A Tour of the Cell<br />Tour Guide…<br />Mrs. Erin Fortenberry<br />
Question ?<br />Can cells be seen with the naked eye?<br />Yes, a few are large enough, but most require the use of a micr...
Microscope History<br />1590 - Janseen Brothers invent the compound microscope.<br />1665 - Robert Hooke “discovers” cells...
Light Microscope - LM<br />Uses visible light to illuminate the object.<br />Relatively inexpensive type of microscope.<br...
Electron Microscopes<br />Use beams of electrons instead of light.<br />Invented in 1939, but not used much until after WW...
TEM<br />SEM<br />
Advantages<br />Much higher magnifications.<br />Magnifications of 50,000X or higher are possible.  <br />Can get down to ...
Disadvantages<br />Need a Vacuum.<br />Specimen must stop the electrons.<br />High cost of equipment.<br />Specimen prepar...
Cell Biology or Cytology<br />Cyto = cell   <br />- ology = study of<br />
History of Cells<br />Robert Hooke - Observed cells in cork.<br />Coined the term "cells” in 1665.<br />
History of Cells<br />1833 - Robert Brown, discovered the nucleus.<br />1838 - M.J. Schleiden, all plants are made of cell...
Cell Theory<br />All living matter is composed of one or more cells.<br />The cell is the structural and functional unit o...
Types of Cells<br />Prokaryotic - lack a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures.<br />Eukaryotic - have a nucleus a...
Prokaryotic<br />Eukaryotic<br />Nucleus<br />
Basic Cell Organization<br />Membrane<br />Nucleus<br />Cytoplasm<br />Organelles<br />
AnimalCell<br />
Plant Cell<br />
Membrane<br />Separates the cell from the environment.<br />Boundary layer for regulating the movement of materials in/out...
Cytoplasm<br />Cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus.<br />The “fluid” part of a cell.  Exists in two f...
Organelle<br />Term means "small organ” Formed body in a cell with a specialized function.<br />Important in organizationa...
Organelles - function<br />Way to form compartments in cells to separate chemical reactions.<br />Keeps various enzymes se...
Nucleus<br />Most conspicuous organelle.<br />usually spherical, but can be lobed or irregular in shape.<br />
Structure<br />Nuclear membrane<br />Nuclear pores<br />Nucleolus<br />Chromatin<br />
Nuclear Membrane<br />Double membrane separated by a 20-40 nm space.<br />Inner membrane supported by a protein matrix whi...
Nuclear Pores<br />Regular “holes” through both membranes.<br />100 nm in diameter.<br />Protein complex gives shape.<br /...
Nucleolus<br />Dark staining area in the nucleus.<br />0 - 4 per nucleus.<br />Storage area for ribosomes.<br />
Chromatin<br />Chrom: colored <br />- tin: threads<br />DNA and Protein in a “loose” format.  Will form the cell’s chromos...
Nucleus - Function<br />Control center for the cell.<br />Contains the genetic instructions.<br />
Ribosomes<br />Structure: 2 subunits made of protein and rRNA.                <br />No membrane.<br />Function: protein sy...
Locations<br />Free in the cytoplasm - make proteins for use in cytosol.<br />Membrane bound - make proteins that are expo...
Endomembrane System<br />Membranes that are related through direct physical continuity or by the transfer of membrane segm...
Endomembrane System<br />
Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Often referred to as ER.<br />Makes up to 1/2 of the total membrane in cells. <br />Often conti...
Structure of ER<br />Folded sheets or tubes of membranes.<br />Very “fluid” in structure with the membranes constantly cha...
Types of ER<br />Smooth ER: no ribosomes.<br />Used for lipid synthesis, carbohydrate storage, detoxification of poisons.<...
Golgi Apparatus<br />Structure: parallel array of flattened cisternae.        (looks like a stack of Pita bread)<br />3 to...
Function of Golgi Bodies<br />Processing - modification of ER products.<br />Distribution - packaging of ER products for t...
Golgi Vesicles<br />Small sacs of membranes that bud off the Golgi Body.<br />Transportation vehicle for the modified ER p...
Cell-On-The-Ceiling Project<br />
Lysosome<br />Single membrane. <br />Made from the Golgi apparatus.<br />
Function<br />Breakdown and degradation of cellular materials.<br />Contains enzymes for fats, proteins, polysaccharides, ...
Lysosomes<br />Important in cell death. <br />Missing enzymes may cause various genetic enzyme diseases.<br />
Vacuoles<br />Structure - single membrane, usually larger than the Golgi vesicles.<br />Function - depends on the organism...
Protists<br />Contractile vacuoles - pump out excess water.<br />Food vacuoles - store newly ingested food until the lysos...
Plants<br />Large single vacuole when mature making up to 90% of the cell's volume.<br />Tonoplast - the name for the vacu...
Function<br />Water regulation.<br />Storage of ions.<br />Storage of hydrophilic pigments.                            (e....
Function: Plant vacuole<br />Used to enlarge cells and create turgor pressure.<br />Enzymes (various types).<br />Store to...
Microbodies<br />Structure: single membrane.<br />Often have a granular or crystalline core of enzymes.<br />
Function<br />Specialized enzymes for specific reactions. <br />Peroxisomes: use up hydrogen peroxide.<br />Glyoxysomes: l...
Enzymes in a crystal<br />
Mitochondria<br />Structure: 2 membranes.   The inner membrane has more surface area than the outer membrane.<br />Matrix:...
Inner Membrane<br />Folded into cristae.<br />Amount of folding depends on the level of cell activity.<br />Contains many ...
Function<br />Cell Respiration - the release of energy from food.<br />Major location of ATP generation.<br />“Powerhouse”...
Mitochondria<br />Have ribosomes.<br />Have their own DNA.<br />Can reproduce themselves.<br />May have been independent c...
Chloroplasts<br />Structure - two outer membranes. <br />Complex internal membrane.<br />Fluid-like stroma is around the i...
Inner or Thylakoid Membranes<br />Arranged into flattened sacs called thylakoids.<br />Some regions stacked into layers ca...
Function <br />Photosynthesis - the use of light energy to make food.<br />
Chloroplasts<br />Contain ribosomes.<br />Contain DNA.<br />Can reproduce themselves.<br />Often contain starch.<br />May ...
Plastids<br />Group of plant organelles.<br />Structure - single membrane.<br />Function - store various materials.<br />
Cytoskeleton<br />Network of rods and filaments in the cytoplasm.<br />
Functions<br />Cell structure and shape.<br />Cell movement.<br />Cell division - helps build cell walls and move the chro...
Components<br />Microtubules<br />Microfilaments<br />Intermediate Filaments<br />
Microtubules<br />Structure - small hollow tubes made of repeating units of a protein dimer.<br />Size - 25 nm diameter wi...
Tubulin<br />Protein in microtubules.<br />
Microtubules<br />Regulate cell shape.<br /> Coordinate direction of cellulose fibers in cell wall formation.<br />Tracks ...
Microtubules<br />Form cilia and flagella.<br />Internal cellular movement.<br />Make up centioles, basal bodies and spind...
Cilia and Flagella<br />Cilia - short, but numerous.<br />Flagella - long, but few.<br />Function - to move cells or to sw...
Movie<br />
Centrioles<br />Usually one pair per cell, located close to the nucleus.<br />Found in animal cells.<br />9 sets of triple...
Basal Bodies<br />Same structure as a centriole.<br />Anchor cilia and flagella.<br />
Microfilaments<br />5 to 7 nm in diameter.<br />Structure - two intertwined strands of actin protein.<br />
Microfilaments are stained green.<br />
Functions<br />Muscle contraction.<br />Cytoplasmic streaming. <br />Pseudopodia.<br />Cleavage furrow formation.<br />Mai...
Intermediate Filaments<br />Fibrous proteins that are super coiled into thicker cables and filaments 8 - 12 nm in diameter...
Functions<br />Maintenance of cell shape.<br />Hold organelles in place.<br />
Cytoskeleton <br />Very dynamic; changing in composition and shape frequently.<br />Cell is not just a "bag" of cytoplasm ...
Cell Wall<br />Nonliving jacket that surrounds some cells.<br />Found in:<br />Plants<br />Prokaryotes<br />Fungi<br />Som...
Plant Cell Walls<br />All plant cells have a Primary Cell Wall.<br />Some cells will develop a Secondary Cell Wall.<br />
Primary Wall <br />Thin and flexible.<br />Cellulose fibers placed at right angles to expansion.<br />Placement of fibers ...
Secondary Wall <br />Thick and rigid.<br />Added between the cell membrane and the primary cell wall in laminated layers.<...
Middle Lamella<br />Thin layer rich in pectin found between adjacent plant cells.<br />Glues cells together.<br />
Cell Walls<br />May be made of other types of polysaccharides and/or silica.<br />Function as the cell's exoskeleton for s...
Extracellular Matrix - ECM<br />Fuzzy coat on animal cells.<br />Helps glue cells together.<br />Made of glycoproteins and...
Intercellular Juctions<br />Plants-Plasmodesmata<br />
Plasmodesmata<br />Channels between cells through adjacent cell walls.<br />Allows communication between cells.<br />Also ...
Intercellular Juctions<br />Animals:<br />Tight junctions<br />Desmosomes<br />Gap junctions<br />
Tight Junctions<br />Very tight fusion of the membranes of adjacent cells.<br />Seals off areas between the cells.<br />Pr...
Desmosomes<br />Bundles of filaments which anchor junctions between cells.<br />Does not close off the area between adjace...
Gap Junctions<br />Open channels between cells, similar to plasmodesmata. <br />Allows “communication” between cells.<br />
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Tour of the Cell

  1. 1. A Tour of the Cell<br />Tour Guide…<br />Mrs. Erin Fortenberry<br />
  2. 2. Question ?<br />Can cells be seen with the naked eye?<br />Yes, a few are large enough, but most require the use of a microscope.<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Microscope History<br />1590 - Janseen Brothers invent the compound microscope.<br />1665 - Robert Hooke “discovers” cells in cork.<br />Early 1700’s - von Leeuwenhoek makes many observations of cells including bacteria.<br />
  5. 5. Light Microscope - LM<br />Uses visible light to illuminate the object.<br />Relatively inexpensive type of microscope.<br />Can examine live or dead objects.<br />
  6. 6. Electron Microscopes<br />Use beams of electrons instead of light.<br />Invented in 1939, but not used much until after WWII.<br />
  7. 7. TEM<br />SEM<br />
  8. 8. Advantages<br />Much higher magnifications.<br />Magnifications of 50,000X or higher are possible. <br />Can get down to atomic level in some cases.<br />
  9. 9. Disadvantages<br />Need a Vacuum.<br />Specimen must stop the electrons.<br />High cost of equipment.<br />Specimen preparation.<br />
  10. 10. Cell Biology or Cytology<br />Cyto = cell <br />- ology = study of<br />
  11. 11. History of Cells<br />Robert Hooke - Observed cells in cork.<br />Coined the term "cells” in 1665.<br />
  12. 12. History of Cells<br />1833 - Robert Brown, discovered the nucleus.<br />1838 - M.J. Schleiden, all plants are made of cells.<br />1839 - T. Schwann, all animals are made of cells. <br />
  13. 13. Cell Theory<br />All living matter is composed of one or more cells.<br />The cell is the structural and functional unit of life. <br />
  14. 14. Types of Cells<br />Prokaryotic - lack a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures.<br />Eukaryotic - have a nucleus and other membrane bounded structures.<br />
  15. 15. Prokaryotic<br />Eukaryotic<br />Nucleus<br />
  16. 16. Basic Cell Organization<br />Membrane<br />Nucleus<br />Cytoplasm<br />Organelles<br />
  17. 17. AnimalCell<br />
  18. 18. Plant Cell<br />
  19. 19. Membrane<br />Separates the cell from the environment.<br />Boundary layer for regulating the movement of materials in/out of a cell.<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Cytoplasm<br />Cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus.<br />The “fluid” part of a cell. Exists in two forms: <br />gel - thick <br />sol - fluid<br />
  22. 22. Organelle<br />Term means "small organ” Formed body in a cell with a specialized function.<br />Important in organizational structure of cells.<br />
  23. 23. Organelles - function<br />Way to form compartments in cells to separate chemical reactions.<br />Keeps various enzymes separated in space.<br />
  24. 24. Nucleus<br />Most conspicuous organelle.<br />usually spherical, but can be lobed or irregular in shape.<br />
  25. 25. Structure<br />Nuclear membrane<br />Nuclear pores<br />Nucleolus<br />Chromatin<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Nuclear Membrane<br />Double membrane separated by a 20-40 nm space.<br />Inner membrane supported by a protein matrix which gives the shape to the nucleus.<br />
  28. 28. Nuclear Pores<br />Regular “holes” through both membranes.<br />100 nm in diameter.<br />Protein complex gives shape.<br />Allows materials in/out of nucleus.<br />
  29. 29. Nucleolus<br />Dark staining area in the nucleus.<br />0 - 4 per nucleus.<br />Storage area for ribosomes.<br />
  30. 30. Chromatin<br />Chrom: colored <br />- tin: threads<br />DNA and Protein in a “loose” format. Will form the cell’s chromosomes.<br />
  31. 31. Nucleus - Function<br />Control center for the cell.<br />Contains the genetic instructions.<br />
  32. 32. Ribosomes<br />Structure: 2 subunits made of protein and rRNA. <br />No membrane.<br />Function: protein synthesis.<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Locations<br />Free in the cytoplasm - make proteins for use in cytosol.<br />Membrane bound - make proteins that are exported from the cell.<br />
  35. 35. Endomembrane System<br />Membranes that are related through direct physical continuity or by the transfer of membrane segments called vesicles.<br />
  36. 36. Endomembrane System<br />
  37. 37. Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />Often referred to as ER.<br />Makes up to 1/2 of the total membrane in cells. <br />Often continuous with the nuclear membrane.<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Structure of ER<br />Folded sheets or tubes of membranes.<br />Very “fluid” in structure with the membranes constantly changing size and shape.<br />
  40. 40. Types of ER<br />Smooth ER: no ribosomes.<br />Used for lipid synthesis, carbohydrate storage, detoxification of poisons.<br />Rough ER: with ribosomes.<br />Makes secretory proteins.<br />
  41. 41. Golgi Apparatus<br />Structure: parallel array of flattened cisternae. (looks like a stack of Pita bread)<br />3 to 20 per cell.<br />Likely an outgrowth of the ER system.<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Function of Golgi Bodies<br />Processing - modification of ER products.<br />Distribution - packaging of ER products for transport.<br />
  44. 44. Golgi Vesicles<br />Small sacs of membranes that bud off the Golgi Body.<br />Transportation vehicle for the modified ER products.<br />
  45. 45. Cell-On-The-Ceiling Project<br />
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Lysosome<br />Single membrane. <br />Made from the Golgi apparatus.<br />
  50. 50. Function<br />Breakdown and degradation of cellular materials.<br />Contains enzymes for fats, proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.<br />Over 40 types known.<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53. Lysosomes<br />Important in cell death. <br />Missing enzymes may cause various genetic enzyme diseases.<br />
  54. 54. Vacuoles<br />Structure - single membrane, usually larger than the Golgi vesicles.<br />Function - depends on the organism.<br />
  55. 55. Protists<br />Contractile vacuoles - pump out excess water.<br />Food vacuoles - store newly ingested food until the lysosomes can digest it.<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57. Plants<br />Large single vacuole when mature making up to 90% of the cell's volume.<br />Tonoplast - the name for the vacuole membrane.<br />
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Function<br />Water regulation.<br />Storage of ions.<br />Storage of hydrophilic pigments. (e.g. red and blues in flower petals).<br />
  60. 60. Function: Plant vacuole<br />Used to enlarge cells and create turgor pressure.<br />Enzymes (various types).<br />Store toxins.<br />Coloration.<br />
  61. 61. Microbodies<br />Structure: single membrane.<br />Often have a granular or crystalline core of enzymes.<br />
  62. 62. Function<br />Specialized enzymes for specific reactions. <br />Peroxisomes: use up hydrogen peroxide.<br />Glyoxysomes: lipid digestion.<br />
  63. 63. Enzymes in a crystal<br />
  64. 64. Mitochondria<br />Structure: 2 membranes. The inner membrane has more surface area than the outer membrane.<br />Matrix: inner space.<br />Intermembrane space: area between the membranes.<br />
  65. 65.
  66. 66. Inner Membrane<br />Folded into cristae.<br />Amount of folding depends on the level of cell activity.<br />Contains many enzymes.<br />ATP generated here.<br />
  67. 67. Function<br />Cell Respiration - the release of energy from food.<br />Major location of ATP generation.<br />“Powerhouse” of the cell.<br />
  68. 68. Mitochondria<br />Have ribosomes.<br />Have their own DNA.<br />Can reproduce themselves.<br />May have been independent cells at one time.<br />
  69. 69. Chloroplasts<br />Structure - two outer membranes. <br />Complex internal membrane.<br />Fluid-like stroma is around the internal membranes.<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71. Inner or Thylakoid Membranes<br />Arranged into flattened sacs called thylakoids.<br />Some regions stacked into layers called grana.<br />Contain the green pigment chlorophyll.<br />
  72. 72. Function <br />Photosynthesis - the use of light energy to make food.<br />
  73. 73. Chloroplasts<br />Contain ribosomes.<br />Contain DNA.<br />Can reproduce themselves.<br />Often contain starch.<br />May have been independent cells at one time.<br />
  74. 74. Plastids<br />Group of plant organelles.<br />Structure - single membrane.<br />Function - store various materials.<br />
  75. 75. Cytoskeleton<br />Network of rods and filaments in the cytoplasm.<br />
  76. 76.
  77. 77. Functions<br />Cell structure and shape.<br />Cell movement.<br />Cell division - helps build cell walls and move the chromosomes apart.<br />
  78. 78. Components<br />Microtubules<br />Microfilaments<br />Intermediate Filaments<br />
  79. 79.
  80. 80. Microtubules<br />Structure - small hollow tubes made of repeating units of a protein dimer.<br />Size - 25 nm diameter with a 15 nm lumen. Can be 200 nm to 25 mm in length.<br />
  81. 81. Tubulin<br />Protein in microtubules.<br />
  82. 82. Microtubules<br />Regulate cell shape.<br /> Coordinate direction of cellulose fibers in cell wall formation.<br />Tracks for motor molecules.<br />
  83. 83. Microtubules<br />Form cilia and flagella.<br />Internal cellular movement.<br />Make up centioles, basal bodies and spindle fibers.<br />
  84. 84. Cilia and Flagella<br />Cilia - short, but numerous.<br />Flagella - long, but few.<br />Function - to move cells or to sweep materials past a cell.<br />
  85. 85. Movie<br />
  86. 86.
  87. 87. Centrioles<br />Usually one pair per cell, located close to the nucleus.<br />Found in animal cells.<br />9 sets of triplet microtubules. <br />Help in cell division.<br />
  88. 88. Basal Bodies<br />Same structure as a centriole.<br />Anchor cilia and flagella.<br />
  89. 89. Microfilaments<br />5 to 7 nm in diameter.<br />Structure - two intertwined strands of actin protein.<br />
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Microfilaments are stained green.<br />
  93. 93. Functions<br />Muscle contraction.<br />Cytoplasmic streaming. <br />Pseudopodia.<br />Cleavage furrow formation.<br />Maintenance and changes in cell shape.<br />
  94. 94. Intermediate Filaments<br />Fibrous proteins that are super coiled into thicker cables and filaments 8 - 12 nm in diameter.<br />Made from several different types of protein.<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96. Functions<br />Maintenance of cell shape.<br />Hold organelles in place.<br />
  97. 97. Cytoskeleton <br />Very dynamic; changing in composition and shape frequently.<br />Cell is not just a "bag" of cytoplasm within a cell membrane.<br />
  98. 98. Cell Wall<br />Nonliving jacket that surrounds some cells.<br />Found in:<br />Plants<br />Prokaryotes<br />Fungi<br />Some Protists<br />
  99. 99. Plant Cell Walls<br />All plant cells have a Primary Cell Wall.<br />Some cells will develop a Secondary Cell Wall.<br />
  100. 100.
  101. 101. Primary Wall <br />Thin and flexible.<br />Cellulose fibers placed at right angles to expansion.<br />Placement of fibers guided by microtubules.<br />
  102. 102. Secondary Wall <br />Thick and rigid.<br />Added between the cell membrane and the primary cell wall in laminated layers.<br />May cover only part of the cell; giving spirals. <br />Makes up "wood”.<br />
  103. 103. Middle Lamella<br />Thin layer rich in pectin found between adjacent plant cells.<br />Glues cells together.<br />
  104. 104. Cell Walls<br />May be made of other types of polysaccharides and/or silica.<br />Function as the cell's exoskeleton for support and protection.<br />
  105. 105. Extracellular Matrix - ECM<br />Fuzzy coat on animal cells.<br />Helps glue cells together.<br />Made of glycoproteins and collagen.<br />Evidence suggests ECM is involved with cell behavior and cell communication.<br />
  106. 106.
  107. 107. Intercellular Juctions<br />Plants-Plasmodesmata<br />
  108. 108. Plasmodesmata<br />Channels between cells through adjacent cell walls.<br />Allows communication between cells.<br />Also allows viruses to travel rapidly between cells.<br />
  109. 109.
  110. 110. Intercellular Juctions<br />Animals:<br />Tight junctions<br />Desmosomes<br />Gap junctions<br />
  111. 111.
  112. 112. Tight Junctions<br />Very tight fusion of the membranes of adjacent cells.<br />Seals off areas between the cells.<br />Prevents movement of materials around cells.<br />
  113. 113. Desmosomes<br />Bundles of filaments which anchor junctions between cells.<br />Does not close off the area between adjacent cells.<br />Coordination of movement between groups of cells.<br />
  114. 114. Gap Junctions<br />Open channels between cells, similar to plasmodesmata. <br />Allows “communication” between cells.<br />

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