Pragmatics deixisan1


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Pragmatics deixisan1

  1. 1. PRAGMATICS By: Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDR. Shadia Y. Banjar 1
  2. 2. Deixis Definition The word ‘deixis’ is a technical term (from Greek) for one of the most basic things we do with utterances, which means ‘pointing’ via language.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 2
  3. 3. 1: any linguistic form used to accomplish ‘pointing’ is called a deictic expression.2: deictic expressions are also known as indexicals.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 3
  4. 4. Deictic expressions Deictic expressions are meaningful in a given context. They are among the first words acquired by children. In order to be interpreted correctly, the speaker and listener have to share the same context. They are particularly useful in face-to-face communication.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 4
  5. 5. PERSON DEIXIS : Any expression usedto point to a person ( me, you, him, them) is anexample of PERSON DEIXIS. SPACE/SPATIAL/PLACE DEIXIS :Words used to point to a location ( here, there)are examples of PLACE DEIXIS. TIME/TEMPORAL DEIXIS : Theexpression used to point to a time ( now, then,tonight, last week, yesterday) are examples ofTIME DEIXIS.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 5
  6. 6. : DISCOURSE DEIXIS: any expression usedto refer to earlier or forthcoming segmentsof the discourse: in the previous/nextparagraph, or Have you heard this joke? SOCIAL DEIXIS: honorifics (forms to showrespect such as Professor Li).DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 6
  7. 7. Person Deixis a speech event includes at least two persons: – first person = speaker – second person = addressee If the two persons do not only refer to themselves while talking, there is a third person ( = the person they are talking about), that does not have to take part in the conversation. Usually the third person is not grammatically marked, because the only two persons of importance are the first person (speaker = most important) and the second person (addressee = less important). only in English: the suffix (-s) for the third person. The traditional category of plural is not symmetrically applied to first person (we) in the way it is to the third (they) – In addition there are two first person `plural` pronouns, corresponding to `we-inclusive-of-addressee` and `we-exclusive-of-addressee`: Let`s go to the cinema. = `we-inclusive-of-addressee` Let`s go to see you tomorrow. =`we-exclusive-of-addressee` (Levinson :1983)DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 7
  8. 8. Person DeixisPronouns: grammatical category for a person: personal pronouns – All languages have personal pronouns or at least words, that refer to the participants of the speech act. The pronouns of the first (I-my-mine) and second person (you- your-yours) are deictic: – reference to the speaking person. It is also possible to have deictic pronouns for the third person. Definite and specific pronouns: this, that, those, or these. Indefinite and specific pronouns: somebody , something , who, what. Indefinite and non-specific pronouns: someone , something , nobody, nothing. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 8
  9. 9. Place Deixisconcerns the locations relative to anchorage points in the speech event (speaker= centre),two basic ways of referring to objects: by describing or naming them and bylocating them,locations can be specified relative to other objects: – The station is two hundred yards from the college.locations can be specified relative to the location of participants; – Its two hundred yards away.some pure place-deictic words: here and there (adverbs); this and that(demonstrative pronouns);=> symbolic usage of here = pragmatically given unit of space that includes thelocation of the speaker; – Im writing to say Im having a marvellous time here.Adverbs: here and there = contrast on a proximal/distal dimension; – here = proximal (near); there = distal ( more distant) Bring that here and take this there.Demonstrative pronouns are more clearly organized in a proximal/distaldimension.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 9
  10. 10. Place Deixis this = the object in a pragmatically given area close to the speakers location, that = the object beyond the pragmatically given area close to the speakers location, some languages have demonstratives with 3 and 4 way distinctions on the proximal-distal dimension; ( North West American language Tlingit) – demonstratives distinguish between – this one right here – this on nearby – that one over there – that one way over there Directions: to the left from; to the right fromDR. Shadia Y. Banjar 10
  11. 11. Place Deixis motion verbs = signs of place deixis – come vs. go makes distinction between the direction of motion Hes coming = he is moving towards the speakers location. Hes going = he is moving away from the speakers location. Im coming = the speaker is moving towards the location of the addressee. – come = movement towards either the location of the speaker, or towards the location of the addressee.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 11
  12. 12. Time Deixis makes ultimate reference to participant-role => ex.: now = the time at which the speaker is producing the utterance containing “now”. distinguish the moment of utterance (= coding time (CT)) and the moment of reception (= receiving time (RT)). in the canonical situation of utterance (deictic simultaneity) => CT =RT – It is cold outside. (normal speech act) complexities in the usage of tense, time adverbs and other time-deictic morphemes (letter writing, or pre- recording of media programmes) => deictic centre remains on the speaker and CT: – This programme, is being recorded today, Wednesday April 1st, to be relayed next Thursday. => deictic centre is projected on the addressee and RT: – This programme was recorded last Wednesday, April 1st, to be relayed today. (deictic centre was projected into the future)DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 12
  13. 13. Time DeixisTenses: Tenses = time relations in connection to a given point in time – present = an event/action simultaneously to the speech act (work) – past = an event/action before the speech act (worked) – future = an event/action after the speech act (you will work) there are language systems with more than 3 possibilities – they distinguish between levels of past, dependent on their distance from the speakers utterance – tense of immediate past => ex.: frz. Jean vient de resoudre le problème. John has just been able to solve the problem. difference between absolute tense – absolute tense refers immediately to the time of the speakers utterance: simple past, simple present Relative tenses refer to other tenses: – past perfect: event refers to another event, that happens afterwardsDR. Shadia Y. Banjar 13
  14. 14. Time Deixis tenseless eternal sentences: – Two and two is four. languages without true tenses: – Chinese time deixis is relevant to various other deictic elements in language: – ex.: greetings => Good morning. can only be used in the morning – expressions: => the former president, my ex-husbandDR. Shadia Y. Banjar 14
  15. 15. Deictic center: the time of the utterance’s time; the place of the . utterance’s place, the person just giving the utterance “Near speaker” —“away from speaker” ︱ ︱ Proximal distal ︱ ︱ This, here, now that, there, then DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 15
  16. 16. Discourse Deixis also called text deixis. concerns the use of expressions referring to apart of the discourse. while within time deixis: next week, last week,discourse deixis: in the next chapter, in the last paragraph. in discourse deixis, there are many words and phrases in English that indicate the relationship between utterance and the prior discourse: – but, therefore, in conclusion, to the contrary, still, however, anyway, well, besides, actually, all in all, so, after all – all these words make reference to a statement, sentence etc. that was said before some languages have morphemes that mark such discourse notionsDR. Shadia Y. Banjar 16
  17. 17. Social Deixis concerns those aspects of language structure that encode the social identities of participants, or the social relationship between them, but these usages are only relevant to the topic of social deixis in so far as they are grammaticalized: – polite pronouns e.g.“Vous”, address titles. social relations concern in all those examples the relation between the speaker and the addressee, especially the countries. in East Asia are known for having several levels of politeness, based on the social difference between the persons concerned.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 17
  18. 18. Using Deixis• Certain words like here there, this, that , now , then, yesterday as well as most pronouns such as I , you, him, her , them can only be understood if we know about the context in which they are used.• For example, the sentence, “ you’ll have to bring that back tomorrow, because they aren’t here”, out of context will be quite unintelligible.• Because this sentence contain large number of certain expressions ( Deixis) which depend for their interpretation on the immediate physical context in which they are uttered.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 18
  19. 19. All these expressions have to be interpreted interms of what person , place or time the speakerhas in mind. There is a broad distinction betweenwhat is marked as distant( that ,there, then). It isalso possible to mark whether the movement ishappening towards the speaker’s location( come)or away from speaker’s location (go) If you arelooking for someone and he or she appearsmoving towards you, you tend to say “ Here sheComes! If , however, she/he is moving away fromyou in the distance, you are more like to sayThere she goes!DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 19
  20. 20. People can actually use Deixis to have fun.The coffee shop owner who puts up a big signthat reads “ Free snacks Tomorrow” ( to getyou to return to his shop) can always claimthat you are one day too early for the meal.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 20
  21. 21. Deixis and GrammarGrammar : • the study of the rules governing the use of a given natural language, and, as such, is a field of linguistics. •Traditionally, grammar included morphology and syntax. •In modern linguistics these subfields are complemented by phonology, semantics, and pragmatics.Pragmatics: •how do people use sentences in communication, •Characterize acceptable/unacceptable use. •It is no longer possible to consider sentences in isolation: we need to take the context into account. •We look beyond truth-conditional meanings.Deixis: • those words in a language that entirely depend on context (Fromkin, et. al., 1991). The meaning of deixis is pointing to something. In verbal communication however, deixis in its narrow sense refers to the contextual meaning of pronouns, and in its broad sense, what the speaker means by a particular utterance in a given speech context.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 21
  22. 22. Deixis and Grammar The basic distinctions for person, spatial, and temporal deixis can be seen in English grammar are presented in direct and indirect speech. Are you planning to be here this evening? ( DIRECT SPEECH) I asked her if she was planning to be there thatevening. ( INDIRECT SPEECH)DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 22
  23. 23. When reporting a previous utterance, the utterance is marked deictically as relative to the original circumstances. the proximal forms will be shifted to the corresponding distal forms. The proximal deictic forms of a direct speech give the sense of being in the same context as the utterance. The distal deictic forms of an indirect speech give the sense of being remote as the original speech event. The regular difference in English reported discourse marks a distinction between the ‘near speaker’ meaning of direct speech and the ‘away from speaker’ meaning of indirect speech.DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 23
  24. 24. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 24