERIDIAN HOUR CIRCLE OF ARIES H CIRCLE OF STAR Z COMBINED SYSTEM
CNP Z ZENITH PARALLACTIC  ANGLE ASTRO BODY CO-ALT ZD CO-LAT CO-DEC h ASTRO TRIANGLE
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General Astronomy

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Explains the basics of Astronomy right upto the Astro Triangle

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General Astronomy

  1. 1. GENERAL ASTRONOMY AND SYSTEM OF CELESTIAL COORDS
  2. 2. SCOPE <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>NATURE OF UNIVERSE </li></ul><ul><li>THE SOLAR SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>MOTION OF BODIES. </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM OF COORDS </li></ul><ul><li>ASTRO TRIANGLE </li></ul>
  3. 3. MOTION OF BODIES <ul><li>The proper Motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The apparent Motion. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Proper Motion . This Motion is small and the stars appear to maintain their posn relative to each other and to the earth. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Apparent motion.. This due to the following two motions of the earth:- </li></ul><ul><li>(a) The earth is spinning on its own axis west to east. This is a daily Motion. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The annual motion of the earth in an elliptical path around the sun where in it takes one year to complete one cct of the sun causing different stars to be visible at different times of the years </li></ul>
  6. 6. SUN APSE LINE LINE OF SOLICTICE SUMMER AUTUMNAL EQUINOX FIRST PT OF ARIES LINE OF THE EQUINOXES VERNAL PERIHELION APHILION SUMMER SOLSATICES 
  7. 7. MOTION OF SUN <ul><li>Sun is a star, emitting energy in the </li></ul><ul><li>form of heat and lt. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun has rotatory motion about </li></ul><ul><li>its own axis and a motion in a space. </li></ul><ul><li>The earth rotates west to east making </li></ul><ul><li>sun appear to rise in the east and set in </li></ul><ul><li>the west. It can be seen that day and ni </li></ul><ul><li>are due to the spinning of the of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>upon its axis. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>If sun rise and watched through out the year it will be seen that its posn varies daily. This daily variation due to :- </li></ul><ul><li>(a) The orbit of the earth is an ellipse. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) The earth is polar axis is tilted to the elliptic . </li></ul>MOTION OF SUN
  9. 9. MOTION OF EARTH <ul><li>Daily rotation of earth on its polar axis, once every 24h, at a speed of 18 miles/sec </li></ul><ul><li>The earth revolves on its orbit around the sun in 365¼ days. The total orbit dist is 600million miles. </li></ul><ul><li>The earth’s axis has a conical shaped motion which is called “ Precession” making one turn in 26,000yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>The entire solar system is mov in space 12 miles/sec. </li></ul><ul><li>The North and South poles are not stationary but </li></ul><ul><li>wander in rough circles about 40 ft in diameter. </li></ul>
  10. 10. NP SP 23 ½ 23 ½ 66½
  11. 11. SMALL CIRCLE CSP CNP EARTH CELESTIALEQUATOR AXIS GREAT CIRCLE CELESTIAL SPHERE POLE
  12. 12. POLAR AXIS <ul><li>It is axis about which the earth performs its daily rotation. </li></ul>GREAT CIRCLE <ul><li>Is a circle on the surface of a </li></ul><ul><li>sphere whose Centre os the center of the sphere. </li></ul>SMALL CIRCLE <ul><li>Is a circle on the surface of a sphere </li></ul><ul><li>whose centre is not the centre of the sphere </li></ul>The AXIS <ul><li>Of any circle is that diameter of the sphere </li></ul><ul><li>which is perpendicular to the plane of the circle and there </li></ul><ul><li>fore cuts the circle at its centre . </li></ul>THE POLES <ul><li>are the point at which the axis cuts the </li></ul><ul><li>surface of the sphere. </li></ul>SMALL CIRCLE CSP CNP EARTH CELESTIALEQUATOR AXIS GREAT CIRCLE CELESTIAL SPHERE POLE
  13. 13. NP LAT LONG OBSERVER MERIDIAN STD MERIDIAN PARALLEL OF LAT LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE EQUATOR
  14. 14. NP LAT LONG OBSERVER MERIDIAN STD MERIDIAN PARALLEL OF LAT LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE EQUATOR
  15. 15. <ul><li>LATITUDE Angle between the direction of a plumb line at the </li></ul><ul><li>place and the plane of the equator. It is measured from 0 to 90 </li></ul><ul><li>deg N and S of the equator. </li></ul><ul><li>Co -Lat It is compliment of the lat. I.e. 90 deg minus lat.. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel of The Lat. It is small circle on the surface of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>which is parallel to the equator. </li></ul><ul><li>Meridian . Meridian of a place is a great circle passing through the </li></ul><ul><li>place cutting equator at right angles and passing through the poles. </li></ul><ul><li>Longitude. Long of a place is the arc of the equator intercepted </li></ul><ul><li>between the std meridian and the meridian through the place. It is </li></ul><ul><li>measured from 0 to 180 deg E and W of the std meridian. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 23 ½ 23 ½ CNP CELESTIAL SPHERE SUMMER SOLSTICE WINTER SOLSTICE VERNAL AUTUMNAL
  17. 17. <ul><li>First Point of Aries. At the movement when the earth is the posn of vernal equinox, a line from its centre through the centre of the sun produced in the space cuts the celestial sphere at the first point of aries </li></ul>
  18. 18. SYSTEM OF CO-ORDINATES <ul><li>UNIVERSAL SYSTEM (DEC AND RA) </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL SYSTEM ( ALT AND AZIMUTH) </li></ul><ul><li>COMBINED SYSTEM( DEC AND HOUR ANGLE) </li></ul>
  19. 19. UNIVERSAL SYSTEM <ul><li>In this sys the posn of a body on the celestial sphere is fixed without ref to the obsr;s posn. The posn is specified in terms of Right Ascension and declination with ref to celestial equator and first point of aries. It can be compared to geographical long and lat. </li></ul>
  20. 20. CSP CNP ASTRO BODY DECLINATION OF ASTRO BODY EQUATOR DECLINATION
  21. 21. CNP  RA RAOM OBSERVER MERIDIAN HOUR CIRCLE OF ASTRO BODY RIGHT ASCENSION CELESTIAL EQUATOR CO DEC DEC
  22. 22. LOCAL SYSTEM <ul><li>In this system the body is fixed on the celestial in the terms of altitude and azimuth. Ref plane is the horizon and the obsr meridian. </li></ul>
  23. 23. ZENITH NADIR SP NP SENSIBLE HORIZON RATIONAL HORIZON
  24. 24. CNP ALTITUDE AND ZENITH DISTANCE PRIME VERTICAL VERTICAL CIRCLE ASTRO BODY ALT ZENITH CO ALT RATIONAL HORIZON ZD
  25. 25. VERTICAL CIRCLE ASTRO BODY ZENITH RATIONAL HORIZON OM CNP ZENITH ANGLE AZIMUTH ZENITH AZIMUTH AND ZENITH ANGLE
  26. 26. COMBINED SYSTEM <ul><li>In this system posn of a heavenly body </li></ul><ul><li>is specified in terms of declination and local </li></ul><ul><li>hour angle. Ref plane are equator and the </li></ul><ul><li>observer’s meridian. Declination here is a </li></ul><ul><li>constant quantity where as hour angle </li></ul><ul><li>changes with time and place </li></ul>
  27. 27. CO LAT LHA CO DEC CO ALT CNP STAR  RA LAT EQUATOR OBSR MERIDIAN HOUR CIRCLE OF ARIES H CIRCLE OF STAR Z COMBINED SYSTEM
  28. 28. CNP Z ZENITH PARALLACTIC ANGLE ASTRO BODY CO-ALT ZD CO-LAT CO-DEC h ASTRO TRIANGLE

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