Socio political impacts of history on pakistani literature

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Socio political impacts of history on pakistani literature

  1. 1. Socio-Political Impacts of History on Pakistani Literature <ul><li>By: </li></ul><ul><li>Jahanzeb Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>I.D# 100784-006 </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Importance of History <ul><li>In this presentation I want to prove that the study of history helps to a great deal in understanding the literature. Since we are concerned with Pakistani Literature in English, my presentation with deal with History of Pakistan affecting Pakistani literature. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Importance of History (Contd) <ul><li>This information is more helpful for the foreigners studying Pakistani Literature as they have less understanding of the history of Pakistan . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Important Events of History <ul><li>King George’s Coronation 7 th Dec, 1911. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Pakistan, 14 th Aug, 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>Post Independence Time. </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmir Crisis, 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of East Pakistan, 1971. </li></ul>
  5. 5. King George’s Coronation,1911. <ul><li>Delhi has been important in the history of both Hindus and Muslims built by Raja Yudhishtra in 1453 B.C., It became the cradle from which the magnificent Mughal Empire flourished. Its culture had been born and nourished within the city walls. 1911, the year of Coronation, was a year of commemorating the loss of that magnificence by Elders and a ‘Big Fair’ for the kids. This era is full of Muslims’ disgust for the British rule and also a time of ‘Twilight’ for them and their traditions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Creation of Pakistan, 14 th Aug, 1947. <ul><li>1947, the year of independence, brought many joys for Muslims but sorrows remained deeply attached. Many Muslims and Hindus were butchered and burnt alive. Women were molested and children were put to death by the horrors of independence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Post Independence Time. <ul><li>Post independence Time is filled with the corruption that prevailed soon after the death of Quaid-e-Azam. It engulfed the greater part of the country and manipulated the lives of the people especially the poor. Corruption, unemployment, degradation, thefts, murders, loots, poverty, illiteracy, bribery and feudalism rouse to such a level that still we find them prevailing. It crushed the poor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kashmir Crisis, 1948. <ul><li>The Kashmir conflict refers to the territorial dispute over Kashmir, the north western region of South Asia. The parties to the dispute are India, Pakistan, China and the people of Kashmir. </li></ul><ul><li>India claims the entire former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and presently administers approximately 43% of the region including most of Jammu, Kashmir valley, Ladakh and the Siachen Glacier. India's claim is contested by Pakistan which controls approximately 37% of Kashmir, mainly Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Kashmir Crisis, 1948. (Contd) <ul><li>In addition, China controls 20% of Kashmir including Aksai Chin which it occupied following the brief Sino-Indian war of 1962 and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, also known as the Shaksam Valley, that was ceded to it by Pakistan in 1963. </li></ul><ul><li>India's official position is that Kashmir is an integral part of India. Pakistan's official position is that Kashmir is a disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. China's official position is that Aksai Chin is a part of Tibet, which is a part of China. Certain Kashmiri independence groups believe that Kashmir should be independent of both India and Pakistan. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Separation of East Pakistan <ul><li>The separation of East Pakistan was a great setback to Pakistan. By 1970, sentiments for national unity had weakened in East Pakistan to the extent that constant conflict between the two Wings dramatically erupted into mass civil disorder. This tragically resulted in the brutal and violent amputation of Pakistan's Eastern Wing. The physical separation of a thousand miles between the two wings without a common border, and being surrounded by Indian territory and influences, led to constant political, economic and social conflicts between the two wings; embittering relations bringing the country on the verge of collapse. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Separation of East Pakistan (Contd) <ul><li>As a result of the separation of its Eastern Wing, Pakistan's international credit was depleted and the military, being its most powerful institution, suffered a lot. To some, the very concept of Pakistan as the homeland for the Muslims in Southeast Asia no longer appeared valid. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pre- Partition Time and Literature <ul><li>Ahmad Ali wrote his famous novel “Twilight in Delhi” which offers to the reader the Fall of Muslim Empire and its cultural heritage. It depicts a clash between old and new. It brings before our eyes a true “ motion-picture” of how the Muslims of the sub-continent used to live their religious, social, cultural, single and collective life during the tumultuous years of 1857-1919. Another important thing to note is that, Ahmad Ali shows us all the positive as well as negative aspects of the Muslim Cultural life of sub-continent. So there is no taboo binding the hands of the writer to omit this or that part of the life: he presents life as a whole in all its aspects and colors. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pre Partition Time and Literature <ul><li>It also shows a hatred that we find in Muslims for the British rule. Their disgust for the foreign rule has ever been a dominated theme. Ahmad Ali’s novel works as catharsis of the Muslims’ emotions. It also signifies how influential the British rule had been. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Independence and Literature <ul><li>Bapsi Sidhwa is well known for his The Crow Eaters and Cracking India . </li></ul><ul><li>In The Crow Eaters “Loading his pregnant wife, infant daughter, and widowed mother-in-law into a bullock cart, Faredoon Junglewalla leaves his ancestral village in the forests of central India for the bustling city of Lahore. </li></ul><ul><li>In Cracking India, also known as The Ice-Candy Man, the writer writes about the pre and post partition time. She focuses on the troubles that people had to face before and after partition. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Independence and Literature <ul><li>The lively characters narrate the horrors of partition with eloquent finesse. It climaxes with the triumph over tragedy in the rescue of a condemned woman from a lifetime of exploitation and redemption of her honour. </li></ul><ul><li>Qudrat Ullah Shahab, in his book Ya Khuda , explains the same horrors. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Post Independence Time and Literature <ul><li>God's Own Land   Shaukat  Siddiqui   </li></ul><ul><li>  A modern classic of Urdu literature, God's Own Land (Khuda ki Basti), is set in the slums of Karachi and Lahore.It is the early 1950s, shortly after partition with India.The story concerns a poor but respectable Pakistani family which has fallen on hard times. Corruption and degradation take over their lives. Jobless, and without any real hope of a better life, they find themselves in the clutches of unprincipled entrepreneurs who exploit each of them  totally. The tragic, but deeply moving finale is inevitable </li></ul>
  17. 17. Post Independence Time and Literature <ul><li>.&quot;Shaukat Siddiqi's best known work is the epic novel God's Own Land (Khuda ki Basti) which has been translated into 26 languages. In God's Own Land, the young woman Sultana and her hapless brother  Annu survive one calamity after another, including the medically facilitated murder of their mother by her second husband. The condition depicted in the novel clearly depicts the lives of the poor people who suffered the horrors of post partition time. </li></ul><ul><li>Nafisa Rizvi wrote a remarkable novel, The Blue Room. The novel is an interesting attempt to explore the feudal world which remains largely unknown to so many of us. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Separation of East Pakistan <ul><li>Bingo, the short story, looks into the murder of our national integrity. It shows the time of East Pakistan’s separation. This separation is one of the most dominant themes ever discussed in Pakistani Literature. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Other Major Themes <ul><li>Jealousy </li></ul><ul><li>Possessiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Male Chauvinism </li></ul>
  20. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>To conclude we can say that: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of history gives a better understanding of literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature is mouthpiece of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The literature of all the world is dependant on its circumstances. Hence knowing the circumstances makes the understanding of literature better and effective. </li></ul>

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