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First Kashmir War


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First Kashmir War

  1. 1. The Origins of Foreign Policy Cornerstone.. A Presentation By; JahanZeb Ahmed Roll No. 457
  2. 2. The Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir Strategically located to the North of British India between Tibet, China, The USSR and Afghanistan Kashmir was termed as Pakistan’s Jugular Vein by The Quaid-e-Azam As it contained the headwaters of Pakistan’s major rivers. Kashmir’s Muslim majority population wanted to join Pakistan but the Hindu Maharaja had different designs.
  3. 3.  Pakistan  Azad Forces  Gilgit Scouts  Pathan Militias India State of Jammu & Kashmir British Indian Army Great Britain The Kashmir Conflict displays a persistent, fundamental and long term incapability of goals between the two states.
  4. 4. Jinnah argued that Kashmir was an integral part of Pakistan’s Muslim identity and would remain incomplete without it. Nehru believed that losing Kashmir would undermine India’s secular identity.
  5. 5. Jinnah's strategy to liberate Kashmir was using the military forces and thus to "kill two birds with one stone“ namely decapitate India by controlling Kashmir, and to find a domestic solution through aggressive foreign policy and military intervention. Liaquet Ali Khan’s disagreement with Jinnah arise over Kashmir issue as he preferred a "harder diplomatic" and "less military stance". The prime minister sought a dialogue with his counterpart Pundit Nehru, and agreed to resolve the dispute of Kashmir in a peaceful manner through the efforts of the United Nations.
  6. 6. India’s Bounded Rationality Nehru and his comrades felt that they had gained enough in Kashmir through military operations and could now bully Pakistan on ground and through applying diplomatic pressure in the United Nations. Liaquet Ali Khan's acceptance of diplomatic stance was met with hostility by the Pakistan Armed Forces notably by the mid-higher level command who would later sponsor an alleged coup against his government.
  7. 7. 1st Jan, 1949 - UN Enforces a Cease Fire Nehru took the Kashmir Issue to the UN and argued that India was the aggrieved party. He claimed that Hari Singh’s accession was legal and that the only matter for discussion was how to get Pakistan to vacate the raiders Jinnah had sent in. Pakistani delegates made the UN to take a broader, more humanitarian view of the problem than merely a land dispute and got a plebiscite prescribed. Till that time there were two parties to the dispute, India and Pakistan. The Security Council’s Resolution 38 added a third party, the people of Jammu and Kashmir specifically and the wider world generally.
  8. 8. Based on Hensel’s evolutionary concept, a first confrontation ending in a stalemate and dissatisfaction among both is likely to increase distrust and hostility.