Unit 1_Revised_AdvBio


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Unit 1_Revised_AdvBio

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life
  2. 2. What are Themes? <ul><li>General principles or ideas that occur over and over. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Themes” are not a test item, but they are a framework to organize the study of Biology. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biology Themes <ul><li>1. Science as a process </li></ul><ul><li>2. Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>3. Energy Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>4. Continuity and Change </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biology Themes <ul><li>5. Relationship of Structure & Function </li></ul><ul><li>6. Regulation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Biology Themes <ul><li>7. Interdependence in Nature </li></ul><ul><li>8. Science, Technology and Society </li></ul>
  6. 6. Themes in the Study of Life <ul><li>1. The living world is a hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The continuity of life is based on DNA. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Themes in the Study of Life <ul><li>4. Structure and function are correlated. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Organisms are “open” systems. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Regulatory mechanisms maintain balance. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Question <ul><li>How do we know what is alive and what is not? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the properties of Life? </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Order <ul><li>Living things are highly organized in structure and function. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Analyzing a biological structure gives us clues about what it does and how it works </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Structure and Function are related at all levels </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Reproduction <ul><li>Organisms reproduce their own kind. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Life on Earth uses the nucleic acid and code for Heritable Information. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. Growth & Development <ul><li>Organisms increase in size and complexity. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Growth - increase in size. Development - increase in complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Life - grows by internal changes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 4. Energy Utilization <ul><li>Organisms take in energy and transform it to do work. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Organisms are “open” systems, they must continually take in energy. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 5. Response To Environment <ul><li>Organisms respond to changes or stimuli in their environment. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The speed of the response may be “fast” or “slow”. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 6. Homeostasis <ul><li>Organisms maintain their internal environment within tolerable limits. </li></ul><ul><li>“ homeo” = same “stasis” = state </li></ul>
  21. 21. 7. Evolutionary Adaptation <ul><li>Organisms change over time as they adapt to their environment. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Organisms must adapt, move, or die! </li></ul>
  23. 23. 8. The Cell Is the “basic unit” of Life
  24. 24. 9. Organisms Die
  25. 25. Science is: <ul><li>A process. </li></ul><ul><li>A way of “knowing”. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Beginnings <ul><li>Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) ancient Greek philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that through the centuries became the support and vehicle for both medieval Christian and Islamic scholastic thought . </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Aristotle believed that all problems could be solved by thinking about them. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Aristotle thought that heavy objects would fall faster than lighter ones. </li></ul><ul><li>What did Aristotle do wrong?? </li></ul>
  28. 28. That will not happen until almost 2,000 years later!!! He NEVER tested his ideas!!
  29. 29. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>1564-1642 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to be the first true scientist because he ACTUALLY DID experiment!! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Let's Try It!!!
  31. 31. The “Experiment” <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: </li></ul>
  32. 32. This is the SCIENTIFIC METHOD!! Let’s look at it a little more closely…
  33. 33. Science is based on: <ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive Reasoning </li></ul>
  34. 34. Observations: <ul><li>Are the “keystone” to Science. </li></ul><ul><li>If it can’t be “observed”, it can’t be studied by the Scientific Method. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be made through your senses or through the use of tools. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Scientific Method: <ul><li>Outlines a series of steps for answering questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtains “evidence” through the use of experiments. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Scientific Method Steps <ul><li>1. Identify the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is already known? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Formulate a hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Conduct an experiment. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Scientific Method Steps <ul><li>5. Collect data. </li></ul><ul><li>6.Compare data to hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Conclusions and new hypothesis. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Some elements of the procedure: <ul><li>Variable – a factor in the experiment that is being tested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variable – factor that is manipulated by the experimenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variable – factor that is measure/observed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control – elements of the procedure that are NOT being tested, but used for comparison </li></ul>
  39. 40. IMPORTANT!! <ul><li>All surrounding factors are controlled variables. The attempt to complete each test under the same conditions so that no other factors have a chance to manipulate the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>To make the experiment more valid, run the test SEVERAL times!! </li></ul>
  40. 41. Example of Controls & Variables <ul><li>For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. </li></ul><ul><li>You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. </li></ul><ul><li>Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself . </li></ul>
  41. 42. What are the Variables in the Experiment? <ul><li>Varying the route is the independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>The time it takes is the dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable. </li></ul>
  42. 43. So, let’s try some!
  43. 44. Homework! <ul><li>Design and write an experiment to determine which brand of light bulb lasts longest (GV or Phillips). </li></ul><ul><li>Determine your IV, DV, and Control. </li></ul>