Orientation Of Human Body


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Orientation Of Human Body

  1. 1. The Human Body: An Orientation Chapter 1
  2. 2. Three essential concepts that unify and Anatomy and Physiology: Complementarity of structure and function Hierarchy of structural organization Homeostasis
  3. 3. What is Anatomy? <ul><li>Structure of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete subject </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Physiology? <ul><li>Function of the machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Processes of the body </li></ul>
  5. 5. MUST know anatomy to understand physiology!!!
  6. 6. Topics of Anatomy <ul><li>Macroscopic Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA “gross anatomy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of large body parts visible to the naked eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissection of animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivisions include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional anatomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic anatomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface anatomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Microscopic Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of structures too small to be seen with the naked eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivisions include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytology – cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Histology – tissues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Topics of Anatomy (con’t) <ul><li>Developmental Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivisions include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryology – developmental changes before birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathological Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Radiographic Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical Terminology </li></ul>
  8. 8. Some Topics of Physiology <ul><li>Renal physiology – kidney function and urine production </li></ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular physiology – operation of heart and blood </li></ul>
  9. 9. Complementarity of Structures and Functions Levels of Structural Organization Chemical Level Cellular Level Tissue Level Organ Level Organ System Level Organism Level
  10. 12. Maintaining Life
  11. 13. Necessary Life Functions <ul><li>Maintaining Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside must be distinct from outside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA “irritability” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to sense changes in environment and respond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions within body cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes wastes from body and requires many organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul>
  12. 14. Survival Needs <ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken in via diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give energy and maintain cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained through diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose by evaporation from lungs, skin, and excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 – 80% of body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pressure </li></ul>
  13. 15. Homeostasis Describes the ability to maintain relatively stable internal condition even though the outside world changes continuously. Indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance.
  14. 16. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms <ul><li>Communication in the body is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable – factor or event being regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Receptor – sensor that monitors the environment and respond to changes </li></ul><ul><li>Control center – analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response </li></ul><ul><li>Effector – provides the response </li></ul>
  15. 18. Negative Feedback Mechanism <ul><li>The output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>This mechanism causes the variable to change in a direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning it to its “ideal” value. </li></ul><ul><li>All negative feedback systems have the same goal: to prevent sudden severe changes . </li></ul>
  16. 20. Positive Feedback Mechanism <ul><li>The result of response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus so that the activity is accelerated. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Positive” because the change occurs in the same direction as the initial disturbance, causing the variable to deviate further and further from the original value. </li></ul><ul><li>Control infrequent events that don’t require continuous adjustments!! </li></ul>
  17. 22. The Language of Anatomy
  18. 23. Anatomical Position <ul><li>Anatomical reference point </li></ul><ul><li>Body is erect with feet slightly apart </li></ul><ul><li>“ Standing at attention” pose </li></ul><ul><li>Palms face forward and thumbs point away from body </li></ul>
  19. 24. Directional Terms Allow us to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another.
  20. 27. Regional Terms <ul><li>Used to designate specific areas within the major body divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Two divisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial part – head, neck, and trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendicular part – limbs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 30. Body Planes <ul><li>Plane – flat surface </li></ul><ul><li>Most frequent body planes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal Plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical plane that divides body into right and left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midsagittal – exactly on midline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasagittal – offset from midline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal Plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divides body into anterior and posterior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AKA “coronal” plane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse Plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal plane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divides into superior and inferior parts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 31. A section is a cut along a plane.
  23. 33. Body Cavities
  24. 34. Axial portion of the body: Dorsal Body Cavity Ventral Body Cavity
  25. 36. Dorsal Body Cavity <ul><li>Protects nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>2 Subdivisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial cavity – encases brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral cavity – encases spinal cord </li></ul></ul>
  26. 37. Ventral Body Cavity <ul><li>2 Subdivisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds ribs and muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pleural cavity – houses lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pericardial cavity – houses hearts, esophagus and trachea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominopelvic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal cavity – contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic cavity – contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 38. Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity <ul><li>Serosa (serous membrane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, double-layered membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal serosa – membrane lining cavity walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral serosa – covers organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serous fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates serous membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows sliding without friction </li></ul></ul>
  28. 40. Other Body Cavities <ul><li>Oral and digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal </li></ul><ul><li>Orbital </li></ul><ul><li>Middle ear </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial </li></ul>
  29. 41. Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants <ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul><ul><li>Epigastric </li></ul><ul><li>Hypogastric (pubic) </li></ul><ul><li>Right & Left iliac (inguinal) </li></ul><ul><li>Right & Left lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>Right & Left hypochondriac </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrants are named according to subject’s pt. of view </li></ul>
  30. 43. Chemistry of the Human Body
  31. 44. Terms to know: <ul><li>Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy – energy in action </li></ul><ul><li>Potential energy – stored energy </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical energy – energy stored in the bonds of a chemical substance </li></ul><ul><li>Atom – building blocks of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Element – unique substance that can’t be broken down </li></ul>
  32. 45. Terms (con’t): <ul><li>Molecule – combination of two or more atoms that are held together by a bond </li></ul><ul><li>Compound – two or more kinds of atoms bind together </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture - substance composed of two or more components </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reaction – occurs whenever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken </li></ul>
  33. 46. Biochemistry The study of the chemical composition and reactions of living matter.
  34. 47. Compounds… <ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Contain carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Covalently bonded (share electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Typically large </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic </li></ul><ul><li>Include water, salts, and compounds needed for life </li></ul>Both are EQUALLY important!!!
  35. 48. Major Organic Compounds found in the body: <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars and starches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide – simple sugars made of single chains/rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaccharide – double sugars made from two monosaccharides joined together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides – long chains of simple sugars linked together; sometimes called polymers </li></ul></ul>
  36. 49. <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triglycerides are an example of a lipid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids are also fats! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol – an important steroid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for life! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 50. <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic structural material of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, aid in cell function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids – building blocks of proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for chemical reactions (kick-start or speed up the reaction). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins can be denatured (broken down), when they are exposed to high temperatures or high/low pH!! They won’t work!! </li></ul></ul>
  38. 51. <ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of structural units called nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is contains the sugar deoxyribose and is a double stranded molecule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA (ribonucleic acid) is contains the sugar ribose and is a single stranded molecule. </li></ul></ul>