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CLASSIFICATION
OF EXCEPTIONALITIES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Giftedness ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Mental Retardation ………………………………………………………………………………. 1...
GIFTEDNESS
1
BACK TO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Giftedness
Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of
aptitude (defined as an exceptional ability ...
Characteristics
 Unusualalertness,evenininfancy
 Rapidlearner;putsthoughtstogetherquickly
 Excellentmemory
 Unusuallyl...
Characteristics
 Highlysensitive
 Thinkingisabstract,complex,logical,andinsightful
 Idealismandsenseofjusticeatearlyage...
Characteristics
 Learnbasicskillsquicklyandwithlittlepractice
 Asksprobingquestions
 Widerangeofinterests(orextremefocu...
Types of Giftedness
1. The Successful
Theyarethemosteasilyidentifiable,andmayaccountforuptoabout90%
of the identified gift...
Types of Giftedness
2. The Challenging
They are the divergently gifted, who possess high levels of creativity.
They do not...
Types 0f Giftedness
3. The Underground
It refers to gifted students who deny their talents or hide their
giftedness in ord...
Types of Giftedness
4. The Dropouts
They are the angry and frustrated students whose needs have not
been recognized for ma...
Types of Giftedness
5. The Double Labeled
Theyaregiftedstudentswhoarephysicallyoremotionallyhandicapped
in some way, or ha...
Types of Giftedness
6. The Autonomous Learner
They are the autonomous learners who have learnt to work effectively
in the ...
CauseofGiftedness
Thenatureversusnurturedebate
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentifica...
MENTAL RETARDATION
12
BACK TO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MentalRetardation
Mental retardation (MR) is a condition diagnosed
before age 18, usually in infancy or prior to birth, th...
Characteristics of Mental Retardation
 Cerebral Palsy or Motor Asymmetry
 Abnormalheadsizeorshape
 Craniofacialmalforma...
Characteristics of Mental Retardation
 Cytogenetic Studies
 Microcephaly
 Multiple(evenminor)somaticanomalies
 Familyh...
Characteristics of Mental Retardation
 Metabolic studies
 Episodicvomitingorlethargy
 Poorgrowth
 Seizures
 Unusualbo...
Types of Mental Retardation
1. Mild Retardation
 75%to90%ofallcasesofretardation
 FunctionatonehalftotwothirdsofCA(IQ:50...
Types of Mental Retardation
2. Moderate Retardation
 ~10%to25%ofallcasesofretardation
 FunctionatonethirdtoonehalfofCA(I...
Types of Mental Retardation
3. Severe Retardation
 ~10%to25%ofallcasesofretardation
 FunctionatonefifthtoonethirdofCA(IQ...
Types of Mental Retardation
4. Profound Retardation
 ~10%to25%ofallcasesofretardation
 Functionat<onefifthofCA(IQ:<20)
...
Causes of Mental Retardation
 Unexplained(thelargestcategory)
 Trauma (prenatal and postnatal) such as oxygen deprivatio...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
AUTISM
24
BACK TO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Autism
Autism is a complex neurobehavioral disorder that includes
impairments in social interaction and developmental lang...
Characteristics of Autism
 Troubleincommunication
 Sensitivesenses
 Have repetitive, stereotyped body movements such
as...
Types of Autism
1. Autistic Disorder
This is what most people think of when they hear the word "autism." It
referstoproble...
Types of Autism
3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)
Pervasive developmental disorder or PDD -- also known as atypica...
Types of Autism
5. Rett Syndrome
Children with Rett syndrome, primarily girls, start developing
normallybutthenbeginlosing...
Causes of Autism
 Advancedageofthemotherorthefather
 Whenapregnantwomanisexposedtocertaindrugsorchemicals
 Useofalcohol...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
LEARNING DISABILITIES
32
BACK TO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Learning Disability
Learning disability is a reduced intellectual ability and
difficulty with everyday activities – for ex...
Characteristics of Learning Disability
 Reading/spellingdifficultiescontinue
 Stillavoidsoralreadingandwritingtasks
 Tr...
Characteristics of Learning Disability
 Avoidsoralreadingandhandwriting
 Continuedcoordination/motorskillsissues
 Readi...
Causes of Learning Disability
 A learning disability occurs when the brain is still developing - before,
duringorsoonafte...
Causes of LearningDisability
 A learning disability occurs when the brain is still developing - before,
duringorsoonafter...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
ADHD
39
BACK TO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem
of not being able to focus, being overactive, not being ...
Characteristics of ADHD
 Inattentive Symptoms
 Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
insch...
Characteristics of ADHD
 Inattentive Symptoms
 Hasproblemsorganizingtasksandactivities
 Avoids or dislikes tasks that r...
Characteristics of ADHD
 Hyperactivity Symptoms
 Fidgetswithhandsorfeetorsquirmsinseat
 Leavesseatwhenremainingseatedis...
Characteristics of ADHD
 Impulsivity Symptoms
 Blurtsoutanswersbeforequestionshavebeencompleted
 Hasdifficultyawaitingt...
Types of ADHD
1. Inattentive Type: A person with this type must have at least six of
these nine symptoms, and very few of ...
Types of ADHD
2. Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: To have this type, a person has to
have at least six of these nine symptoms, ...
Types of ADHD
3. Combined Type: This is the most common type of ADHD. People
with it have symptoms of both inattentive and...
Causes of ADHD
 ADHD usually begins in childhood, but may continue into the adult years.
It is the most commonly diagnose...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL
DISORDERS
50
BACK TO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
It is a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a
long peri...
Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
It is a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a
long peri...
Characteristics Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
 Hyperactivity(shortattentionspan,impulsiveness);
 Aggressionorself-inju...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
1. Anxiety Disorders
Experiencing anxiety from time to time, but for many people,...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
1. Anxiety Disorders
As with the term emotional disturbance, “anxiety disorder” i...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
2. Bipolar Disorders
Also known as manic-depressive illness, bipolar disorder is ...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
3. Conduct Disorders
Conduct disorder refers to a group of behavioral and emotion...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
4. Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are characterized by extremes in eating beha...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
4. Eating Disorders
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two most common
...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
Often referred to as OCD, obsessive-compulsive ...
Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder
6. Psychotic Disorders
“Psychotic disorders” is another umbrella term used to ref...
Causes of Emotional&BehavioralDisorder
 No one knows the actual cause or causes of emotional disturbance, although
severa...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS
64
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
HealthImpairment
Itmeanshavinglimitedstrength,vitality,oralertness, includingaheightened
alertness to environmental stimul...
HealthImpairment
“Other Health Impairment” is one of the 14 categories of disability listed in
nation’s special education ...
Characteristics of Health Impairments
The following are the manifestations of OHI:
 limited strength, vitality, or alertn...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
PHYSICAL DISABILITIES
69
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Physical Disability
A physical disability is any condition that permanently
preventsnormalbodymovementand/orcontrol.
70
Characteristics of Physical Disability
In the early years, children may have some difficulties in learning
to move skillfu...
Types of Physical Disability
1. Muscular dystrophies
When a child has muscular dystrophy, this means that the muscle
fibre...
Types of Physical Disability
2. Acquired Brain & Spinal Injuries
Physical disabilities may result from permanent injuries ...
Types of Physical Disability
3. Spina Bifida
Sometimes, a baby'sspinalcord (the nerves that run down the spine)
do not dev...
Types of Physical Disability
3. Spina Bifida
Childrenwithspinabifidamayhave:
 partialorfullparalysisofthelegs
 difficult...
Types of Physical Disability
4. Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the parts of the brain which
control ...
Types of Physical Disability
4. Cerebral Palsy
Childrenwithcerebralpalsymayhavedifficultieswith:
 posture (the ability to...
Types of Physical Disability
4. Cerebral Palsy
Childrencanhavedifferenttypesofcerebralpalsy:
 Hemiplegia (involves muscle...
Types of Physical Disability
5. Multiple disabilities
Some children with physical disabilities will have other disabilitie...
Causes of Physical Disability
 Inheritedorgeneticdisorders,suchasmusculardystrophy
 Conditions present at birth (congeni...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
SEVERE & MULTIPLE
DISABILITIES
82
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Severe & Multiple Disability
People with severe disabilities are those who traditionally have been
labelledashavingseveret...
Characteristics of Severe & Multiple Disability
People with severe or multiple disabilities may exhibit a wide range of
ch...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
86
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury, often referred to as TBI, is most often an acute
event similar to other inj...
Traumatic Brain Injury
A brain injury is different from a broken limb or punctured lung. An
injury in these areas limit th...
Types of Traumatic Brain Injury
1. Mild Brain Injury
A brain injury can be classified as mild if loss of consciousness and...
Types of Traumatic Brain Injury
2. Severe Brain Injury
Severebraininjuryisassociatedwithlossofconsciousnessformorethan
30m...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Open Head Injury
 Resultsfrombulletwounds,etc.
 Largelyfocaldamage
 Penetrationofthesku...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Closed Head Injury
 Resultingfromaslipandfall,motorvehiclecrashes,etc.
 Focaldamageanddi...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)
 Theskull is hard and inflexible while the ...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)
 Thebrainmoves atadifferentratethantheskull...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)
 Diffuse axonal shearing is when the brain ...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)
 If the impact is strong enough, axons can ...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Chemical / Toxic
 Alsoknownasmetabolicdisorders
 Thisoccurswhenharmfulchemicalsdamagethe...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Hypoxia (Lack of Oxygen)
 If the blood flow is depleted of oxygen, then irreversiblebrain...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Tumors
 Tumorscausedbycancercangrowonoroverthebrain
 Tumors can cause brain injury by in...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Infections
 The brain and surrounding membranes are very prone to
infections if the speci...
Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury
 Stroke
 If blood flow is blocked through a cerebral vascular accident
(stroke),celldeathi...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
COMMUNICATION DISORDER
103
BACK TO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Communication Disorder
A communication disorder is an impairment in the ability to receive, send,
process,andcomprehendcon...
Characteristics of Communication Disorder
 Manifestsdifficultyinspeaking
 Hardtimearticulatingwords
 Can produce sounds...
Types of Communication Disorder
1. Articulation disorder
An articulation disorder is the atypical production of speech
sou...
Types of Communication Disorder
1. Articulation disorder
 Fluency disorder is an interruption in the flow of speaking
cha...
Types of Communication Disorder
2. Language disorder
A language disorder is impaired comprehension and/or use of
spoken, w...
Types of Communication Disorder
3. Hearing disorder
A hearing disorder is the result of impaired auditory sensitivity of
t...
Types of Communication Disorder
3. Hearing disorder
Individuals with hearing impairment may be described as deaf or
hardof...
Types of Communication Disorder
3. Hearing disorder
Individuals with hearing impairment may be described as deaf or
hardof...
Types of Communication Disorder
3. Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Central auditory processing disorders are deficits...
Types of Communication Disorder
3. Central Auditory Processing Disorder
CAPD may involve the listener's active and passive...
Types of Communication Disorder
3. Central Auditory Processing Disorder
CAPD may involve the listener's active and passive...
Causes of CommunicationDisorder
 Hearing
Some of the causes of hearing loss are chronic ear infections,
heredity,birthdef...
Causes of CommunicationDisorder
 Speech & Language
Some of the causes of speech and language disorders are
related to hea...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
HEARING LOSS
118
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Hearing Loss
Hearinglossisadisabilitycharacterizedbythe
incapacitytohearsounds.
119
Hearing Loss
Mild Hearing Loss
What is mild hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds that
peoplecanhearwiththeirbet...
Hearing Loss
Moderate Hearing Loss
What is moderate hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds
heardbypeoplewiththeir...
Hearing Loss
Severe Hearing Loss
What is severe hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds heard
by people with their...
Hearing Loss
Profound Hearing Loss
What is profound hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds
heard by people with t...
Characteristics of Hearing Loss
 Hearingloss
 Mute
 Inabilitytounderstandverbalcues
124
Types of Hearing Loss
1. Conductive Hearing Loss
It is when hearing loss is due to problems with the ear canal, ear
drum, ...
Types of Hearing Loss
3. Mixed Hearing Loss
It refers to a combination of conductive and sensorineural
hearing loss. This ...
Causes of Hearing Loss
 Malformationofouterear,
earcanal,ormiddleear
structures
 Fluidinthemiddleearfrom
colds
 Earinfe...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
BLINDNESS & LOW VISION
129
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Blindness &LowVision
A visual impairment is any visual condition that impacts an
individual’s ability to successfully comp...
Characteristics of Blindness &LowVision
 Visual impairment is essentially an umbrella term used to
describe the loss of s...
Types of Blindness &LowVision
According to the CDC and the World Health Organization the classification of visual
acuity a...
Causes of Blindness & Low Vision
 Presbyopia-difficultyfocusingonobjectsthatareclose.Thisproblemoften
becomesnoticeablein...
Causes of Blindness & Low Vision
 Diabeticeyedisease
 Macular degeneration - loss of central vision, blurred vision (esp...
Causes of Blindness & Low Vision
 Retinaldetachment-symptomsincludefloaters,sparksorflashesoflight
in your vision, or a s...
Causes of Blindness & Low Vision
 Bleedingintotheeye
 Temporal arteritis - inflammation of an artery in the brain that s...
AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification
(PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation)
ProgramPl...
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Classification of exeptionalities

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c. Classifications
● Autism
● Blindness
● Deafness
● Emotional Disturbance
● Hearing Impairment
● Intellectual Disability
● Multiple Disabilities
● Orthopedic Impairment
● Other Health Impaired
● Specific Learning Disability
● Speech or Language Disability
● Traumatic Brain Injury
● Visual Impairment

Classification of exeptionalities

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF EXCEPTIONALITIES
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Giftedness ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Mental Retardation ………………………………………………………………………………. 12 Autism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... 24 Learning Disability ……………………………………………………………………………….. 32 ADHD ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39 Emotional & Behavioral Disorder …………………………………………………….. 50 Health Impairment …………………………………………………………………………….... 64 Physical Disability ………………………………………………………………………………… 69 Severe & Multiple Disability ……………………………………………………………… 82 Traumatic Brain Injury ………………………………………………………………...……. 86 Communication Disorder ………………………………………………………………….. 103 Hearing Loss ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118 Blindness & Low Vision ……………………………………………………………………… 129
  3. 3. GIFTEDNESS 1 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  4. 4. Giftedness Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude (defined as an exceptional ability to reason and learn) or competence (documented performance or achievement in top 10% or rarer)inoneormoredomains. Domains include any structured area of activity with its own symbol system (e.g., mathematics, music, language) and/or set of sensorimotorskills(e.g.,painting,dance,sports).” 2
  5. 5. Characteristics  Unusualalertness,evenininfancy  Rapidlearner;putsthoughtstogetherquickly  Excellentmemory  Unusuallylargevocabularyandcomplexsentencestructureforage  Advancedcomprehensionofwordnuances,metaphorsandabstractideas  Enjoyssolvingproblems,especiallywithnumbersandpuzzles  Oftenself-taughtreadingandwritingskillsaspreschooler  Deep,intensefeelingsandreactions 3
  6. 6. Characteristics  Highlysensitive  Thinkingisabstract,complex,logical,andinsightful  Idealismandsenseofjusticeatearlyage  Thinkingisabstract,complex,logical,andinsightful  Idealismandsenseofjusticeatearlyage  Concernwithsocialandpoliticalissuesandinjustices  Longerattentionspanandintenseconcentration  Preoccupiedwithownthoughts—daydreamer 4
  7. 7. Characteristics  Learnbasicskillsquicklyandwithlittlepractice  Asksprobingquestions  Widerangeofinterests(orextremefocusinonearea)  Highlydevelopedcuriosity  Interestinexperimentinganddoingthingsdifferently  Putsideaorthingstogetherthatarenottypical  Keenand/orunusualsenseofhumor  Desiretoorganizepeople/thingsthroughgamesorcomplexschemas  Vividimaginations(andimaginaryplaymateswheninpreschool) 5
  8. 8. Types of Giftedness 1. The Successful Theyarethemosteasilyidentifiable,andmayaccountforuptoabout90% of the identified gifted students in schools. They are the students who have learnt the system and are well adjusted to society with a generally high self- concept. They are obedient, display appropriate behavior, and are high achievers,therefore, lovedbyparentsandteachers.However,theycanalsoget bored at school and learn the system fast enough so as to use the minimum effort to get by. They are also dependent on the system, thus less creative and imaginative,andlackautonomy. 6
  9. 9. Types of Giftedness 2. The Challenging They are the divergently gifted, who possess high levels of creativity. They do not conform to the system and often have conflicts with teachers and parents. They get frustrated, as the school system does not recognize their abilities. They may be seen as disruptive in the classroom and often possess negative self-concepts, even though they are quite creative. This is the group of gifted students who are at risk of dropping out of schools for unhealthy activities, like getting involved in drugs or exhibiting delinquent behavior. 7
  10. 10. Types 0f Giftedness 3. The Underground It refers to gifted students who deny their talents or hide their giftedness in order to feel more included with a non-gifted peer group. They are generally females, who are frequently insecure and anxious as their belonging needs rise dramatically at that stage. Their changing needs often conflicts with the expectations of parents and teachers. Thesetypesappeartobenefitfrombeingacceptedastheyareatthetime. 8
  11. 11. Types of Giftedness 4. The Dropouts They are the angry and frustrated students whose needs have not been recognized for many years and they feel rejected in the system. They express themselves by being depressed or withdrawn and responding defensively. They are identified very late; therefore, they are bitter and resentful due to feelings of neglect and have very low self-esteem.Forthesestudents,counselingishighlyrecommended. 9
  12. 12. Types of Giftedness 5. The Double Labeled Theyaregiftedstudentswhoarephysicallyoremotionallyhandicapped in some way, or have a learning disability. This group does not show behaviorsofgiftednessthatcanidentifytheminschools.Theyshowsignsof stress, frustration, rejection, helplessness, or isolation. They are also often impatient and critical with a low self-esteem. These students are easily ignored as they are seen as average. School systems seem to focus more on theirweaknesses,andthereforefailtonurturetheirstrengths. 10
  13. 13. Types of Giftedness 6. The Autonomous Learner They are the autonomous learners who have learnt to work effectively in the school system. Unlike Type 1, they do not work for the system, but rather make the system work for them. They are very successful, liked by parents, teachers and peers, and have a high self-concept with some leadership capacity within their surroundings. They accept themselves and are risk takers, which goes well with their independent and self-directed nature. They are also able to express their feelings, goals, and needs freely andappropriately. 11
  14. 14. CauseofGiftedness Thenatureversusnurturedebate AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 12 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  15. 15. MENTAL RETARDATION 12 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  16. 16. MentalRetardation Mental retardation (MR) is a condition diagnosed before age 18, usually in infancy or prior to birth, that includes below-average general intellectual function, andalackoftheskillsnecessaryfordailyliving. 14
  17. 17. Characteristics of Mental Retardation  Cerebral Palsy or Motor Asymmetry  Abnormalheadsizeorshape  Craniofacialmalformation  Lossorplateauofdevelopmentalskills  Multiplesomaticanomalies  Neurocutaneousfindings  Seizures  IQ<50 15
  18. 18. Characteristics of Mental Retardation  Cytogenetic Studies  Microcephaly  Multiple(evenminor)somaticanomalies  Familyhistoryofmentalretardation  Familyhistoryoffetalloss  IQ<50  Skinpigmentanomalies(mosaicism)  Suspected contiguous gene syndromes (e.g., Prader-Willi, Angelman,Smith-Magenis) 16
  19. 19. Characteristics of Mental Retardation  Metabolic studies  Episodicvomitingorlethargy  Poorgrowth  Seizures  Unusualbodyodors  Somaticevidenceofstoragedisease  Lossorplateauofdevelopmentalskills  Movementdisorder(choreoathetosis,dystonia,ataxia)  Sensoryloss(especiallyretinalabnormality)  Acquiredcutaneousdisorders 17
  20. 20. Types of Mental Retardation 1. Mild Retardation  75%to90%ofallcasesofretardation  FunctionatonehalftotwothirdsofCA(IQ:50to70)  Slowinallareas  Mayhavenounusualphysicalsigns  Canacquirepracticalskills  Usefulreadingandmathskillsuptogrades3to6level  Canconformsocially  Canacquirevocationalskillsforself-maintenance  Integratedintogeneralsociety 18
  21. 21. Types of Mental Retardation 2. Moderate Retardation  ~10%to25%ofallcasesofretardation  FunctionatonethirdtoonehalfofCA(IQ:35to49)  Noticeabledelays,especiallyinspeech  Mayhavesomeunusualphysicalsigns  Canlearnsimplecommunication  Canlearnelementaryhealthandsafetyhabits  Canparticipateinsimpleactivitiesandself-care  Canperformtasksinshelteredconditions  Cantravelalonetofamiliarplaces 19
  22. 22. Types of Mental Retardation 3. Severe Retardation  ~10%to25%ofallcasesofretardation  FunctionatonefifthtoonethirdofCA(IQ:20to34)  Markedandobviousdelays;maywalklate  Littleornocommunication skillsbutmayhavesomeunderstanding ofspeechandshowsomeresponse  Maybetaughtdailyroutinesandrepetitiveactivities  Maybetrainedinsimpleself-care  Needdirectionandsupervision 20
  23. 23. Types of Mental Retardation 4. Profound Retardation  ~10%to25%ofallcasesofretardation  Functionat<onefifthofCA(IQ:<20)  Markeddelaysinallareas  Congenitalabnormalitiesoftenpresent  Needclosesupervision  Oftenneedattendantcare  Mayrespondtoregularphysicalactivityandsocialstimulation  Notcapableofself-care 21
  24. 24. Causes of Mental Retardation  Unexplained(thelargestcategory)  Trauma (prenatal and postnatal) such as oxygen deprivation before, during orafterbirth  Infection(congenitalandpostnatal)  Chromosomalabnormalities  Geneticabnormalitiesandinheritedmetabolicdisorders  Metabolicdisorders  Toxinssuchasleadormercurypoisoning  Nutritionaldeficitssuchasseveremalnutrition  Environment 22
  25. 25. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 23 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  26. 26. AUTISM 24 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  27. 27. Autism Autism is a complex neurobehavioral disorder that includes impairments in social interaction and developmental language and communicationskillscombinedwithrigid,repetitivebehaviors. The disordercovers a large spectrumof symptoms, skills, and levelsof impairment. It ranges in severity from a handicap that somewhat limits an otherwise normal life to a devastating disability that may requireinstitutionalcare. 25
  28. 28. Characteristics of Autism  Troubleincommunication  Sensitivesenses  Have repetitive, stereotyped body movements such asrocking,pacing,orhandflapping  Cognitivelyimpaired. 26
  29. 29. Types of Autism 1. Autistic Disorder This is what most people think of when they hear the word "autism." It referstoproblemswithsocialinteractions,communication,andimaginative playinchildrenyoungerthan3years. 2. Asperger’s Syndrome These children don't have a problem with language -- in fact, they tend to score in the average or above-average range on intelligence tests. But they have the same social problems and limited scope of interests as childrenwithautisticdisorder. 27
  30. 30. Types of Autism 3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) Pervasive developmental disorder or PDD -- also known as atypical autism. This is a kind of catch-all category for children who have some autisticbehaviorsbutwhodon'tfitintoothercategories. 4. Childhood disintegrative disorder These children develop normally for at least two years and then lose some or most of their communication and social skills. This is an extremely rare disorder and its existence as a separate condition is a matter of debate amongmanymentalhealthprofessionals. 28
  31. 31. Types of Autism 5. Rett Syndrome Children with Rett syndrome, primarily girls, start developing normallybutthenbeginlosingtheircommunicationandsocialskills. Beginning at the age of 1 to 4 years, repetitive hand movements replacepurposefuluseofthehands.ChildrenwithRettsyndromeare usuallyseverelycognitivelyimpaired. 29
  32. 32. Causes of Autism  Advancedageofthemotherorthefather  Whenapregnantwomanisexposedtocertaindrugsorchemicals  Useofalcohol  Diabetes  Obesity  Antiseizuredrugs  Untreateddiseaseslikephenylketonuriaandrubella 30
  33. 33. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 31 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  34. 34. LEARNING DISABILITIES 32 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  35. 35. Learning Disability Learning disability is a reduced intellectual ability and difficulty with everyday activities – for example household tasks, socializing or managing money – whichaffectssomeonefortheirwholelife. 33
  36. 36. Characteristics of Learning Disability  Reading/spellingdifficultiescontinue  Stillavoidsoralreadingandwritingtasks  Troublewithessays/shortanswersontests  Weaklonger-termmemory  Excessivetimespentonhomework  Difficultywithmulti-partinstructions 34
  37. 37. Characteristics of Learning Disability  Avoidsoralreadingandhandwriting  Continuedcoordination/motorskillsissues  Reading/spellingissuescontinuelikereversingletters  Difficultywithwordproblemsandcomprehension  Strugglestomakefriends 35
  38. 38. Causes of Learning Disability  A learning disability occurs when the brain is still developing - before, duringorsoonafterbirth.  Before birth things can happen to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) that can cause a learning disability. A child can be born with a learning disability if the mother has an accident or illness while she is pregnant, or if the unborn baby develops certain genes. Genes are chemicals in our bodies that contain information aboutus-likehowwelook. 36
  39. 39. Causes of LearningDisability  A learning disability occurs when the brain is still developing - before, duringorsoonafterbirth.  Apersoncanbebornwithalearningdisabilityifheorshedoesnotget enoughoxygenduringchildbirth,orisborntooearly.  After birth, a learning disability can be caused by early childhood illnesses 37
  40. 40. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 38 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  41. 41. ADHD 39 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  42. 42. ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem of not being able to focus, being overactive, not being able controlbehavior,oracombinationofthese. For these problems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must be outofthenormalrangeforaperson'sageanddevelopment. 40
  43. 43. Characteristics of ADHD  Inattentive Symptoms  Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes inschoolwork  Hasdifficultykeepingattentionduringtasksorplay  Doesnotseemtolistenwhenspokentodirectly  Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolworkorchoresandtasks 41
  44. 44. Characteristics of ADHD  Inattentive Symptoms  Hasproblemsorganizingtasksandactivities  Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort (such asschoolwork)  Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasksoractivities  Iseasilydistracted  Isoftenforgetfulindailyactivities 42
  45. 45. Characteristics of ADHD  Hyperactivity Symptoms  Fidgetswithhandsorfeetorsquirmsinseat  Leavesseatwhenremainingseatedisexpected  Runsaboutorclimbsininappropriatesituations  Hasproblemsplayingorworkingquietly  Isoften"onthego,"actsasif"drivenbyamotor"  Talksexcessively 43
  46. 46. Characteristics of ADHD  Impulsivity Symptoms  Blurtsoutanswersbeforequestionshavebeencompleted  Hasdifficultyawaitingturn  Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games) 44
  47. 47. Types of ADHD 1. Inattentive Type: A person with this type must have at least six of these nine symptoms, and very few of the symptoms of hyperactive- impulsive type:  Notpayingattentiontodetail  Makingcarelessmistakes  Failingtopayattentionand keepontask  Notlistening  Beingunabletofolloworunderstand instructions  Avoidingtasksthatinvolveeffort  Beingdistracted  Beingforgetful  Losingthingsthatareneededto completetasks 45
  48. 48. Types of ADHD 2. Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: To have this type, a person has to have at least six of these nine symptoms, and very few of the symptoms of inattentive type:  Fidgeting  Squirming  Gettingupoftenwhenseated  Runningorclimbingat inappropriatetimes  Havingtroubleplayingquietly  Talkingtoomuch  Talkingoutofturnorblurtingout  Interrupting  Often“onthego”asif“drivenbya motor” 46
  49. 49. Types of ADHD 3. Combined Type: This is the most common type of ADHD. People with it have symptoms of both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive types. 47
  50. 50. Causes of ADHD  ADHD usually begins in childhood, but may continue into the adult years. It is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children. ADHD isdiagnosedmuchmoreofteninboysthaningirls  It is not clear what causes ADHD. A combination of genes and environmental factors likely plays a role in the development of the condition. Imaging studies suggest that the brains of children with ADHD aredifferentfromthoseofchildrenwithoutADHD. 48
  51. 51. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 49 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  52. 52. EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS 50 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  53. 53. Emotional & Behavioral Disorder It is a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educationalperformance(IDEA):  An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory,orhealthfactors.  An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationshipswithpeersandteachers. 51
  54. 54. Emotional & Behavioral Disorder It is a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educationalperformance(IDEA):  Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.  Ageneralpervasivemoodofunhappinessordepression.  A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personalorschoolproblems 52
  55. 55. Characteristics Emotional & Behavioral Disorder  Hyperactivity(shortattentionspan,impulsiveness);  Aggressionorself-injuriousbehavior(actingout,fighting);  Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety);  Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills);and  Learningdifficulties(academicallyperformingbelowgradelevel) 53
  56. 56. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 1. Anxiety Disorders Experiencing anxiety from time to time, but for many people, including children, anxiety can be excessive, persistent, seemingly uncontrollable, and overwhelming. An irrational fear of everyday situationsmaybeinvolved.Thishighlevelofanxietyisadefinitewarning signthatapersonmayhaveananxietydisorder. 54
  57. 57. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 1. Anxiety Disorders As with the term emotional disturbance, “anxiety disorder” is an umbrella term that actually refers to several distinct disabilities that share the core characteristic of irrational fear: generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder (also called socialphobia),andspecificphobias. 55
  58. 58. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 2. Bipolar Disorders Also known as manic-depressive illness, bipolar disorder is a serious medical condition that causes dramatic mood swings from overly “high” and/or irritable to sad and hopeless, and then back again, often with periods of normal mood in between. Severe changes in energy and behaviorgoalongwiththesechangesinmood. 56
  59. 59. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 3. Conduct Disorders Conduct disorder refers to a group of behavioral and emotional problems inyoungsters.Childrenandadolescentswiththisdisorder havegreatdifficulty following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. This may include someofthefollowingbehaviors:  aggressiontopeopleandanimals  destructionofproperty  deceitfulness,lying,orstealing  truancyorotherseriousviolationsofrules 57
  60. 60. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 4. Eating Disorders Eating disorders are characterized by extremes in eating behavior— either too much or too little—or feelings of extreme distress or concern about body weight or shape. Females are much more likely than males to developaneatingdisorder. 58
  61. 61. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 4. Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two most common types of eating disorders. Both of these disorders are potentially life- threatening.  Anorexia nervosa is characterized by self-starvation and dramatic lossofweight.  Bulimianervosainvolvesacycleofbingeeating,thenself-induced vomitingorpurging. 59
  62. 62. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Often referred to as OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder is actually considered an anxiety disorder (which was discussed earlier in this fact sheet). OCD is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Repetitive behaviors (handwashing, counting, checking, or cleaning) are often performed with the hope of preventing obsessive thoughts or making them go away. Performing these so- called “rituals,” however, provides only temporary relief, and not performing themmarkedlyincreasesanxiety. 60
  63. 63. Types of Emotional & Behavioral Disorder 6. Psychotic Disorders “Psychotic disorders” is another umbrella term used to refer to severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. Two of the main symptoms are delusions and hallucinations. Delusions are false beliefs, such as thinking that someone is plotting against you. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that is not there. Schizophreniaisonetypeofpsychoticdisorder.Thereareothersaswell. 61
  64. 64. Causes of Emotional&BehavioralDisorder  No one knows the actual cause or causes of emotional disturbance, although several factors—heredity, brain disorder, diet, stress, and family functioning— havebeensuggestedandvigorouslyresearched.Agreatdealofresearchgoeson every day, but to date, researchers have not found that any of these factors are thedirectcauseofbehavioraloremotionalproblems.  Mental illnesses are not the result of personal weakness, lack of character, or poor upbringing. Mental illnesses are treatable. Most people diagnosed with a serious mental illness can experience relief from their symptoms by actively participatinginanindividualtreatmentplan.(NAMI) 62
  65. 65. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 63 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  66. 66. HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS 64 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  67. 67. HealthImpairment Itmeanshavinglimitedstrength,vitality,oralertness, includingaheightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respecttotheeducationalenvironment,that:  Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorderorattentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder,diabetes,epilepsy,aheart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sicklecellanemia,andTourettesyndrome  Adverselyaffectsachild’seducationalperformance. 65
  68. 68. HealthImpairment “Other Health Impairment” is one of the 14 categories of disability listed in nation’s special education law, the Individualswith DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA). Under IDEA, a child who has an “other health impairment” is very likely to be eligible for special services to help the child address his or her educational, developmental,andfunctionalneedsresultingfromthedisability. 66
  69. 69. Characteristics of Health Impairments The following are the manifestations of OHI:  limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic healthproblems  an educational performance that is negatively affected asaresult 67
  70. 70. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 68 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  71. 71. PHYSICAL DISABILITIES 69 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  72. 72. Physical Disability A physical disability is any condition that permanently preventsnormalbodymovementand/orcontrol. 70
  73. 73. Characteristics of Physical Disability In the early years, children may have some difficulties in learning to move skillfully. This is not unusual. However, for some children, the muscles and nerves that control body movements may not be properly formed or may become damaged causing a physical disability. There are organizations and services that can help you and your child if your child has a physical disability. 71
  74. 74. Types of Physical Disability 1. Muscular dystrophies When a child has muscular dystrophy, this means that the muscle fibres in the body gradually weaken over time. Children can have different types of muscular dystrophy. The most common type is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy which occurs only in boys. All types of muscular dystrophy are genetic even though other family members may nothavethecondition. 72
  75. 75. Types of Physical Disability 2. Acquired Brain & Spinal Injuries Physical disabilities may result from permanent injuries to the brain, spinalcordorlimbsthatpreventpropermovementinpartsofthebody. 73
  76. 76. Types of Physical Disability 3. Spina Bifida Sometimes, a baby'sspinalcord (the nerves that run down the spine) do not develop normally during pregnancy. When this happens, the child can have a physical disability called spina bifida. The type and amount of disability caused by spina bifida will depend upon the level of the abnormalityofthespinalcord. 74
  77. 77. Types of Physical Disability 3. Spina Bifida Childrenwithspinabifidamayhave:  partialorfullparalysisofthelegs  difficultieswithbowelandbladdercontrol.  hydrocephalus (high pressure on the brain because of fluid notbeingdrainedawayasnormal)  boneandjointdeformities(theymaynotgrownormally)  curvature(bending)ofthespine. 75
  78. 78. Types of Physical Disability 4. Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the parts of the brain which control movement during the early stages of development. In most cases, this damage occurs during pregnancy. However, damage can sometimes occur during birth and from brain injuries in early infancy (such as lack of oxygen from near drowning, meningitis, head injury or beingshaken). 76
  79. 79. Types of Physical Disability 4. Cerebral Palsy Childrenwithcerebralpalsymayhavedifficultieswith:  posture (the ability to put the body in a chosen position and keepitthere)  movementofbodypartsorthewholebody  muscleweaknessortightness  involuntarymusclemovements(spasms)  balanceandcoordination  talkingandeating 77
  80. 80. Types of Physical Disability 4. Cerebral Palsy Childrencanhavedifferenttypesofcerebralpalsy:  Hemiplegia (involves muscle movements and weakness on one sideofthebody)  Diplegia(involvesmusclemovementsandweaknessinthelower partofthebody)  Quadriplegia(involvesmusclemovementsandweaknessinboth armsandbothlegs)  Ataxia(involvesproblemswithbalanceandcoordination). 78
  81. 81. Types of Physical Disability 5. Multiple disabilities Some children with physical disabilities will have other disabilities, such as intellectual, visual or hearing impairments. They may also have communication difficultiesorother medical conditions such as epilepsy or asthma. When a child has several different types of disability, professionalstalkaboutmultipledisabilitiesratherthanlistingseparate conditions. 79
  82. 82. Causes of Physical Disability  Inheritedorgeneticdisorders,suchasmusculardystrophy  Conditions present at birth (congenital), such as spina bifida  Serious illness affecting the brain, nerves or muscles, such asmeningitis  Spinalcordinjury  Braininjury 80
  83. 83. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 81 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  84. 84. SEVERE & MULTIPLE DISABILITIES 82 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  85. 85. Severe & Multiple Disability People with severe disabilities are those who traditionally have been labelledashavingseveretoprofoundmentalretardation. These people require ongoing, extensive support in more than one major life activity in order to participate in integrated community settings and enjoythequalityoflifeavailabletopeoplewithfewerornodisabilities. They frequently have additional disabilities, including movement difficulties,sensorylosses,andbehaviorproblems. 83
  86. 86. Characteristics of Severe & Multiple Disability People with severe or multiple disabilities may exhibit a wide range of characteristics, depending on the combination and severity of disabilities, and the person's age. There are, however, some traits they may share, including:  Limitedspeechorcommunication  Difficultyinbasicphysicalmobility  Tendencytoforgetskillsthroughdisuse  Troublegeneralizingskillsfromonesituationtoanother  A need for support in major life activities (e.g., domestic, leisure, communityuse,vocational) 84
  87. 87. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 85 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  88. 88. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY 86 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  89. 89. Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury, often referred to as TBI, is most often an acute event similar to other injuries. That is where the similarity between traumatic brain injury and other injuries ends. One moment the person is normalandthenextmomentlifehasabruptlychanged. In most other aspects, a traumatic brain injury is very different. Since our brain defines who we are, the consequences of a brain injury can affect all aspectsofourlives,includingourpersonality. 87
  90. 90. Traumatic Brain Injury A brain injury is different from a broken limb or punctured lung. An injury in these areas limit the use of a specific part of your body, but your personality and mental abilities remain unchanged. Most often, thesebodystructureshealandregaintheirpreviousfunction. 88
  91. 91. Types of Traumatic Brain Injury 1. Mild Brain Injury A brain injury can be classified as mild if loss of consciousness and/or confusion and disorientation is shorter than 30 minutes. While MRI and CAT scans are often normal, the individual has cognitive problems such as headache, difficulty thinking, memory problems, attention deficits, mood swings and frustration. These injuries are commonly overlooked. Even though this type of TBI is called “mild”, the effect on the family and the injuredpersoncanbedevastating. 89
  92. 92. Types of Traumatic Brain Injury 2. Severe Brain Injury Severebraininjuryisassociatedwithlossofconsciousnessformorethan 30minutesandmemorylossaftertheinjuryorpenetratingskullinjurylonger than 24 hours. The deficits range from impairment of higher level cognitive functions to comatose states. Survivors may have limited function of arms or legs, abnormal speech or language, loss of thinking ability or emotional problems. The range of injuries and degree of recovery is very variable and variesonanindividualbasis 90
  93. 93. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Open Head Injury  Resultsfrombulletwounds,etc.  Largelyfocaldamage  Penetrationoftheskull  Effectscanbejustasseriousasclosedbraininjury 91
  94. 94. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Closed Head Injury  Resultingfromaslipandfall,motorvehiclecrashes,etc.  Focaldamageanddiffusedamagetoaxons  Effectstendtobebroad(diffuse)  Nopenetrationtotheskull 92
  95. 95. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)  Theskull is hard and inflexible while the brain is softwiththe consistencyofgelatin. Thebrainisencasedinsidetheskull.  During the movement of the skull through space (acceleration) and the rapid discontinuation of this action when the skull meets a stationary object (deceleration) causesthebraintomoveinsidetheskull. 93
  96. 96. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)  Thebrainmoves atadifferentratethantheskullbecauseitis soft. Different parts of the brain move at different speeds becauseoftheirrelativelightnessorheaviness.  Thedifferentialmovementoftheskullandthebrainwhenthe head is struck results in direct brain injury, due to diffuse axonalshearing,contusionandbrainswelling. 94
  97. 97. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)  Diffuse axonal shearing is when the brain is slammed back and forth inside the skull it is alternately compressed and stretchedbecauseofthegelatinousconsistency.  The long, fragile axons of the neurons (single nerve cells in thebrainandspinalcord)arealsocompressedandstretched. 95
  98. 98. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)  If the impact is strong enough, axons can be stretched until they are torn. This is called axonal shearing. When this happens,theneurondies.  After a severe brain injury, there is massive axonal shearing andneurondeath. 96
  99. 99. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Chemical / Toxic  Alsoknownasmetabolicdisorders  Thisoccurswhenharmfulchemicalsdamagetheneurons  Chemicals and toxins can include insecticides, solvents, carbonmonoxidepoisoning,leadpoisoning,etc. 97
  100. 100. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Hypoxia (Lack of Oxygen)  If the blood flow is depleted of oxygen, then irreversiblebrain injury canoccurfromanoxia(nooxygen)orhypoxia(reducedoxygen)  Itmaytakeonlyafewminutesforthistooccur  This condition may be caused by heart attacks, respiratory failure, dropsinbloodpressureandalowoxygenenvironment  This type of brain injury can result in severe cognitive and memory deficits 98
  101. 101. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Tumors  Tumorscausedbycancercangrowonoroverthebrain  Tumors can cause brain injury by invading the spaces of the brainandcausingdirectdamage  Damage can also result from pressure effects around an enlargedtumor  Surgicalprocedurestoremovethetumormayalsocontributeto braininjury 99
  102. 102. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Infections  The brain and surrounding membranes are very prone to infections if the special blood-brain protective system is breached  Viruses and bacteria can cause serious and life-threatening diseases of the brain (encephalitis) and meninges (meningitis) 100
  103. 103. Cause of TraumaticBrainInjury  Stroke  If blood flow is blocked through a cerebral vascular accident (stroke),celldeathintheareadeprivedofbloodwillresult  If there is bleeding in or over the brain (hemorrhage or hematoma)becauseofatearinanarteryorvein,lossofblood flowandinjurytothebrain tissuebythe bloodwillalso result inbraindamage. 101
  104. 104. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 102 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  105. 105. COMMUNICATION DISORDER 103 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  106. 106. Communication Disorder A communication disorder is an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process,andcomprehendconceptsorverbal,nonverbalandgraphicsymbol systems. It may be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech. A communication disorder may range in severity from mild to profound. It maybedevelopmentaloracquired.Individualsmaydemonstrateoneorany combination of communication disorders. A communication disorder may resultinaprimarydisabilityoritmaybesecondarytootherdisabilities. 104
  107. 107. Characteristics of Communication Disorder  Manifestsdifficultyinspeaking  Hardtimearticulatingwords  Can produce sounds but unable to make accurate pronunciations  Difficultyinunderstandingotherpeople 105
  108. 108. Types of Communication Disorder 1. Articulation disorder An articulation disorder is the atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions or distortionsthatmayinterferewithintelligibility. 106
  109. 109. Types of Communication Disorder 1. Articulation disorder  Fluency disorder is an interruption in the flow of speaking characterized by atypical rate, rhythm, and repetitions in sounds, syllables, words, and phrases. This may be accompanied by excessive tension,strugglebehavior,andsecondarymannerisms.  Voice disorder is characterized by the abnormal production and/or absencesofvocal quality,pitch,loudness,resonance,and/orduration, whichisinappropriateforanindividual'sageand/orsex. 107
  110. 110. Types of Communication Disorder 2. Language disorder A language disorder is impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written and/or other symbol systems. The disorder may involve:  theformoflanguage(phonology,morphology,syntax)  thecontentoflanguage(semantics)  thefunction of language in communication (pragmatics) in anycombination. 108
  111. 111. Types of Communication Disorder 3. Hearing disorder A hearing disorder is the result of impaired auditory sensitivity of the physiological auditory system. A hearing disorder may limit the development, comprehension, production, and/or maintenance of speechand/orlanguage. Hearing disorders are classified according to difficulties in detection, recognition, discrimination, comprehension, and perceptionofauditoryinformation. 109
  112. 112. Types of Communication Disorder 3. Hearing disorder Individuals with hearing impairment may be described as deaf or hardofhearing.  Deaf is defined as a hearing disorder that limits an individual's aural/oral communication performance to the extent that the primary sensory input for communication maybeotherthantheauditorychannel. 110
  113. 113. Types of Communication Disorder 3. Hearing disorder Individuals with hearing impairment may be described as deaf or hardofhearing.  Hard of hearing is defined as a hearing disorder, whether fluctuating or permanent, which adversely affects an individual's ability to communicate. The hard-of-hearing individual relies on the auditory channel as the primary sensoryinputforcommunication. 111
  114. 114. Types of Communication Disorder 3. Central Auditory Processing Disorder Central auditory processing disorders are deficits in the information processing of audible signals not attributed to impaired peripheral hearing sensitivity or intellectual impairment. This information processing involves perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic functions that, with appropriate interaction, result in effective receptive communication of auditorily presented stimuli. Specifically, CAPD refers to limitations in the ongoing transmission, analysis, organization, transformation, elaboration, storage, retrieval,anduseofinformationcontainedinaudiblesignals. 112
  115. 115. Types of Communication Disorder 3. Central Auditory Processing Disorder CAPD may involve the listener's active and passive (e.g., conscious and unconscious, mediated and unmediated, controlled and automatic) ability to do the following:  Attend,discriminate,andidentifyacousticsignals  Transform and continuously transmit information through both theperipheralandcentralnervoussystems  Filter, sort, and combine information at appropriate perceptual andconceptuallevels 113
  116. 116. Types of Communication Disorder 3. Central Auditory Processing Disorder CAPD may involve the listener's active and passive (e.g., conscious and unconscious, mediated and unmediated, controlled and automatic) ability to do the following:  Storeand retrieve information efficiently; restore, organize, and use retrievedinformation  Segment and decode acoustic stimuli using phonological, semantic, syntactic,andpragmaticknowledge  Attach meaning to a stream of acoustic signals through use of linguistic andnonlinguistic contexts 114
  117. 117. Causes of CommunicationDisorder  Hearing Some of the causes of hearing loss are chronic ear infections, heredity,birthdefects,healthproblemsatbirth,certaindrugs,head injury, viral or bacterial infection, exposure to loud noise, aging, andtumors. 115
  118. 118. Causes of CommunicationDisorder  Speech & Language Some of the causes of speech and language disorders are related to hearing loss, cerebral palsy and other nerve/muscle disorders, severe head injury, stroke, viral diseases, mental retardation, certain drugs, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, vocal abuse or misuse, inadequate speech and language models;frequently,however,thecauseisunknown. 116
  119. 119. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 117 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  120. 120. HEARING LOSS 118 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  121. 121. Hearing Loss Hearinglossisadisabilitycharacterizedbythe incapacitytohearsounds. 119
  122. 122. Hearing Loss Mild Hearing Loss What is mild hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds that peoplecanhearwiththeirbettereararebetween25and40dB.People who suffer from mild hearing loss have some difficulties keeping up withconversations,especiallyinnoisysurroundings. 120
  123. 123. Hearing Loss Moderate Hearing Loss What is moderate hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds heardbypeoplewiththeirbettereararebetween40and70dB.People whosufferfrommoderatehearinglosshavedifficultykeepingupwith conversationswhennotusingahearingaid. 121
  124. 124. Hearing Loss Severe Hearing Loss What is severe hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds heard by people with their better ear are between 70 and 95 dB. People who sufferfromseverehearinglosswillbenefitfrompowerfulhearingaids, but often they rely heavily on lip-reading even when they are using hearingaids.Somealsousesignlanguage. 122
  125. 125. Hearing Loss Profound Hearing Loss What is profound hearing loss? On average, the most quiet sounds heard by people with their better ear are from 95 dB or more. People who suffer from profound hearing loss are very hard of hearing and relymostlyonlip-reading,and/orsignlanguage. 123
  126. 126. Characteristics of Hearing Loss  Hearingloss  Mute  Inabilitytounderstandverbalcues 124
  127. 127. Types of Hearing Loss 1. Conductive Hearing Loss It is when hearing loss is due to problems with the ear canal, ear drum, or middle ear and its little bones (the malleus, incus, and stapes). 2. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) It is when hearing loss is due to problems of the inner ear, also knownasnerve-relatedhearingloss. 125
  128. 128. Types of Hearing Loss 3. Mixed Hearing Loss It refers to a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. This means that there may be damage in the outer or middleearandintheinnerear(cochlea)orauditorynerve. 126
  129. 129. Causes of Hearing Loss  Malformationofouterear, earcanal,ormiddleear structures  Fluidinthemiddleearfrom colds  Earinfection  Allergies  PoorEustachiantubefunction  Perforatedeardrum  Benigntumors  Impactedearwax  Infectionintheearcanal  Foreignbodyintheear  Otosclerosis 127
  130. 130. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 128 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  131. 131. BLINDNESS & LOW VISION 129 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
  132. 132. Blindness &LowVision A visual impairment is any visual condition that impacts an individual’s ability to successfully complete the activities of everyday life. Students with visual impairments are infants, toddlers, children and youths who experience impairments of the visual system that impact theirabilitytolearn. 130
  133. 133. Characteristics of Blindness &LowVision  Visual impairment is essentially an umbrella term used to describe the loss of sight that can be a consequence of a number ofdifferentmedicalconditions.  The onset, the severity, and the type of visual loss, as well as to anycoexistingdisabilitiesthatmaybepresentinthechild.  Decreasedvisualacuityandvisualfield,  Sensitivity to light or glare, blind spots in their visual fields, or problemswithcontrastorcertaincolors. 131
  134. 134. Types of Blindness &LowVision According to the CDC and the World Health Organization the classification of visual acuity and impairment includes (1, 2)  Low visual acuity means vision between 20/70 and 20/400 with the best possiblecorrection,oravisualfieldof20degreesorless  Blindness is defined as a visual acuity worse than 20/400 with the best possiblecorrection,oravisualfieldof10degreesorless  LegalblindnessintheUSmeansvisualacuityof20/200orworsewiththebest possiblecorrection,oravisualfieldof20degreesorless.  Visual acuity of 20/70 to 20/400 (inclusive) is considered moderate visual impairmentorlowvision. 132
  135. 135. Causes of Blindness & Low Vision  Presbyopia-difficultyfocusingonobjectsthatareclose.Thisproblemoften becomesnoticeableinyourearlytomid40s.  Cataracts - cloudiness over the eye lens, causing poor nighttime vision, halos around lights, and sensitivity to glare. Cataracts are common in the elderly.  Glaucoma - increased pressure in the eye, which is most often painless. Vision will be normal at first, but over time you can develop poor night vision, blind spots, and loss of vision to either side. Glaucoma can also happensuddenly,whichisamedicalemergency. 133
  136. 136. Causes of Blindness & Low Vision  Diabeticeyedisease  Macular degeneration - loss of central vision, blurred vision (especially while reading), distorted vision (straight lines will appear to be wavy), and colorsthat look faded. Themostcommon cause of blindness in people over age60.  Eyeinfection,inflammation, orinjury  Floaters - tiny particles drifting inside the eye, which may be confused with retinaldetachment.  Nightblindness 134
  137. 137. Causes of Blindness & Low Vision  Retinaldetachment-symptomsincludefloaters,sparksorflashesoflight in your vision, or a sensation of a shade or curtain hanging across part of yourvisualfield.  Opticneuritis-inflammationoftheopticnervefrominfectionormultiple sclerosis.Youmayhavepainwhenyoumoveyoureyeortouchitthrough theeyelid.  StrokeorTIA  Braintumor 135
  138. 138. Causes of Blindness & Low Vision  Bleedingintotheeye  Temporal arteritis - inflammation of an artery in the brain that supplies bloodtotheopticnerve  Migraine headaches - spots of light, halos, or zigzag patterns that appear beforethestartoftheheadache  Medicationscanalsoaffectvision. 136
  139. 139. AssessmentProceduresusedforIdentification (PleaseseeAssessmentandIdentification,TheComponentsofSpecialEducation) ProgramPlanning (PleaserefertoIndividualizedEducationalProgram) 137 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS
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c. Classifications ● Autism ● Blindness ● Deafness ● Emotional Disturbance ● Hearing Impairment ● Intellectual Disability ● Multiple Disabilities ● Orthopedic Impairment ● Other Health Impaired ● Specific Learning Disability ● Speech or Language Disability ● Traumatic Brain Injury ● Visual Impairment

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