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Edible mushroom
Submitted to: Dr. Mukesh Yadav
Submitted by : Jahnvi arora
11228108
Msc microbiology 3rd semester
About mushrooms
• Mushrooms are considered as a
vegetable, mushrooms are
neither a plant nor animal food.
• They are a type of fungus that
contains a substance called ergo
sterol, similar in structure to
cholesterol in animals.
• Ergo sterol can be transformed
into vitamin D with exposure to
ultraviolet light.
• Mushrooms vary in appearance
with more than 10,000 known
types, but generally they are
distinguished by a stem, fleshy
rounded cap, and gills
underneath the cap.
• China and the U.S. are among
the top five producers of
mushrooms worldwide.
Features
• Presence of annulus ring at
the base of the stalk of the
mushroom.
• They are delicious in taste.
• They are soft , leathery and
woody.
• They are not colorfully
attractive.
• They have pleasant smell.
• There are fleshy an edible
fruit bodies of several spp.
Of macro fungi.
Nutrients
• All mushrooms are low in sodium
, fat and calories.
• High in fiber and proteins , 20-
30% protein by dry weight.
• Rich in minerals like potassium ,
selenium , copper , copper , zinc
and magnesium ; oyster
mushrooms are rich in iron too.
• Rich in vitamin B complex
vitamin, riboflavin and niacin.
• Produces vitamin D when present
in sunlight , also they are the
natural source of vitamin D.
• Rich in cancer fighting nutrients
like , polysaccharide and lenoleic
acid.
• Rich in L- ergotheonine , a
powerful antioxident.
Major edible mushrooms
 Button mushroom (Agaricus
bisporus)
• It is very popular variety due
to its delicious taste ,
nutritional and medicinal
value.
• It is the first largest cultivated
mushrooms in the world.
• It contains high protein ( 35%
) and fibre ( 18%) in dry
weight.
• A creamy white to pale tan
colour , these mushrooms
have firm texture and delicate
flavour.
• They are juicy.
• The are inexpensive.
 Oyester mushroom
(Pleurotus ostreatus)
• It is second most
cultivated mushroom.
• It contains 150 varieties of
substrates under varied
conditions in worldwide.
• They have high food value
, as it contains
cabohydrates (63%) , fiber
(15%) and fat (2%).
• It has velvet like texture
and trumpet shaped with
colors ranging from grey
to pale brown to reddish
cap on grey white stems.
• It has mild seafood taste.
 Portobello ( Agaricus
bisporus )
• It has big large umbrella like
cap.
• The texture and flavour is
steak like yet is butterfly
soft.
 Shiitake ( lentinula edodes)
• The colour of its cap ranges
from tan to dark brown.
• It has an earthy , smokey
flavor and taste best when
cooked.
• It has low in water content.
 Other edible
mushrooms are –
o Black truffles (tuber
melanosporum )
o Morel ( Morchella
angusticeps )
o Porcini ( Boletus
edulis)
o Cremini ( Agaricus
bisporus)
o Enokitake (
Flammulina velutips)
etc.
Black truffles
Morel
Porcini
Cremini
Enokitake
Mushroom substrate
• A mushroom substrate is a material that
mushroom mycelial grow and establish itself
in.
• The substrate provides mushrooms with the
nutrients , moisture and energy they need to
grow nand fruit.
• Different spp. Of mushrooms have their own
preferences.
 Good mushroom substrate features –
• A good substrate is dense in woody , fibrous materials like lignin ,
cellulose and hemicellulose.
• Substrate needs to have 1-2% nitrogen.
• Substrate needs to contain a small amount of magnessium , calcium
, phosphorus and sulfur.
• Substrate needs to be slightly acidic with pH 5-6.5.
• A minimum moisture content of 50-70% is essential for your
substrate.
Common mushroom substrates are-
a) Coffee grounds
b) Straw
c) Coco coir and vermiculite.
d) Hardwood pellets
e) Manure
f) Logs
g) Cardboard etc.
Microorganisms used in mushroom
cultivation
• Microrganisms associated with substrate used in cultivation of mushroom
in mushrom farm.
• The substrate which is mixture of sawdust, rice, bran , lime and water was
composted for 30 days and pasteurized to used in cultivation.
• Microorganisms isolated andcharacterized and their frequency of isolation
from substrate include spp. of –
o Fungal genera – apergillus ( 40.9%) , fusarium ( 22.7%) , mucor ( 5.6%) ,
penicillium ( 17%) , rhizopus ( 11.6%) and trichoderma ( 2.3%).
o Bacterial genera – bacillus (36.6%) , clostridium ( 16.6%) , enterobacter (
18.3%) , escherichia ( 15%) , psedumonas ( 13.3%) .
• Aspergillus and bacillus spp. Had the highest frequency.
• Proper compositing promotes the development of a no. of saprophytic soil
microorganisms that helps in the degradation of of substrate.
The mushroom production cycle from preparation of
mushroom substrate to disposal
Cultivation of mushrooms
• Composting
Compost is prepared by mixing paddy straw with number of organic materials like
cow dung and inorganic fertilizers. It is kept at about 50oC for one week.
• Spawning
Spawn is the mushroom seed. It is prepared by growing fungal mycelium in grains
under sterile conditions. Spawn is sown on compost.
• Casing
Compost is covered with a thin layer of soil. It gives support to the growing
mushroom, provides humidity and helps regulate the temperature.
• Pinning
Mycelium starts to form little bud, which will develop into mushroom. Those little
white buds are called pins.
• Harvesting
Mushroom grow better in 15oC - 23oC. They grow 3 cm in a week which is the
normal size for harvesting. In the third week the first flush mushroom can be
harvested.
• Preservation
Discolouration, weight, and flavourloss are the main problems of harvesting stage
of mushrooms.
• The following methods are used to increase their life.
(i) Freezing
(ii) Drying
(iii) Canning
(iv) Vacuum Cooling
Gamma radiation and storing at 15°C.
Applications
• They act as antibacterial , immune enhancer and cholestrol
lowering agents.
• They are important sources of bioactive compounds.
• Some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and
are found as dietery supplements.
• It has beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases.
• Many nutracentical properties are described in mushrooms such as
prevention or treatment of parkinson , alzheimer , hypertension
and high risk of stroke.
• They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion
and metastatis to anti–tumoral attributes.
• They have high nutritional value which benefits us , that’s why
mushrooms are termed as “ food of gods ”.
Thank you

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Edible mushroom - Jahnvi arora (11228108) , mmdu , mullana .pptx

  • 1. Edible mushroom Submitted to: Dr. Mukesh Yadav Submitted by : Jahnvi arora 11228108 Msc microbiology 3rd semester
  • 2. About mushrooms • Mushrooms are considered as a vegetable, mushrooms are neither a plant nor animal food. • They are a type of fungus that contains a substance called ergo sterol, similar in structure to cholesterol in animals. • Ergo sterol can be transformed into vitamin D with exposure to ultraviolet light. • Mushrooms vary in appearance with more than 10,000 known types, but generally they are distinguished by a stem, fleshy rounded cap, and gills underneath the cap. • China and the U.S. are among the top five producers of mushrooms worldwide.
  • 3. Features • Presence of annulus ring at the base of the stalk of the mushroom. • They are delicious in taste. • They are soft , leathery and woody. • They are not colorfully attractive. • They have pleasant smell. • There are fleshy an edible fruit bodies of several spp. Of macro fungi.
  • 4. Nutrients • All mushrooms are low in sodium , fat and calories. • High in fiber and proteins , 20- 30% protein by dry weight. • Rich in minerals like potassium , selenium , copper , copper , zinc and magnesium ; oyster mushrooms are rich in iron too. • Rich in vitamin B complex vitamin, riboflavin and niacin. • Produces vitamin D when present in sunlight , also they are the natural source of vitamin D. • Rich in cancer fighting nutrients like , polysaccharide and lenoleic acid. • Rich in L- ergotheonine , a powerful antioxident.
  • 5. Major edible mushrooms  Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) • It is very popular variety due to its delicious taste , nutritional and medicinal value. • It is the first largest cultivated mushrooms in the world. • It contains high protein ( 35% ) and fibre ( 18%) in dry weight. • A creamy white to pale tan colour , these mushrooms have firm texture and delicate flavour. • They are juicy. • The are inexpensive.
  • 6.  Oyester mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) • It is second most cultivated mushroom. • It contains 150 varieties of substrates under varied conditions in worldwide. • They have high food value , as it contains cabohydrates (63%) , fiber (15%) and fat (2%). • It has velvet like texture and trumpet shaped with colors ranging from grey to pale brown to reddish cap on grey white stems. • It has mild seafood taste.
  • 7.  Portobello ( Agaricus bisporus ) • It has big large umbrella like cap. • The texture and flavour is steak like yet is butterfly soft.  Shiitake ( lentinula edodes) • The colour of its cap ranges from tan to dark brown. • It has an earthy , smokey flavor and taste best when cooked. • It has low in water content.
  • 8.  Other edible mushrooms are – o Black truffles (tuber melanosporum ) o Morel ( Morchella angusticeps ) o Porcini ( Boletus edulis) o Cremini ( Agaricus bisporus) o Enokitake ( Flammulina velutips) etc. Black truffles Morel Porcini Cremini Enokitake
  • 9. Mushroom substrate • A mushroom substrate is a material that mushroom mycelial grow and establish itself in. • The substrate provides mushrooms with the nutrients , moisture and energy they need to grow nand fruit. • Different spp. Of mushrooms have their own preferences.
  • 10.  Good mushroom substrate features – • A good substrate is dense in woody , fibrous materials like lignin , cellulose and hemicellulose. • Substrate needs to have 1-2% nitrogen. • Substrate needs to contain a small amount of magnessium , calcium , phosphorus and sulfur. • Substrate needs to be slightly acidic with pH 5-6.5. • A minimum moisture content of 50-70% is essential for your substrate.
  • 11. Common mushroom substrates are- a) Coffee grounds b) Straw c) Coco coir and vermiculite. d) Hardwood pellets e) Manure f) Logs g) Cardboard etc.
  • 12. Microorganisms used in mushroom cultivation • Microrganisms associated with substrate used in cultivation of mushroom in mushrom farm. • The substrate which is mixture of sawdust, rice, bran , lime and water was composted for 30 days and pasteurized to used in cultivation. • Microorganisms isolated andcharacterized and their frequency of isolation from substrate include spp. of – o Fungal genera – apergillus ( 40.9%) , fusarium ( 22.7%) , mucor ( 5.6%) , penicillium ( 17%) , rhizopus ( 11.6%) and trichoderma ( 2.3%). o Bacterial genera – bacillus (36.6%) , clostridium ( 16.6%) , enterobacter ( 18.3%) , escherichia ( 15%) , psedumonas ( 13.3%) . • Aspergillus and bacillus spp. Had the highest frequency. • Proper compositing promotes the development of a no. of saprophytic soil microorganisms that helps in the degradation of of substrate.
  • 13. The mushroom production cycle from preparation of mushroom substrate to disposal
  • 15. • Composting Compost is prepared by mixing paddy straw with number of organic materials like cow dung and inorganic fertilizers. It is kept at about 50oC for one week. • Spawning Spawn is the mushroom seed. It is prepared by growing fungal mycelium in grains under sterile conditions. Spawn is sown on compost. • Casing Compost is covered with a thin layer of soil. It gives support to the growing mushroom, provides humidity and helps regulate the temperature. • Pinning Mycelium starts to form little bud, which will develop into mushroom. Those little white buds are called pins. • Harvesting Mushroom grow better in 15oC - 23oC. They grow 3 cm in a week which is the normal size for harvesting. In the third week the first flush mushroom can be harvested. • Preservation Discolouration, weight, and flavourloss are the main problems of harvesting stage of mushrooms. • The following methods are used to increase their life. (i) Freezing (ii) Drying (iii) Canning (iv) Vacuum Cooling Gamma radiation and storing at 15°C.
  • 16. Applications • They act as antibacterial , immune enhancer and cholestrol lowering agents. • They are important sources of bioactive compounds. • Some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietery supplements. • It has beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. • Many nutracentical properties are described in mushrooms such as prevention or treatment of parkinson , alzheimer , hypertension and high risk of stroke. • They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastatis to anti–tumoral attributes. • They have high nutritional value which benefits us , that’s why mushrooms are termed as “ food of gods ”.