Jaimeena25@gmail.comCOLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERINGMaharana Pratap University of Agriculture and EngineeringUDAIPUR ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my sincere gratitude to “Pyrotech Electronics Pvt. Ltd.,Unit-2,...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPREFACEWith the ongoing revolution in electronic and communication whereinnovations are taking at the ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comCONTENTSProfile of the companyIntroductionPyrotech groupManufacturing facilityProductsClientsCompany...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROFILE OF THE COMPANYIntroductionPyrotech, Unit-2 provides complete solution for electronic process c...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPyrotech GroupPyrotech Group(Control &InstrumentationElectronic & SensorEquipment)PyrotechElectronic P...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comManufacturing FacilityCNC hydraulic press punch, system controller -siemens 840D model name -aquila 12...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comWell set material management department that looks after planning &procurement, vendor development & s...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comThe product development process includes stringent internal testing. Eachenclosure is subjected to har...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comStud welding machine bms-10n/2model no.: p01050a00329-04this new machine renders better finish to the ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comProductsPANELS & CONTROLS DESKSMOSAIC PANEL & DESKMIMIC PANELCONTROL PANELPLC PANELMARSHALLING PANELNE...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comSYSTEM INTEGRATIONS – DISTRIBUTORSHIPSYNELEC - LARGE VIDEOSCREENSUPTEAM - MOSAIC TILE SYSTEMWEIGEL - P...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comClientsASEA BROWN BOVARILTD., BANGLORE, NEW DELGHI, BARODAJINDAL POWER, RAIGARHALSTOM TRANSPORTJ.K. CE...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comENGINEERS INDIA LTD.SCHNIDER ELECTRIC INDIA LTD.EMERSON PROCESSSHREE CEMENT LTD.FLS AUTOMATION INDIA L...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comCOMPANY VISITA company involves various departments for the completion of suitable taskslike designing...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comProduction:PEPL has the motto “It’s not the less price that sells, it is the quality”. PEPL isequipped...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERINTRODUCTIONA programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable control...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comthe PLC using ladder logic. This is known as soft wired.PLC is a device that is capable of being progr...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comHISTORYThe PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotivemanufacturing industry....
Jaimeena25@gmail.comDEVELOPMENTEarly PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. These PLCs wereprogrammed in "ladd...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROGRAMMINGEarly PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietaryprogramming panels or spe...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPLC HARDWAREA programmable logic controller consists of the following components:• Central Processing ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comProcessorI/PO/PConnectionConnectionfromto IndustrialIndustrialEquipmentEquipmentCH 1CH 2CH 3CHnCH nCH ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comConfiguration of Typical PLCCPULike other computerized devices, there is a Central Processing Unit (CP...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comMEMORYMemory is the component that stores information, programs, and data in a PLC.The process of putt...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comof inputs and outputs and the ladder logic program that is being executed.The input devices used with ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROGRAMMING TERMINALA PLC requires a programming terminal and programming software foroperation. The p...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comI/O BUSA PLC works by continually scanning a program. We can think of this scancycle as consisting of ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comFUNCTIONALITYThe functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequentialrelay contro...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comcommon physical size and shape by several manufacturers, and branded by themakers of larger PLCs to fi...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comCOMMUNICATIONPLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232, but optionallyEIA-485 or E...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comADVANTAGES OF PLC• Reduced space.• Energy saving.• Ease of maintenance.• Economical.• Greater life and...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comAPPLICATIONS OF PLC SYSTEM• In industry, there are many production tasks, which are of highly repetiti...
Jaimeena25@gmail.com3. Bulk material handling system at ports.4. Ship unloader.5. Wagon loaders.6. Steel plants.7. Blast f...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comThe process consists of following activities:1. Make up of sub assemblies from panels. Eg: doors, unde...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPLC VS COMPUTERPLC• Designed for extreme industrial environments.• Can operation in high temperature a...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comPLC DISADVANTAGES• In contrast to microcontroller systems that have what is called an openarchitecture...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comGENERATOR CONTROL PANEL• 80-1600 Amps• 208-600Vac, 50/60Hz rated• MEC 20 Microprocessor-based Engine/G...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comGENERAL DESCRIPTIONThe UCS 200 series auto start generator control panel is the mostcost effective ful...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comControlling Our MachinesAny complex piece of machinery requires a user interface to enable the user to...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comWorkingThe control panel is becoming an increasingly complex piece of electronicswith a microprocessor...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comwhen your local grid fails. It signals the control panel to start the generator.Depending on the type ...
Jaimeena25@gmail.comBibliographyNet links:1. http://www.tanswa.net/purge-panels.html2. http://www.pyrotechindia.com/purge_...
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  1. 1. Jaimeena25@gmail.comCOLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERINGMaharana Pratap University of Agriculture and EngineeringUDAIPUR (RAJASTHAN)-313001, INDIAA REPORT ON TRAININGTaken at“PYROTECH ELECTRONICS PVT. Ltd., UDAIPUR”On“GENERATOR CONTROL PANELS &PLC PANELS”Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of degree ofBachelor of Engineering(20010-11)Submitted to: Submitted by:Dr. Navneet Agarwal Jai Lal MeenaTraining Incharge. 3rdYr. (ECE)
  2. 2. Jaimeena25@gmail.comACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my sincere gratitude to “Pyrotech Electronics Pvt. Ltd.,Unit-2, Udaipur” for giving me an opportunity to undergo my IndustrialTraining for four weeks for providing me knowledge of Purge Panels. I wouldalso like to thank technical experts, engineers and executives for explainingpractical aspects of the theoretical knowledge.My greatest debt in creating this project goes to the Assistant Manager, HRDMs. Surabhi Soni (Project Incharge) who has given me the basic concepts ofPurge Panels. Thank you Ms. for encouraging me every step of the way.I owe a personal thanks to Mr. P.C.Talesara(Director) who extended a fullsupport and cooperation during my training period.Here I obtained practical knowledge. For this travel of knowledge & training, Iam grateful & thankful to Mr. Sunil Joshi (HOD, Electronics &Communication Department, C.T.A.E. Udaipur) & Dr. Navneet Agarwal(Training Incharge) for initiating my interest in training.Last but not the least I m indebted to my parents and friends for their constantencouragement and help in my endeavour.Needless to say, without all the above help and suggestions my training wouldnot have been a success.Amit Verma3rdYr ECE
  3. 3. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPREFACEWith the ongoing revolution in electronic and communication whereinnovations are taking at the blink of eye, it is impossible to keep the pace withthe emerging trends.Industrial approach to problem solving based on a broad understanding ofprocess and mode of operation of organization.During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actualIndustry environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gainedduring the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this student getsan opportunity to learn the latest technology, which is immensely helps in themin building their career.I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, whichincreased my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn manynew technologies and was also interfaced to many instruments.
  4. 4. Jaimeena25@gmail.comCONTENTSProfile of the companyIntroductionPyrotech groupManufacturing facilityProductsClientsCompany visitPLC PanelsIntroductionHistoryDevelopmentProgrammingPLC HardwareConfiguration Of Typical PLCWorking Of PLCAdvantages Of PLCApplication Of PLC systemPLC v/s ComputerPLC DisadvantagesConclusionGenerator Control Panel• General Description• Controlling Our Machines• WorkingBibliography
  5. 5. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROFILE OF THE COMPANYIntroductionPyrotech, Unit-2 provides complete solution for electronic process controlinstruments to the industries. Presently it is manufacturing about 200 differenttypes of process control instruments. It has a strong R & D team, comprising ofmore than 50 engineers.It is a leading manufacturer of Electronic Process Control Instruments. Itsproduct range includes Signal Converters, Transmitters, Electrical Transducers,Indicators, Flow Totalizer, Power Factor Correction Relays, Timers, Counters,Alarm Annunciator, Temperature Scanners, Speed Measuring Systems, Temp-Max Transmitters, Closed Circuit Television Systems and Special Instrumentslike Surge Arresters, Test Benches, Selector Switches, Rpm Generators & pHMeasuring Systems etc. It is a distributor of L&T AC/DC drives, Siemens fieldinstruments,CCTV, Wireless Modems, Ultrasonic/Radar Level Transmitter. Italso undertakes PLC automation jobs for the process control industries.
  6. 6. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPyrotech GroupPyrotech Group(Control &InstrumentationElectronic & SensorEquipment)PyrotechElectronic Pvt.Ltd. Unit IIISO 9001:2008ISO14001:2004ISO18001:2007OHSAS(Control &Instrumentation)PyrotechElectronicPvt. Ltd.Unit IISO9001:2000(Electricals&Electronics)TempsensInstrumentISO 9001:2000(TempratureSensors)PyrotechMarketing& ProjectPvt. Ltd.(Marketing)PyrotechWorkspace SolutionPvt. Ltd.ISO9001:2000IndustrialAutomationAnnuniciatorBarGraphindicator TranducerScannerThermocoupleResistanceThermometers(RTDs)Services,MarketingPLCProjectsControlRoom &ControlDeskInterior
  7. 7. Jaimeena25@gmail.comManufacturing FacilityCNC hydraulic press punch, system controller -siemens 840D model name -aquila 1250, linear turret trumph type, multistation (11 station). This multitoolturret incorporates advantages such as:(A) Reduced throughput cycle.(B) High Accuracy(C) Better Machinability(D) Versality in punching hole.Converized powder coating plant with 2 booth ro ro & 4 paint guns back toback oven size 11mtr, 25 mtr length with omega loop conveyor, overallconveyor length 120 mtr. this plant facilitate features like(a)Reduced handling hassles(b)Uniform thickness through the sheet(C)Considerable reduction in time cycle
  8. 8. Jaimeena25@gmail.comWell set material management department that looks after planning &procurement, vendor development & support, quality improvement, costreduction, import substitution etc.Sheet surface treatment shop7 tank system (7000 liter capacity)7 tank system (2500 liter capacity)Hot seven tank process generates phosphated & chromatised sheet having goodresistance to oxidation and errosion. Being an automated conveyorised plant thecycle time of each dip is precisely fixed.Specialized designed programs and CAD software generate faster design output.Our designers help you visualize your product in advance.
  9. 9. Jaimeena25@gmail.comThe product development process includes stringent internal testing. Eachenclosure is subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Extensive & rigoroustesting for paint, mechanical, electrical, calibration, measurement & functionaltesting of panels is undertaken to ensure they meet our standards & customersrequirements.Fabrication shop is equipped with power press, arc / mig / tig / spot weldingmachines, pneumatic riveting and grinding machines to ensure reliable process.
  10. 10. Jaimeena25@gmail.comStud welding machine bms-10n/2model no.: p01050a00329-04this new machine renders better finish to the sheet due to removal of depression& burrs.Wiring for plc - swing arms, mosaics, connectors etc. with suitable ferruling isdone. termination from 0.5 mm2 to 60mm2 is possible.
  11. 11. Jaimeena25@gmail.comProductsPANELS & CONTROLS DESKSMOSAIC PANEL & DESKMIMIC PANELCONTROL PANELPLC PANELMARSHALLING PANELNETWORKING PANEL 19"TRANSDUCER PANEL19" RACK PANELMCC PANELPURGE & EXPLOSION PROOFPANELJUNCTION BOXMETERING BOXLIE/LIRSHELTER PANELHT PANELNG & LAVT CUBICLETEST BENCHCOMPUTER CONSOLES
  12. 12. Jaimeena25@gmail.comSYSTEM INTEGRATIONS – DISTRIBUTORSHIPSYNELEC - LARGE VIDEOSCREENSUPTEAM - MOSAIC TILE SYSTEMWEIGEL - PANEL METERSAND ACCESSORIESWORKSPACE SOLUTIONINDUSTRIAL FURNITUREOFFICE FURNITURE
  13. 13. Jaimeena25@gmail.comClientsASEA BROWN BOVARILTD., BANGLORE, NEW DELGHI, BARODAJINDAL POWER, RAIGARHALSTOM TRANSPORTJ.K. CEMENT WORKS, NIMBAHERAAREVA,NOIDAJ.K. INDUSTRIES LTD.KIRLOSKAR BROTHERS LTD. KRIBHCOAMBUJA CEMENTLARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED, MUMBAI, CHENNAI, BARODABHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTREMCNALLY BHARAT ENGINEERING CO. LTD.BENTLY NEVADAMETSO AUTOMATION (NELES AUTOMATION)BHARAT ELECTRONICS LTD.MTL SYSTEMS LTD. CHENNAIBHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED, BANGLORE, BHOPAL, HARDWAR,HYDRABADNATIONAL FERTILISERS LTD., PANIPATBINANI CEMENT LTD.NELCO LIMITEDBIRLA CORPORATIONLTD., CHITTOGARHNUCLEAR POWER CORPORATIONBPCLNATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATIONBSES LIMITEDPESTICIDES INDIA LTD., UDAIPURCROMPTON GREAVESPYRAMID CONTROL SYSTEMS (P) LTD.DANIEL MEASUREMENT & CONTROL (I) PVT. LTD.RELIENCE INDUSTRIES LTD.DRDL, HYDERABADROCKWELL AUTOMATION INDIA LTD.ELECTRONICS CORPORATION INDIA LTD.SECURE METERS LIMITED
  14. 14. Jaimeena25@gmail.comENGINEERS INDIA LTD.SCHNIDER ELECTRIC INDIA LTD.EMERSON PROCESSSHREE CEMENT LTD.FLS AUTOMATION INDIA LTD.SIEMENS LTD. KOLKATTA, NEW DELHI , MUMBAI, GURGAONGE FANUC SYSTEMS LTD., BANGLORESUZLON ENERGY LTDGRASIM INDUSTRIES LTD.TATA HONEWELL LIMITED., PUNEGTRE, BANGLORE TATA LTD, HONEYWELL,PUNETECHNIP ITELY S.P.A.INSTRUMENTATION LTD., KOTATHE ASSOCIATED CEMENT COMPANIES LTDINDIAN FARMERS & FERTILISER COOPORATIVETHERMAX, PUNEINDIAN OIL TANKING LTD.TRF LTDINDURE LTD.TRIVENI ENGG. & INDUSTRIES LTDION EXCHANGE (INDIA) LTD.WESTINGHOUSE, DELHIJINDAL STEELS, RAIGARHYOKOGAWA BLUE STAR, BANGLORE
  15. 15. Jaimeena25@gmail.comCOMPANY VISITA company involves various departments for the completion of suitable taskslike designing, manufacturing, marketing etc. Theae departments involvevarious processes to furnish the task. Pyrotech is also working with the sameconcept for the manufacturing of the panels. A brief description of PEPL #2 isgiven below.Maketing:This department of PEPL keeps an eye over the marketing areas, consumers andcompetitors to stay tuned.Design:The design department of PEPL is well equipped with latest designingsoftwares including AUTOCAD. Highly learned and qualified team of draftmenand Engineers work to come up with the perfect panel design.Purchase:A separate department looks after the requirement and procurement of thematerial and equipment.
  16. 16. Jaimeena25@gmail.comProduction:PEPL has the motto “It’s not the less price that sells, it is the quality”. PEPL isequipped with the latest technology in the production of control panel.Storage:Raw material is purchased according to the need of company and afterpurchasing the raw material is sent at Unloaded room where it is examined asweight, height etc.Main raw material is Sheets.These sheets are mainly of the following types:Stainless steel (SS)AluminiumCRCA (Cold Rolled Cold Annealed)HRCA (Hot Rolled Cold Annealed)
  17. 17. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERINTRODUCTIONA programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digitalcomputer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as controlof machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures.PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purposecomputers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements,extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance tovibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typicallystored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a realtime system since output results must be produced in response to inputconditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are members of the computer familycapable of storing instructions to control functions such as sequencing, timing,and counting, which control a machine or a process. The PLC is composed oftwo basic sections, the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and the Input/Output(I/O) interface system. The PLC measures input signals coming from amachine and through the internal program provides output or control back to themachine.Ladder logic is the programming language used to represent electricalsequences of operation. In hardwired circuits the electrical wiring is connectedfrom one device to another according to logic of operation. In a PLC the devicesare connected to the input interface, the outputs are connected to the outputinterface and the actual wiring of the components is done electronically inside
  18. 18. Jaimeena25@gmail.comthe PLC using ladder logic. This is known as soft wired.PLC is a device that is capable of being programmed to perform a controllingfunction. logic control system.The PLC was first conceived by group of engineers from hydramatic division ofGM in 1968.This was designed to provide flexibility in control based onprogramming and executing logic instruction.
  19. 19. Jaimeena25@gmail.comHISTORYThe PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotivemanufacturing industry.Before the PLC, control, sequencing, and safety interlock logic formanufacturingautomobiles was accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays, camtimers, and drum sequencers and dedicated closed-loop controllers. The processfor updating such facilities for the yearly model change-over was very timeconsuming and expensive, as electricians needed to individually rewire eachand every relay.In the late 1960s PLCs were first introduced. The primary reason for designingsuch a device was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing thecomplicated relay based machine control systems. Bedford Associates (Bedford,MA) proposed something called a Modular Digital Controller (MODICON) to amajor US car manufacturer. One of the people who worked on that project wasDick Morley, who is considered to be the "father" of the PLC. Other companiesat the time proposed computer based schemes, one of which was based upon thePDP-8. The MODICON 084 brought the worlds first PLC into commercialproduction.
  20. 20. Jaimeena25@gmail.comDEVELOPMENTEarly PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. These PLCs wereprogrammed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic diagram ofrelay logic. This program notation was chosen to reduce training demands forthe existing technicians. Other early PLCs used a form of instruction listprogramming, based on a stack-based logic solver.Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from ladder logic tomore traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Anothermethod is State Logic, a very high-level programming language designed toprogram PLCs based on state transition diagrams.Many early PLCs did not have accompanying programming terminals that werecapable of graphical representation of the logic, and so the logic was insteadrepresented as a series of logic expressions in some version of Boolean format,similar to Boolean algebra. As programming terminals evolved, it became morecommon for ladder logic to be used, for the aforementioned reasons. Newerformats such as State Logic and Function Block (which is similar to the waylogic is depicted when using digital integrated logic circuits) exist, but they arestill not as popular as ladder logic. A primary reason for this is that PLCs solvethe logic in a predictable and repeating sequence, and ladder logic allows theprogrammer (the person writing the logic) to see any issues with the timing ofthe logic sequence more easily than would be possible in other formats.
  21. 21. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROGRAMMINGEarly PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietaryprogramming panels or special-purpose programming terminals, which oftenhad dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of PLCprograms. Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges. Facilities forprinting and documentation were very minimal due to lack of memory capacity.The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory.More recently, PLCs are usually programmed using special application softwarewritten for use on desktop computers, and connecting between the desktopcomputer and the PLC such as via Ethernet or RS-232 cabling. Such softwareallows entry and editing of the ladder-style logic, and then may provideadditional functionality to assist debugging and troubleshooting the software(for example, by highlighting portions of the logic to show current status duringoperation or via simulation). Finally, the software may allow uploading anddownloading of the program between the computer and the PLC, for backupand restoration purposes. Alternately, specific devices known as programmingboards are used to hard wire the logic into the controller by the use of aremovable chip, such as an EEPROM, where the program is transferred to theprogramming board from the workstation via serial or other bus logic..
  22. 22. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPLC HARDWAREA programmable logic controller consists of the following components:• Central Processing Unit (CPU).• Memory.• Input modules.• Output modules and• Power supply.A PLC diagram is shown in Figure.
  23. 23. Jaimeena25@gmail.comProcessorI/PO/PConnectionConnectionfromto IndustrialIndustrialEquipmentEquipmentCH 1CH 2CH 3CHnCH nCH 1CH 2CH 3CHnCH nProgramming SoftwareProcessorMmmmmmmmememomoryPower Supply
  24. 24. Jaimeena25@gmail.comConfiguration of Typical PLCCPULike other computerized devices, there is a Central Processing Unit (CPU) in aPLC. The CPU, which is the “brain” of a PLC, does the following operations:• Updating inputs and outputs. This function allows a PLC to read the status ofits input terminals and energize or deenergize its output terminals.• Performing logic and arithmetic operations. A CPU conducts all themathematic and logic operations involved in a PLC.• Communicating with memory. The PLC’s programs and data are stored inmemory. When a PLC is operating, its CPU may read or change the contentsof memory locations.• Scanning application programs. An application program, which is called aladder logic program, is a set of instructions written by a PLC programmer.The scanning function allows the PLC to execute the application program asspecified by the programmer.• Communicating with a programming terminal. The CPU transfers programand data between itself and the programming terminal.A PLC’s CPU is controlled by operating system software. The operatingsystem software is a group of supervisory programs that are loaded and storedpermanently in the PLC’s memory by the PLC manufacturer.
  25. 25. Jaimeena25@gmail.comMEMORYMemory is the component that stores information, programs, and data in a PLC.The process of putting new information into a memory location is calledwriting. The process of retrieving information from a memory location is calledreading.The common types of memory used in PLCs are Read Only Memory (ROM)and Random Access Memory (RAM). A ROM location can be read, but notwritten. ROM is used to store programs and data that should not be altered. Forexample, the PLC’s operating programs are stored in ROM.A RAM location can be read or written. This means the information stored in aRAM location can be retrieved and/or altered. Ladder logic programs are storedin RAM. When a new ladder logic program is loaded into a PLC’s memory, theold program that was stored in the same locations is over-written and essentiallyerased.The memory capacities of PLCs vary. Memory capacities are often expressed interms of kilo-bytes (K). One byte is a group of 8 bits. One bit is a memorylocation that may store one binary number that has the value of either 1 or 0.(Binary numbers are addressed in Module 2). 1K memory means that there are1024 bytes of RAM. 16K memory means there are 16 x 1024 =16384 bytes ofRAM.INPUT AND OUTPUT MODULESA PLC is a control device. It takes information from inputs and makes decisionsto energize or de-energize outputs. The decisions are made based on the statuses
  26. 26. Jaimeena25@gmail.comof inputs and outputs and the ladder logic program that is being executed.The input devices used with a PLC include pushbuttons, limit switches, relaycontacts, photo sensors, proximity switches, temperature sensors, and the like.These input devices can be AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current). Theinput voltages can be high or low. The input signals can be digital or analog.Differing inputs require different input modules. An input module provides aninterface between input devices and a PLC’s CPU, which uses only a low DCvoltage. The input module’s function is to convert the input signals to DCvoltages that are acceptable to the CPU. Standard discrete input modulesinclude 24 V AC, 48 V AC, 120 V AC, 220 V AC, 24 V DC, 48 V DC, 120 VDC, 220 V DC, and transistor-transistor logic (TTL) level.The devices controlled by a PLC include relays, alarms, solenoids, fans, lights,and motor starters. These devices may require different levels of AC or DCvoltages. Since the signals processed in a PLC are low DC voltages, it is thefunction of the output module to convert PLC control signals to the voltagesrequired by the controlled circuits or devices. Standard discrete output modulesinclude 24 V AC, 48 V AC, 120 V AC, 220 V AC, 24 V DC, 48 V DC, 120 VDC, 220 V DC, and TTL level.POWER SUPPLYPLCs are powered by standard commercial AC power lines. However, manyPLC components, such as the CPU and memory, utilize 5 volts or another levelof DC power. The PLC power supply converts AC power into DC power tosupport those components of the PLC.
  27. 27. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPROGRAMMING TERMINALA PLC requires a programming terminal and programming software foroperation. The programming terminal can be a dedicated terminal or a genericcomputer purchased anywhere. The programming terminal is used forprogramming the PLC and monitoring the PLC’s operation. It may alsodownload a ladder logic program (the sending of a program from theprogramming terminal to the PLC) or upload a ladder logic program (thesending of a program from the PLC to the programming terminal). The terminaluses programming software for programming and “talking” to a PLC.WORKING OF PLCBringing input signal status to the internal memory of CPU• The field signals are connected to the I/P module. At the output of I/P modulethe field status converted into the voltage level required by the CPU is alwaysavailable.• At the beginning of each cycle the CPU brings in all the field I/P signals fromI/P module & stores into its internal memory called as “PII”, meaning processimage input.• The programmable controller operates cyclically meaning when completeprogram has been scanned; it starts again at the beginning of the program.
  28. 28. Jaimeena25@gmail.comI/O BUSA PLC works by continually scanning a program. We can think of this scancycle as consisting of 3 important steps.Step 1-Check Input Status-First the PLC takes a look at each input to determineif it is on or off. In other words, is the sensor connected to the first input onHow about the second input How about the third... It records this data into itsmemory to be used during the next step.Step 2-Execute Program-Next the PLC executes your program one instruction ata time. Maybe your program said that if the first input was on then it should turnon the first output. Since it already knows which inputs are on/off from theprevious step it will be able to decide whether the first output should be turnedon based on the state of the first input. It will store the execution results for uselater during the next step.Step 3-Update Output Status-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs.It updates the outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step andthe results of executing your program during the second step. Based on theexample in step 2 it would now turn on the first output because the first inputwas on and your program said to turn on the first output when this condition istrue.Process Control and AutomationProcess Control“The process of recognizing the state of the process at all times, analyze theinformation according to the set rules and guidelines and accordingly actuatethe control elements is referred to as process control.”
  29. 29. Jaimeena25@gmail.comFUNCTIONALITYThe functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequentialrelay control, motion control, process control, distributed control systems andnetworking. The data handling, storage, processing power and communicationcapabilities of some modern PLCs are approximately equivalent to desktopcomputers. PLC-like programming combined with remote I/O hardware, allowa general-purpose desktop computer to overlap some PLCs in certainapplications. Regarding the practicality of these desktop computer based logiccontrollers, it is important to note that they have not been generally accepted inheavy industry because the desktop computers run on less stable operatingsystems than do PLCs, and because the desktop computer hardware is typicallynot designed to the same levels of tolerance to temperature, humidity, vibration,and longevity as the processors used in PLCs. In addition to the hardwarelimitations of desktop based logic, operating systems such as Windows do notlend themselves to deterministic logic execution, with the result that the logicmay not always respond to changes in logic state or input status with theextreme consistency in timing as is expected from PLCs. Still, such desktoplogic applications find use in less critical situations, such as laboratoryautomation and use in small facilities where the application is less demandingand critical, because they are generally much less expensive than PLCs.In more recent years, small products called PLRs (programmable logic relays),and also by similar names, have become more common and accepted. These arevery much like PLCs, and are used in light industry where only a few points ofI/O (i.e. a few signals coming in from the real world and a few going out) areinvolved, and low cost is desired. These small devices are typically made in a
  30. 30. Jaimeena25@gmail.comcommon physical size and shape by several manufacturers, and branded by themakers of larger PLCs to fill out their low end product range. Popular namesinclude PICO Controller, NANO PLC, and other names implying very smallcontrollers. Most of these have between 8 and 12 digital inputs, 4 and 8 digitaloutputs, and up to 2 analog inputs. Size is usually about 4" wide, 3" high, and 3"deep. Most such devices include a tiny postage stamp sized LCD screen forviewing simplified ladder logic (only a very small portion of the program beingvisible at a given time) and status of I/O points, and typically these screens areaccompanied by a 4-way rocker push-button plus four more separate push-buttons, similar to the key buttons on a VCR remote control, and used tonavigate and edit the logic. Most have a small plug for connecting via RS-232to a personal computer so that programmers can use simple Windowsapplications for programming instead of being forced to use the tiny LCD andpush-button set for this purpose. Unlike regular PLCs that are usually modularand greatly expandable, the PLRs are usually not modular or expandable, buttheir price can be two orders of magnitude less than a PLC and they still offerrobust design and deterministic execution of the logic.
  31. 31. Jaimeena25@gmail.comCOMMUNICATIONPLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232, but optionallyEIA-485 or Ethernet. Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is usually included as one of thecommunications protocols. Other options include various fieldbuses such asDeviceNet or Profibus. Other communications protocols that may be used arelisted in the List of automation protocols.Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system,such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And DataAcquisition) system or web browser.PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communicationbetween processors. This allows separate parts of a complex process to haveindividual control while allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over thecommunication link. These communication links are also often used for HMIdevices such as keypads or PC-type workstations.
  32. 32. Jaimeena25@gmail.comADVANTAGES OF PLC• Reduced space.• Energy saving.• Ease of maintenance.• Economical.• Greater life and reliability.• Tremendous flexibility.• Shorter project time.• Easier storage, archiving and documentation.• PLCs are armored for severe conditions (such as dust, moisture, heat, cold)and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements.• PLCs read limit switches, analog process variables (such as temperature andpressure), and the positions of complex positioning systems.• PLCs are used in many "real world" applications. If there is industry present,chances are good that there is a plc present. If you are involved in machining,packaging, material handling, automated assembly or countless other industriesyou are probably already using them. If you are not, you are wasting money andtime. Almost any application that needs some type of electrical control has aneed for a plc.
  33. 33. Jaimeena25@gmail.comAPPLICATIONS OF PLC SYSTEM• In industry, there are many production tasks, which are of highly repetitivenature. Although repetitive & monotonous, each stage needs careful attention ofoperator to ensure good quality of final product.• Many times, a close supervision of the processes cause high fatigue onoperator resulting in loss of track of process control.• Sometimes it’s hazardous also as in the case of potentially explosive chemicalprocesses.• Under all such conditions we can use PLCs effectively in totally eliminatingthe possibilities of human error.• Some capabilities of PLCs are as follows:1. Logic control2. PID control3. Coordination & automation4. Operator control5. Signaling and listing etc.• In short, wherever sequential logic control & automation is desired the PLCsare the best suited to meet the task. It includes simple interlocking functions tocomplicated analog signal processing to PID control action in closed loopcontrol etc.• Few examples of industries where PLCs are used for control & automationpurpose are listed below: -1. Tyre industry.2. Blender reclaimer.
  34. 34. Jaimeena25@gmail.com3. Bulk material handling system at ports.4. Ship unloader.5. Wagon loaders.6. Steel plants.7. Blast furnace charging.8. Brick-moulding press in refectories.9. Galvanizing plant.10. Dairy automation.11. Pulp factory.12. Printing industry etc.• Today the PLCs are used for control and automation job in a single machineand it increases up to full automation of manufacturing or testing process in afactory.In robotics:PLC is used for two tasks in robotics:1) As the controller or unprogrammble part of robot.2) As an overall system controller.In flexible manufacturing system:The logical development from linking machines in this manner is to groupprogrammable machines into flexible manufacturing cells, each capable ofmachining a variety of products under fully automatic control.In factory automation:The Austin-rover assembling plant.The plant produces multi style car body from individual body panels .
  35. 35. Jaimeena25@gmail.comThe process consists of following activities:1. Make up of sub assemblies from panels. Eg: doors, under frames2. Tag sub assemblies together.3. Pass tagged bodies to a main jig for automatic alignment & framing.4. Conduct material transfer in which sub assemblies are selected, transported &distributed to workstation by conveyor system5. Maintain quality control by automatic monitoring & manual inspection ofeach process.The PLC tracks each component as it moves through the production area,communicating this information to each appropriate robot as necessary. Datasend between PLC & robot includes handshaking signals to indicate robot busyparked, action complete etc. Data in binary coded decimal form is used to sendcomponent information & weld sequences from the PLC to root, which mustacknowledge receipt of the correct data before the PLC will allow it tocommence operation.PLC PANEL
  36. 36. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPLC VS COMPUTERPLC• Designed for extreme industrial environments.• Can operation in high temperature and humidity. Er• High immunity to noise.• Integrated command interpreter (proprietary).• No secondary memory available (in the PLC).• Optimized for Single task.Optimized• TaskComputer• Designed mainly for data processing and calculation.• Optimized for speed.• Can’t operate in extreme environments.• Can be programmed in different languages.• Lost of secondary memory available.• Multitasking capability.
  37. 37. Jaimeena25@gmail.comPLC DISADVANTAGES• In contrast to microcontroller systems that have what is called an openarchitecture, most PLCs manufacturers offer only closed architecturesfor their products.• PLC devices are proprietary, which means that parts and software fromone manufacturer can t easily be used in combination with parts ofanother manufacturer, which limits the design and cost options.CONCLUSIONPLC is a device that is capable of being programmed to perform a controllingfunction. The PLC was designed to provide flexibility in control basedprogramming and executing logic instruction. PLC allowed for shorterinstallation time and faster commissioning through programming rather thanwiring.The PLC have in recent years experienced an unprecedented growth asuniversal element in industrial automation .It can be effectively used inapplications ranging from simple control like replacing a small number of relaysto complex automation problems.Today the PLCs are used for control & automation job in a single machine & itincreases up to full automation of manufacturing / testing process in a factory
  38. 38. Jaimeena25@gmail.comGENERATOR CONTROL PANEL• 80-1600 Amps• 208-600Vac, 50/60Hz rated• MEC 20 Microprocessor-based Engine/Generator Controller• Digital AC/DC Instrumentation• Certifi ed to UL#508, CSA C22.2#14Industrial Control Equipment Standards• In compliance with NFPA Level 1 or 2• Unit or Wall Mount• Oil Pressure and Water Temperature Sensors included• Optional expansion output module for fault output contacts• Standard remote communication feature• Optional remote annunciator
  39. 39. Jaimeena25@gmail.comGENERAL DESCRIPTIONThe UCS 200 series auto start generator control panel is the mostcost effective full featured control system available. Over 30 yearsof design and manufacturing experience have led to the creation ofthe UCS 200 panel family. One control panel can now meet yourgenerator set control requirements throughout the world. Thecontrol center of the UCS 200 system is the MEC 20Microprocessor based Engine Generator Controller. The MEC 20gives the customer a compact, user friendly, fi eld programmablecontrol package. The MEC 20’s complement of standard featureshas previously only been available with costly and complicated PLCbased control systems or as an expensive option fromengine/generator packagers.The UCS 200 family of control panels is available in three basic models:Version “C” – (Control only version, no breaker, no current transformers)– customized factory programming and options availableVersion “S” – (Control only version, no breaker, no current transformers)– available from stock, programming by customerVersion “KD” – Knockdown (unassembled)All models are designed to meet or exceed NFPA 110 Level 1, CSA C282 andIEC generator set requirements without adding optional features. Optionalfeatures are available in the UCS 200 C model to meet your custom applicationrequirements. The UCS 200 S version is available from stock with standardconfi guration.
  40. 40. Jaimeena25@gmail.comControlling Our MachinesAny complex piece of machinery requires a user interface to enable the user tomonitor its operations, check for efficient functioning, and intervene whenrequired. Machines overheat, slow down, speed up or generally vary in theirperformance based on numerous factors such as fatigue, weather conditions, andthe wear and tear of components and parts.In electrical machines, like generators, these varying changes constitute anelectrical signal. These signals can be intelligently processed to control theperformance of the machine. A lot of machines in urban environments (such assignal lights and automatic doors) are completely self-managed due to suchcontrollers. They have sensors that can detect changes in physical attributes likeheat and speed and generate signals accordingly. Modern generators also havesimilar sensors to detect changes in all kinds of various parameters. These canbe used to control the generator through a control panel.
  41. 41. Jaimeena25@gmail.comWorkingThe control panel is becoming an increasingly complex piece of electronicswith a microprocessor that can manipulate input from sensors to help givefeedback to the machine to manage itself. One such feedback could be thetemperature, indicating overheating, other examples would be over/under speedand low/high oil pressure. Typically, a heat sensor inside the generator wouldsense the build up of heat in the generator body and pass this to themicroprocessor in the control panel. The microprocessor will then take effectivemeasures to regulate the performance of the machine including shutdowns if,for example, the oil pressure is too low or the coolant temperature is too high,leading to buildup of heat. In industrial situations, this functionality of controlpanels is becoming increasingly critical. The microprocessor or microcontrolleris embedded in the circuitry inside the control panel and is programmed to takein the sensor input and react to that with the programmed control rules.Control panels can be combined with an Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) tomaintain the continuity of electrical power. The ATS detects an outage of power
  42. 42. Jaimeena25@gmail.comwhen your local grid fails. It signals the control panel to start the generator.Depending on the type of generator being used, the control panel may activateglow plugs (for diesel) for an adjustable length of time. It will then start thegenerator using an automatic starter, similar to the one you engage when youturn the keys in the ignition of your car in the morning. As soon as the engine ofthe generator reaches an optimum speed, the starter is disengaged. The ATSthen switches to the generator power, and you can go back to business as usual,without having to frantically scramble to figure out what caused power loss.This aspect of a control panel makes it extremely useful in homes during badweather and in industrial situations for ensuring mission-critical continuity
  43. 43. Jaimeena25@gmail.comBibliographyNet links:1. http://www.tanswa.net/purge-panels.html2. http://www.pyrotechindia.com/purge_pnl.asp3. http://www.exloc.com/purging_mm.html4. http://www.ncsu.edu/ehs/www99/right/handsMan/compgas/purgereq.html

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