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  1. 1. What is a Topology?The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables,computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused withlogical topology which is the method used to pass information betweenworkstations. Logical topology was discussed in the Protocol chapter.Main Types of Physical TopologiesThe following sections discuss the physical topologies used in networks and otherrelated topics. Linear Bus Star Tree (Expanded Star) Considerations When Choosing a Topology Summary ChartLinear BusA linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end(See fig. 1). All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected tothe linear cable. Fig. 1. Linear Bus topologyAdvantages of a Linear Bus Topology Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology.Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
  2. 2. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.StarA star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, andperipherals) connected directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator(See fig. 2).Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator beforecontinuing to its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages andcontrols all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow.This configuration is common with twisted pair cable; however, it can also be usedwith coaxial cable or fiber optic cable. Fig. 2. Star topologyAdvantages of a Star Topology Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.Disadvantages of a Star Topology Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub, switch, or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.
  3. 3. Tree or Expanded StarA tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. Itconsists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear busbackbone cable (See fig. 3). Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existingnetwork, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs. Fig. 3. Tree topologyAdvantages of a Tree Topology Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. Supported by several hardware and software venders.Disadvantages of a Tree Topology Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.5-4-3 RuleA consideration in setting up a tree topology using Ethernet protocol is the 5-4-3rule. One aspect of the Ethernet protocol requires that a signal sent out on thenetwork cable reach every part of the network within a specified length of time.Each concentrator or repeater that a signal goes through adds a small amount of
  4. 4. time. This leads to the rule that between any two nodes on the network there canonly be a maximum of 5 segments, connected through 4 repeaters/concentrators. Inaddition, only 3 of the segments may be populated (trunk) segments if they aremade of coaxial cable. A populated segment is one that has one or more nodesattached to it . In Figure 4, the 5-4-3 rule is adhered to. The furthest two nodes onthe network have 4 segments and 3 repeaters/concentrators between them.NOTE: This rule does not apply to other network protocols or Ethernet networkswhere all fiber optic cabling or a combination of a fiber backbone with UTPcabling is used. If there is a combination of fiber optic backbone and UTP cabling,the rule would translate to a 7-6-5 rule.The speed of networking switches is vastlyimproved over older technologies, and while every effort should be made to limitnetwork segment traversal, efficient switching can allow much larger numbers ofsegments to be traversed with little or no impact to the networkRing topologyA ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes,forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring. Data travels from node tonode, with each node along the way handling every packet.Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes, ring networks may be [1]disrupted by the failure of a single link. A node failure or cable break might isolate every nodeattached to the ring.FDDI networks overcome this vulnerability by sending data on a clockwise and a counterclockwisering: in the event of a break data is wrapped back onto the complementary ring before it reaches theend of the cable, maintaining a path to every node along the resulting "C-Ring".Many ring networks add a "counter-rotating ring" to form a redundant topology. Such "dual ring"networks include Spatial Reuse Protocol,Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), and Resilient PacketRing.802.5 networks -- also known as IBM Token Ring networks—avoid the weakness of a ring topologyaltogether: they actually use a startopology at the physical layer and a Multistation Access Unit (MAU)to imitate a ring at the datalink layer. Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load Does not require a central node to manage the connectivity between the computers[edit]Disadvantages One malfunctioning workstation can create problems for the entire network
  5. 5.  Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network Communication delay is directly proportional to number of nodes in the network Bandwidth is shared on all links between devices More difficult to configure than a Star: node adjunction ⇨ Ring shutdown and reconfiguration[edit]Misconceptions "Token Ring is an example of a ring topology." 802.5 (Token Ring) networks do not use a ring topology at layer 1. As explained above, IBM Token Ring (802.5) networks imitatea ring at layer 2 but use a physical star at layer 1. "Rings prevent collisions." The term "ring" only refers to the layout of the cables. It is true that there are no collisions on an IBM Token Ring, but this is because of the layer 2 Media Access Control method, not the physical topology (which again is a star, not a ring.) Token passing, not rings, prevent collisions. "Token passing happens on rings." Token passing is a way of managing access to the cable, implemented at the MAC sublayer of layer 2. Ring topology is the cable layout at layer one. It is possible to do token passing on a bus (802.4) a star (802.5) or a ring (FDDI). Token passing is not restricted to rings.
  6. 6. MotivationMotivation is a process that elicits, controls, and sustains certain behaviors. Motivation is a groupphenomenon that affects the nature of an individuals behavior, the strength of the behavior, and thepersistence of the behavior. For instance: An individual has not eaten, he or she feels hungry, and asa response he or she eats and diminishes feelings of hunger. There are many approaches to [1]motivation: physiological, behavioural, cognitive, and social . It is the crucial element in setting andattaining goals—and research shows that subjects can influence their own levels of motivation and [2]self-control . According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimizephysical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or adesired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons suchas altruism, selfishness,morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation is distinct [3]from volition and optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion.Brief historyAt one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and [4]services. But this changed after the Hawthorne Studies. The Hawthorne studies were conductedby Elton Mayo at Hawthorne Plant in the 1920s. The researchers were studying the effect of differentworking environments on productivity. They used lighting as an experimental variable (the effect ofbright lighting and dull lighting). Initially they noticed that employees were working harder but it wasnot because of the lighting. They concluded that productivity increased due to attention that theworkers got from the research team and not because of changes to the experimental variable.Hawthorne studies found that employees are not motivated solely by money but motivation is linked to [5]employee behaviour and their attitudes. The Hawthorne Studies began the human relationsapproach to management, so the needs and motivation of employees became the primary focus ofmanagers.[edit]Motivation concepts[edit]Intrinsic and extrinsic motivationMotivational poster
  7. 7. Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself,and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation is [6]based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than working towards an external reward. Intrinsicmotivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Studentswho are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to [7]improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. Students are likely to be intrinsicallymotivated if they: attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy, believe they have the skill that will allow them to be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, whichthen contradicts intrinsic motivation. It is widely believed that motivation performs two functions. Firstone is often referred to the energetic activation component of the motivation construct. The secondone is directed at a specific behaviour and makes reference to the orientation directional component.Motives can be divided into two types: external and internal. Internal motives are considered as theneeds that every human being experience, while external indicate the presence of specific situations [8]where these needs arise.Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and asubsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children whoexpected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less timeplaying with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an [9]unexpected reward condition. For those children who received no extrinsic reward, self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalised by the individual if the taskfits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs.[edit]Push and PullThis model is usually used when discussing motivation within tourism context, so the most attention ingastronomic tourism research should be dedicated to this theory. Pull factors illustrate the choices ofdestinations by tourists, whereas push factors determine the desire to go on holiday. Moreover, pushmotives are connected with internal forces for example need for relaxation or escapism and pullfactors in turn induce a traveller to visit certain location by external forces such as landscape, cultureimage or climate of a destination. Dann also highlights the fact that push factors can be stimulated byexternal and situational aspects of motivation in shape of pull factors. Then again pull factors areissues that can arise from a location itself and therefore ‗push‘ an individual to choose to experienceit. Since, a huge number of theories have been developed over the years in many studies there is nosingle theory that illustrates all motivational aspects of travelling. Many researchers highlighted thatbecause motives may occur at the same time it should not be assumed that only one motive drives anindividual to perform an action as it was presumed in previous studies. On the other hand, sincepeople are not able to satisfy all their needs at once they usually seek to satisfy some or a few ofthem.[edit]Self-controlThe self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; aperson may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured bymany intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Yale School of
  8. 8. Management professor Victor Vrooms "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people willdecide whether to exert self control to pursue a particular goal.Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at agoal or an incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require externalstimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger,which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise andapproval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others.By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals bygiving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform thetrick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process.[edit]Motivational theories[edit]Incentive theoryA reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with theintent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to thebehavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, anddecreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action tobecome habit. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and other people. These two sources arecalled intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively.Reinforcers and reinforcement principles of behavior differ from the hypothetical construct of reward.A reinforcer is any stimulus change following a response that increases the future frequency ormagnitude of that response, therefore the cognitive approach is certainly the way forward as in 1973Maslow described it as being the golden pineapple. Positive reinforcement is demonstrated by anincrease in the future frequency or magnitude of a response due to in the past being followedcontingently by a reinforcing stimulus. Negative reinforcement involves stimulus change consisting ofthe removal of an aversive stimulus following a response. Positive reinforcement involves a stimuluschange consisting of the presentation or magnification of an appetitive stimulus following a response.From this perspective, motivation is mediated by environmental events, and the concept ofdistinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant.Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems. Steven Kerr notes thatwhen creating a reward system, it can be easy to reward A, while hoping for B, and in the process,reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals.Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behavior of the individual as they are influencedby beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. Incentive theory ispromoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B.F. Skinner and literalized by behaviorists, especiallyby Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, to mean that a persons actions alwayshave social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in thismanner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner.Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, in thedirection of the motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli "attract", to use the term above, a persontowards them. As opposed to the body seeking to reestablish homeostasis pushing it towards thestimulus. In terms of behaviorism, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: the stimulus hasbeen conditioned to make the person happier. For instance, a person knows that eating food,drinking water, or gaining social capital will make them happier. As opposed to in drive theory, whichinvolves negative reinforcement: a stimulus has been associated with the removal of the punishment--
  9. 9. the lack of homeostasis in the body. For example, a person has come to know that if they eat whenhungry, it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminatethat negative feeling of thirst.[edit]Escape-seeking dichotomy modelEscapism and seeking are major factors influencing decision making. Escapism is a need tobreakaway from a daily life routine whereas seeking is described as the desire to learn, gain someinner benefits through travelling. Both motivations have some interpersonal and personal facets forexample individuals would like to escape from family problems (personal) or from problems with workcolleagues (interpersonal). This model can also be easily adapted with regard to different studies.[edit]Drive-reduction theoryThere are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that wehave certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if itis not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drives strength is reduced. Thetheory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Freudto the ideas of feedback control systems,such as a thermostat.Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drive modelappears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, and, after the foodhas been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. There are several problems, however, thatleave the validity of drive reduction open for debate. The first problem is that it does not explain howsecondary reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money satisfies no biological or psychologicalneeds, but a pay check appears to reduce drive through second-order conditioning. Secondly, a drive,such as hunger, is viewed as having a "desire" to eat, making the drive a homuncular being—afeature criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his desires.In addition, it is clear that drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior, or a hungryhuman could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finished cooking it. The ability ofdrive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traitssuch as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty" food, which combine with drives for "food" inorder to explain cooking render it hard to test.[edit]Cognitive dissonance theorySuggested by Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences somedegree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: their views on the worldaround them, and their own personal feelings and actions. For example, a consumer may seek toreassure himself regarding a purchase, feeling, in retrospect, that another decision may have beenpreferable. His feeling that another purchase would have been preferable is inconsistent with hisaction of purchasing the item. The difference between his feelings and beliefs causes dissonance, sohe seeks to reassure himself.While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people havea motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspective makes people want tojustify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition. They do this bychanging their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facing the inconsistencies, becausedissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It isone of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.[edit]Need theories
  10. 10. Motivation, as defined by Pritchard and Ashwood, is the process used to allocate energy to maximize [10]the satisfaction of needs.[edit]Need hierarchy theoryThe content theory includes the hierarchy of needs from Abraham Maslow and the two- factor theoryfrom Herzberg. Maslows theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation.The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the Hierarchy of needsconsistent of five hierarchic classes. It shows the complexity of human requirements. According tohim, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower level needs such as Physiological andSafety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs are to be addressed. We can relateMaslows Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation. For example, if a manager is trying tomotivate his employees by satisfying their needs; according to Maslow, he should try to satisfy thelower level needs before he tries to satisfy the upper level needs or the employees will not bemotivated. Also he has to remember that not everyone will be satisfied by the same needs. A goodmanager will try to figure out which levels of needs are active for a certain individual or employee. Thebasic requirements build the first step in his pyramid. If there is any deficit on this level, the wholebehavior of a human will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Subsequently we do have the second level,which awake a need for security. Basically it is oriented on a future need for security. After securingthose two levels, the motives shift in the social sphere, which form the third stage. Psychologicalrequirements consist in the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy comprise the self- realization Sotheory can be summarized as follows: Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not. Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows: Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.) Safety/Security/Shelter/Health Belongingness/Love/Friendship Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement Self actualization[edit]Herzbergs two-factor theoryFrederick Herzbergs two-factor theory, a.k.a. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certainfactors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they dont lead to dissatisfaction but nosatisfaction.The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as aperson" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life.He distinguished between: Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and
  11. 11.  Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation.The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make you healthier,but absence can cause health deterioration.The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory."Herzbergs theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and instudies of user satisfaction (see Computer user satisfaction).[edit]Alderfers ERG theoryAlderfer, expanding on Maslows hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theory posits thatthere are three groups of core needs — existence, relatedness, and growth, hence the label: ERGtheory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements.They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. The secondgroup of needs are those of relatedness- the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonalrelationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied,and they align with Maslows social need and the external component of Maslows esteemclassification. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs an intrinsic desire for personal development.These include the intrinsic component from Maslows esteem category and the characteristicsincluded under self-actualization.[edit]Self-determination theorySelf-determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the importanceof intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. Like Maslows hierarchical theory and others thatbuilt on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Unlike these othertheories, however, SDT does not include any sort of "autopilot" for achievement, but instead requiresactive encouragement from the environment. The primary factors that encourage motivation anddevelopment are autonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness.[edit]Broad theoriesThe latest approach in developing a broad, integrative theory of motivation is Temporal Motivation [11]Theory(TMT) . Introduced in a 2007 Academy of Management Review article, it synthesizes into a [12]single formulation the primary aspects (including time as a fundamental term) of several othermajor motivational theories, including Incentive Theory, Drive Theory, Need Theory, Self-Efficacy andGoal Setting. The original researchers note that, in an effort to keep the theory simple, existingtheories to integrate were selected based on their shared attributes, and that these theories are still ofvalue, as TMT does not contain the same depth of detail as each individual theory. However, it stillsimplifies the field of motivation and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms ofanother.Achievement Motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise that performancemotivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance.As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are notconventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. Especially it integrates formerlyseparated approaches as Need for Achievement with, for example, social motives like dominance.The Achievement Motivation Inventory is based on this theory and assesses three factors (in 17separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success.[edit]Cognitive theories[edit]Goal-setting theory
  12. 12. Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearlydefined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goals efficiency is affected by threefeatures: proximity, difficulty and specificity. Good goal setting incorporates the SMART criteria, inwhich goals are: specific, measurable, accurate, realistic, and timely. An ideal goal should present asituation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. This explainswhy some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. A goalshould be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are notoptimally motivated, as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success).At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed.Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively definedand intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highestpossible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal.[edit]Models of behavior changeSocial-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition.Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. Volition is seen as aprocess that leads from intention to actual behavior. In other words, motivation and volition refer togoal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. An example of such amotivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitatethe forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action. Itcan support the translation of intentions into action.[edit]Unconscious motivationSome psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed byunconscious motives. According to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that therelationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need notbe at all direct."[edit]Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theoryStarting from studies involving more than 6,000 people, Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a [13][14]theory that found 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior. The 16 basic desiresthat motivate our actions and define our personalities as: Acceptance, the need for approval Curiosity, the need to learn Eating, the need for food Family, the need to raise children Honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of ones clan/ethnic group Idealism, the need for social justice Independence, the need for individuality Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments Physical activity, the need for exercise Power, the need for influence of will Romance, the need for sex Saving, the need to collect Social contact, the need for friends (peer relationships) Social status, the need for social standing/importance
  13. 13.  Tranquility, the need to be safe Vengeance, the need to strike back/to winIn this model, people differ in these basic desires. These basic desires represent intrinsic desires thatdirectly motivate a persons behavior, and not aimed at indirectly satisfying other desires. People mayalso be motivated by non-basic desires, but in this case this does not relate to deep motivation, oronly as a means to achieve other basic desires.[edit]Controlling motivationThe control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approachesof motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. To understandhow to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation.[edit]Employee motivationSee also: Work motivationWorkers in any organization need something to keep them working. Most of the time, the salary of theemployee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization. An employee must be motivatedto work for a company or organization. If no motivation is present in an employee, then thatemployee‘s quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate.When motivating an audience, you can use general motivational strategies or specific motivationalappeals. General motivational strategies include soft sell versus hard sell and personality type. Softsell strategies have logical appeals, emotional appeals, advice and praise. Hard sell strategies havebarter, outnumbering, pressure and rank. Also, you can consider basing your strategy on youraudience personality. Specific motivational appeals focus on provable facts, feelings, right and wrong, [15]audience rewards and audiencethreats.[edit]Job Characteristics ModelSee also: Work motivationSee also: Job satisfaction [16]The Job Characteristics Model (JCM), as designed by Hackman and Oldham attempts to use jobdesign to improve employee motivation. They have identified that any job can be described in termsof five key job characteristics;1. Skill Variety - the degree to which a job requires different skills and talents to complete a numberof different activities2. Task Identity - this dimension refers to the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of workversus a partial task as part of a larger piece of work3. Task Significance - is the impact of the task upon the lives or work of others4. Autonomy - is the degree of independence or freedom allowed to complete a job5. Task Feedback - individually obtaining direct and clear feedback about the effectiveness of theindividual carrying out the work activitiesThe JCM links these core job dimensions listed above to critical psychological states which results indesired personal and work outcomes. This forms the basis of this employee growth-need strength."The core dimensions listed above can be combined into a single predictive index, calledthe Motivating Potential Score.
  14. 14. [edit]Motivating Potential ScoreSee also: Work motivationSee also: Job satisfactionThe motivating potential score (MPS) can be calculated, using the core dimensions discussed above,as follows; Jobs that are high in motivating potential must be high on at least one of the three factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness, and also must be high on both Autonomy and [17] Feedback. If a job has a high MPS, the job characteristics model predicts that motivation, performance and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negative [17] outcomes, such as absenteeism and turnover, will be reduced. [edit]Drugs Some authors, especially in the transhumanist movement, have suggested the use of "smart drugs", also known as nootropics, as "motivation-enhancers". These drugs work in various ways to affect neurotransmitters in the brain. It is generally widely accepted that these drugs enhance [18] cognitive functions, but not without potential side effects. The effects of many of these drugs on the brain are emphatically not well understood, and their legal status often makes open [citation needed] experimentation difficult. [edit]Applications [edit]Education Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave [19] towards subject matter. It can: 1. Direct behavior toward particular goals 2. Lead to increased effort and energy 3. Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities 4. Enhance cognitive processing 5. Determine what consequences are reinforcing 6. Lead to improved performance. Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates. If teachers decided to extrinsically reward productive student behaviors, they may find it difficult to extricate themselves from that path. Consequently student dependency on extrinsic rewards [20] represents one of the greatest detractors from their use in the classroom.
  15. 15. The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize thatdistinctive needs of students should be considered in regard to orientation information provided atthe beginning of the higher education experience. Research done by Whyte in 1986 raised theawareness of counselors and educators in this regard. In 2007, the National Orientation DirectorsAssociation reprinted Cassandra B. Whytes research report allowing readers to ascertainimprovements made in addressing specific needs of students over a quarter of a century later to [21]help with academic success.Generally, motivation is conceptualized as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Classically, these [22]categories are regarded as distinct. Today, these concepts are less likely to be used as distinct [23]categories, but instead as two ideal types that define a continuum: Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant. It has been shown that intrinsic motivation for education drops from grades 3-9 [24] though the exact cause cannot be ascertained. Also, in younger students it has been shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstract manner [25] increases the intrinsic motivation of these students. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).Cassandra B. Whyte researched and reported about the importance of locus of control andacademic achievement. Students tending toward a more internal locus of control are moreacademically successful, thus encouraging curriculum and activity development with [26][27]consideration of motivation theories.Motivation has been found to be an important element in the concept of Andragogy (whatmotivates the adult learner), and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in Pivotal ResponseTherapy.Doyle and Moeyn have noted that traditional methods tended to use anxiety as negativemotivation (e.g. use of bad grades by teachers) as a method of getting students to work.However, they have found that progressive approaches with focus on positive motivation overpunishment has produced greater effectiveness with learning, since anxiety interferes with [28]performance of complex tasks.[edit]Sudbury Model schools approachMain article: Sudbury Valley SchoolSudbury Model schools adduce that the cure to the problem of procrastination, of learning ingeneral, and particularly of scientific illiteracy is to remove once and for all what they call theunderlying disease: compulsion in schools. They contend that human nature in a free societyrecoils from every attempt to force it into a mold; that the more requirements we pile onto childrenat school, the surer we are to drive them away from the material we are trying to force down theirthroats; that after all the drive and motivation of infants to master the world around them islegendary. They assert that schools must keep that drive alive by doing what some of them do: [29]nurturing it on the freedom it needs to thrive.Sudbury Model schools do not perform and do not offer evaluations, assessments, transcripts, orrecommendations, asserting that they do not rate people, and that school is not a judge;comparing students to each other, or to some standard that has been set is for them a violation ofthe students right to privacy and to self-determination. Students decide for themselves how to
  16. 16. measure their progress as self-starting learners as a process of self-evaluation: real life-long [30]learning and the proper educational evaluation for the 21st century, they adduce. According toSudbury Model schools, this policy does not cause harm to their students as they move on to lifeoutside the school. However, they admit it makes the process more difficult, but that suchhardship is part of the students learning to make their own way, set their own standards and meettheir own goals. The no-grading and no-rating policy helps to create an atmosphere free ofcompetition among students or battles for adult approval, and encourages a positive cooperative [31]environment amongst the student body.[edit]BusinessSee also: Work motivationAt lower levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs, such as physiological needs, money is amotivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (inaccordance with Herzbergs two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy,praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerfulmotivators than money, as both Abraham Maslows theory of motivation and DouglasMcGregors theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate. [32]According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower level needs suchas Physiological and Safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs are to beaddressed. We can relate Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation. Forexample, if a manager is trying to motivate his employees by satisfying their needs; according toMaslow, he should try to satisfy the lower level needs before he tries to satisfy the upper levelneeds or the employees will not be motivated. Also he has to remember that not everyone will besatisfied by the same needs. A good manager will try to figure out which levels of needs areactive for a certain individual or employee.Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are bettermotivators to staff. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poormotivator. Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are consideredstronger motivators than money. Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. Motivated employees are more quality oriented. Motivated workers are more productive.The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and highopportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted tothe opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. Motivation is a powerful tool inthe work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of [33]production.Nonetheless, Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates:ascendant, indifferent, and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely, and must be treated,managed, and motivated accordingly. An effective leader must understand how to manage allcharacters, and more importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for [34]employees to work, grow, and find answers independently. [35]The assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were challenged by a classic study at VauxhallMotors UK manufacturing plant. This introduced the concept of orientation to work anddistinguished three main orientations: instrumental (where work is a means to an end),
  17. 17. bureaucratic (where work is a source of status, security and immediate reward) and solidaristic(which prioritises group loyalty).Other theories which expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg included KurtLewins Force Field Theory, Edwin Lockes Goal Theory and Victor Vrooms Expectancy theory.These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to be motivated by [36]different factors at different times.According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, aworkers motivation is solely determined by pay, and therefore management need not considerpsychological or social aspects of work. In essence, scientific management bases humanmotivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards.In contrast, David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere needfor money—in fact, extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such asachievement motivation, though money could be used as an indicator of success for variousmotives, e.g., keeping score. In keeping with this view, his consulting firm, McBer & Company,had as its first motto "To make everyone productive, happy, and free." For McClelland,satisfaction lay in aligning a persons life with their fundamental motivations.Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important andthat boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. Mayo believed that workerscould be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important. As aresult, employees were given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention waspaid to informal work groups. Mayo named the model the Hawthorne effect. His model has beenjudged as placing undue reliance on social contacts at work situations for motivating [37]employees.William Ouchi introduced Theory Z, a hybrid management approach consisting of both Japanese [38]and American philosophies and cultures. Its Japanese segment is much like the clan culturewhere organizations focus on a standardized structure with heavy emphasis on socialization of itsmembers. All underlying goals are consistent across the organization. Its American segmentretains formality and authority amongst members and the organization. Ultimately, Theory Zpromotes common structure and commitment to the organization, as well as constantimprovement of work efficacy.In Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs asmotivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive [39]program: Recognition of employees individual differences, and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition Allowing employees to participate Linking rewards to performance Rewarding of nominators Visibility of the recognition process[edit]GamesMotivational models are central to game design, because without motivation a player will not be [40]interested in progressing further within a game. Several models for gameplay motivations havebeen proposed, including Richard Bartles. Jon Radoff has proposed a four-quadrant model of [41]gameplay motivation that includes cooperation, competition, immersion and achievement. The
  18. 18. motivational structure of games is central to the gamification trend, which seeks to apply game- [42] based motivation to business applications.References 1. ^ Carlson, N.R. & Heth, C.D.(2009).Psychology the Science of Behaviour.Toronto:Pearson Education Canada 2. ^ "Where the Motivation Resides and Self-Deception Hides: How Motivated Cognition Accomplishes" 3. ^ Seligman, Martin E.P. (1990), Learned Optimism, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., p. 101, ISBN 0- 394-57915-1 4. ^ James L (1998). Understanding Employee Motivation. N/A June 1998, Vol. 36 5. ^ Dickson, W. J. (1973). Hawthorne experiments. In C. Heyel (ed.), The encyclopedia of management, 2nd ed. (pp. 298-302). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold 6. ^ N/A, Psychology Dictionary. 7. ^ Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K. C. (2004). Childrens motivation for reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences. The Journal of Educational Research, 97, 299-309 8. ^ Ryan, M. R., & Deci, L. E. Self-Determination Theory and the Facilation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being. American Psychologist, 2000. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives. The concept of motivation can be instilled in children at a very young age, by promoting and evoking interest in a certain book or novel. The idea is to have a discussion pertaining the book with young individuals, as well as to reward them. Reference: Gambrell, B., L. (2011). Ask the expert: Gambrell replies to questions via Facebook on the topic of reading motivation. 9. ^ Mark R. Lepper, David Greene and Richard Nisbet, ―Undermining Children‘s Intrinsic Interest with Extrinsic Reward; A Test of ‗Overjustification‘ Hypothesis, ‖ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28, 1973, 129‐37. 10. ^ R. Pritchard & E. Ashwood (2008). Managing Motivation. New York: Taylor & Francis Group. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84169-789-5. 11. ^ 12. ^ Steel, Piers (2007). "The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure". Psychological Bulletin 133 (1): 65–94. DOI:10.1037/0033- 2909.133.1.65. PMID 17201571. 13. ^ "New Theory of Motivation Lists 16 Basic Desires That Guide Us". Research News.Ohio State. 2000- 06-28. Retrieved 2012-06-02. 14. ^ Reiss, Steven (March 5, 2002). Who am I? The 16 Basic Desires that Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. Berkley Trade. ISBN 978-0425183403.
  19. 19. 15. ^ Thomas, Jane. Guide to Managerial Persuasion and Influence. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.16. ^ J.R. Hackman and G.R. Oldham. Work Redesign. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education, Inc, 1980; pp 78-80. a b17. ^ Steel, Piers. Motivation: Theory and Applied. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions, 2012. Print. pp. 4918. ^ Stevens, Sharni. Cognitive Enhancement: A Boost in the Right Direction?. The Triple Helix. 2011.19. ^ Ormrod, 200320. ^ Williams, R. L., & Stockdale, S. L., "Classroom Motivation Strategies for Prospective Teachers", "The Teacher Educator", 200421. ^ Whyte, Cassandra B. (2007). An Additional Look at Orientation Programs Nationally- (reprint of 1986 article in same journal). National Orientation Directiors Association Journal. 15 (1). 71-77.22. ^ Alexander, P., Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (January 01, 2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 1.23. ^ Vallerand, R. J. (March 08, 1993). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 4, 1003-17.24. ^ Susan Harter (1981), A New Self-Report Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom: Motivational and Informational Components25. ^ Diana Cordova, Mark Lepper (1995) Intrinsic Motivation and the Process of Learning:Beneficial Effects of Contextualization, Personalization, and Choice26. ^ Whyte, Cassandra B. (1979) Effective Counseling Methods for High-Risk College Freshmen. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling. 6 (4). 198-200.27. ^ Lauridsen, K. (editor) and Whyte, C.B. (1980). An Integrated counseling and Learning Assistance Center.New Directions Sourcebook. Jossey-Bass, Inc.28. ^ Moen, R., & Doyle, K. O. (1978). Measures of Academic Motivation: A Conceptual Review. Research in Higher Education, 8, 1-23. Retrieved from ^ Greenberg D. (1992) Freedom Nurtures Culture and Learning, Education in America: A View From Sudbury Valley.30. ^ Greenberg, D. (2000). 21st Century Schools, edited transcript of a talk delivered at the April 2000 International Conference on Learning in the 21st Century.31. ^ Greenberg, D. (1987). Chapter 20, Evaluation, Free at Last — The Sudbury Valley School.32. ^ Tom P (2004).Managing IT According To A Hierarchy Of Needs. N/A. 20040302ManagingITAccordingtoaHierarchyofNeeds.html33. ^ Steinmetz, L. (1983) Nice Guys Finish Last: Management Myths and Reality. Boulder, Colorado: Horizon Publications Inc.
  20. 20. 34. ^ Steinmetz, L.L. (1983) Nice Guys Finish Last: Management Myths and Reality. Boulder, Colorado: Horizon Publications Inc. (pp. 43–44)35. ^ Goldthorpe, J.H., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, F. and Platt, J. (1968) The Affluent Worker: Attitudes and Behaviour Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.36. ^ Weightman, J. (2008) The Employee Motivation Audit: Cambridge Strategy Publications37. ^ Human Resources Management, HT Graham and R Bennett M+E Handbooks(1993)ISBN 0-7121- 0844-038. ^ Barnett, Tim, and Scott B. Droege. "Theory Z." Encyclopedia of Management. Ed. Marilyn M. Helms. 5th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 914-916. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Feb. 2012.39. ^ Robbins, Stephen P.; Judge, Timothy A. (2007), Essentials of Organizational Behavior (9 ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall40. ^ Radoff, Jon. April 2011. Game On: Energize Your Business with Social Games. ISBN 978-0-470- 93626-941. ^ Radoff, Jon. "Game Player Motivations." May 2011. radoff.com42. ^ Popkin, Helen (June 1, 2010). "FarmVille invades the real world". MSNBC.