KENYATTA UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AIDS CONTROL ORGANISATION
(KUSACO) MOMBASA CHAPTER
PRESENTER: MAXWELL AZALI “AZZY”
STIs - Infections acquired during heterosexual or homosexual
intercourse with an infected partner
HIV - Virus that causes AIDS
AIDs - A disease of immune system caused by a retrovirus,
the human immune deficiency virus that presents with
symptoms and development of opportunistic infections and
or malignant lesions
ESTIMATES OF STI’S & HIV/
• HIV infections (over 6500 each day) are among young people aged 10
– 24 years
• 40million people currently living with HIV/AID world wide
• Young women in the age groups 15 to 19 and 20 to 24 years are more
twice as likely to be infected as males in the same age groups
• Sexual conducts account for 80 to 90 % of all infections while the rest
are due to exposure to infected blood and mother to Child
TYPES OF STIs
Caused by bacteria
Caused by parasites
• Pubic lice (crabs)
• Scabies (Mites)
Caused by viruses
• Hepatitis B- liver cancer/ failure
• Herpes- type I(facial), type II (genital)
• Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-
Is one of the most common STI. Most people don’t notice any symptoms. If present
symptoms include pain when urinating, unusual discharge & in women bleeding
between periods or after sex. Diagnosis is done with a swab of the affected area or
urine test. If left untreated it can cause infertility in both men and women.
Shares most of the symptoms as chlamydia and can lead to serious long-term health
problems if left untreated. Diagnosis is by a simple swap test and is treated by
It causes painless but highly infectious sores on the genitals or around the mouth. The
sores last 2-6 weeks before disappearing on their own but the disease progresses.
Syphilis has 3 stages: primary, secondary and tertiary. It progresses from one stage to
the next if left untreated. After the initial infection the syphilis bacteria can lie dormant
in your body for decades before becoming active again hence proceeds to the next stage.
Secondary symptoms like skin rash and sore throat develop. They disappear within few
weeks and a symptom-free phase follows. If diagnosed early syphilis can be treated using
antibiotics usually single dose injections. If left untreated it can cause serious conditions
such as stroke , paralysis, blindness or even death.
Pregnant mothers infected with syphilis need to be treated. It can infect the unborn baby
cause serious complications.
Spreads via skin or mucous membrane contact with the sores. Don’t touch sores.
Caused by the single celled protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. The vagina is the
common site of infection in women and the urethra in men. Symptoms are more
common in women. Can be transmitted through sexual activity or by sharing sex toys.
Also called crabs as they resemble them when viewed under a microscope. They live in
pubic hairs around the genitals and lay their eggs at the base of the hairs. They cause
itching around the genital area.
Is a contagious skin condition in which intense itching is the main symptom. Caused by
tiny mites that burrow under the skin. It is not only spread through sex but also skin –
skin contact for long periods of time with an infected person.
It affects the liver and is not only transmitted through sexual activity but by sharing
items like needles, toothbrushes and razors.
Caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV type I affects the facial region while type II
affects the genital area. In these regions it causes the occurrence of sores. Transmitted
Through skin-skin contact and sexual activities.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
There are over 30 different types of HPV that are transmitted sexually through oral,
anal or vaginal sex. It causes cervical cancer, painless genital warts at times unseen or
throat cancer in case of oral sex.
Yeast Infection (Candida)
While not technically an STI, this infection can be passed through sexual contact in rare
cases. It is a common fungal infection caused by the overgrowth of candida, naturally
occurring yeast. When this yeast is in excess they change the normal balance of
bacterial growth and results into candidiasis.
• Discharge from vagina, penis and/or rectum
• Pain or burning during urination and/or intercourse
• Pain in the abdomen(women), testicles (men), buttocks and
• Blisters, open sores, warts, rash, and swelling in the genital
area, sex organs and/or mouth
• Flu like symptoms including fever , headache, aching muscles
and/or swollen glands
Risk Factors/ Behaviors
• Cultural practices and taboos
• Multiple sexual partners
• Early marriage
• Early onset of sexual activity
• Unprotected sexual contact
• Commercial sex work
• Drugs and substance abuse
• Gender inequality
• Serial Monogamy
• Lack of access to HIV testing to self or sex partners
• Abstinence/secondary virginity
• Proper and consistent use of condoms/ dental dams
• Communicate before any serious sexual contact (safe sex)
• Avoid anonymous casual sex
• Don’t drink alcohol excessively or use drugs
• Counseling and testing
• Delay of sexual debut
• Early diagnosis and effective treatment of STIs
• Compliance with treatment
• Contact tracing and follow-up
• Being faithful to one faithful partner
• Vaccination before sexual exposure- HPV or Hep B
• Early in infection there may be no symptoms
• Can cause fatal tubal pregnancies
• Death/ damage to baby born of an infected mum
• Damage to other parts of the body liver, heart, brain
• Curable if detected early
• Sterility and barrenness
• Condoms can prevent (less protection to STIs involving sores)
• Only sure way is by getting tested
• Abstinence is the only 100% method
STI’S Don’t care if the