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Data collection techniques

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Data collection techniques

  1. 1. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-1Sayanti Banerjee Methods and Techniques of Data Collection
  2. 2. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-2 Classification of Data 1. Primary Data 2. Secondary Data
  3. 3. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-3 Distinction Between Primary Data and Secondary Data S.No. Description Primary Data Secondary Data 1. Source Original Source Secondary Source 2. Methods of Data Collection Observation method, Questionnaire Method Published data of government agencies, Journals etc. 3. Originality of data Original : First time, Collected by user No : Data are collected by some other agencies 4. Time More Less 5. Cost Expensive Cheaper 6. Efforts More Less 7. Accuracy More accurate Less accurate
  4. 4. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-4 Primary Data Collected by investigator himself for the purpose of a specific inquiry or study. The data is original in character and highly representative and unbiased. Methods of Primary Data Collection  Observation  Interviewing: a) Personal interviews b) Telephonic Interview  Questionnaires  Schedules
  5. 5. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-5 Observation Method Advantages: Information is collected by observing the process at work without asking from the respondent. i) Subjective/response bias can be eliminated if observation is done accurately. ii) Information obtained relates to what is currently happening, it is not complicated by either the past behaviour or future attitudes. iii) This method is independent of respondents’ willingness to respond .
  6. 6. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-6 Limitations Although this method can be used to study sales techniques , customer movements, customer response, etc, but this method has certain limitations. 1. The information provided by this method is very limited. Customer’s state of mind, their buying motives, their income and education are not revealed. 2. The method is time consuming.
  7. 7. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-7 Interview Method a) Personal Interviews : Personal Interview method requires a person known as the interviewer asking questions in a face-to-face contact to the other person. This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation or indirect oral investigation.
  8. 8. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-8 The method of collecting information through personal interviews is carried out either with a structured framework or with an unstructured approach.  Structured Framework : Such interviews involves use of a set of predetermined questions which enables researcher to standardize the response with some fixed alternatives. Thus, the interviewer in a structured interview follows a rigid procedure laid down, asking questions in a form and order prescribed.  Unstructured Framework : Unstructured interviews do not follow a system of predetermined questions. Here the interviewer is allowed much greater freedom to ask questions.
  9. 9. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-9 Merits of Personal Interviews Method i) More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained. ii) The interviewer can simplify the language of the questions ( if required) on the basis of ability and education level of the interviewee and thus misinterpretations or confusions regarding questions can be avoided.
  10. 10. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-10 Demerits of Personal Interviews Method i) It is very expensive method, specially when large and widely spread geographical sample is taken. ii) This method is relatively more time-consuming specially when the sample is large. iii) Under the interview method, the organisation has to select, train and supervise the field –staff which is time consuming and difficult task.
  11. 11. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-11 iv) Certain type of respondents such as important officials or executives or people in high income groups may not be easily approachable under this method. v) There remains the possibility of biasness of the interviewer as well as of the respondents.
  12. 12. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-12 b) Telephonic Interviews : In this method information is collected by contacting respondents on telephone itself. It is not very widely used method, but plays important part in industrial surveys, particularly in developed regions.
  13. 13. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-13 The Chief merits of such a system are: i) It is a quick way of obtaining information. ii) It is cheaper than personal interviewing method; here the cost per response is relatively low. iii) Replies can be recorded without causing embarrassment to respondents. iv) No field staff is required.
  14. 14. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-14 Contnd… v) Wider sample can be covered. vi) Certain type of respondents such as important officials or executives or people in high income groups who are not be easily approachable can be contacted over telephone.
  15. 15. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-15 Demerits i) This method is restricted to those respondents who have telephone facilities. ii) Questions have to short and to the point.
  16. 16. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-16 Questionnaire Technique Gather data by asking questions from people who are thought to have the desired information. When information is to be collected by asking questions to people who may have the desired data, a standardized form called questionnaire is prepared. The questionnaire has a list of questions to be asked in a desired sequence and spaces in which the respondents record the answers. Cont….
  17. 17. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-17 Usefulness of Questionnaire Technique This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquires. It is being adopted by private individuals, research workers, private and public organisations .
  18. 18. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-18 Questionnaire Technique Advantages  Yield broaden range of information compared with direct observation. One can not know by observation why buyer makes particular purchases or what is his opinion about a product.  Fast  Economical/low cost than observation method.  By mailing or sending questionnaire by post the respondents who are not approachable can also be reached conviently. Cont….
  19. 19. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-19  Limitations  Unwillingness of respondent to provide information. This requires salesmanship on the part of the interviewer. The interviewer may assure that the information will be kept secret. Motivating respondents with some token gifts often yield result.  Inability of respondents due to lack of knowledge.
  20. 20. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-20 Essentials of a good questionnaire 1. To be successful, questionnaire should be comparatively short and simple i.e. the size of the questionnaire should be kept as minimum. 2. Questions should proceed in logical sequence from easy to more difficult questions. 3. Personal and intimate questions should be left to the end. 4. Technical terms and vague expressions capable of different interpretations should be avoided.
  21. 21. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-21 5. Questions may be dichotomous (Yes or No answers), multiple choice ( alternative answers listed) or open- ended. The latter type of questions are often difficult to analyse and hence should be avoided in a questionnaire to the extent possible. 6. Questions affecting the sentiments of respondents should be avoided. 7. Adequate space for answers should be provided in the questionnaire to help editing and tabulation. 8. There should always be provision for indications of uncertainty, e.g. ‘do not know’, “no preference” and so on.
  22. 22. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-22 9. Brief directions with regard to filling up the questionnaire should invariably be given in the questionnaire itself. 10. Finally, the physical appearance of the questionnaire affects the cooperation the researcher receives from the recipients. Therefore, attractive looking questionnaire particularly in mail surveys, is a plus point for getting cooperation. The quality of the paper, along with its colour , must be good so that it may attract the attention of the recipients.
  23. 23. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-23 Construction of a Questionnaire  Decide what information is wanted  Decide the type of questions  Decide the content of individual questions  Decide the wording of questions  Decide the sequence of questions  Make a preliminary draft and pretest it( i.e. conduct ‘Pilot study or survey’)*  Revise and prepare the final draft
  24. 24. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-24 Before using the questionnaire method, it is always advisable to conduct “ Pilot study” or “Pilot survey” for testing the questionnaire. This Pilot survey is very much significant in case of big inquiries. Such a survey , being conducted by experts , brings to the light the weaknesses (if any) of the questionnaires and also of the survey techniques. From the experience gained in this way, improvement can be made in the questionnaire
  25. 25. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-25 Schedule Method This method of data collection is very much similar to the method of collecting data by using questionnaire. A Schedule is a Proforma that contains a set of questions which are asked and filled by an interviewer ( called enumerators who are specially appointed for the purpose) in a face to face interaction.
  26. 26. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-26 These enumerators along with Schedules, go to the respondents, put to them the questions from the proforma in the order the questions are listed and record the replies in the space meant for the same in the proforma. In certain situations, schedules may be handed over to respondents and enumerators may help them in recording their answers to various questions in the said Schedules. Enumerators explain the aim or objective of the investigation and also remove the difficulties which any respondent may feel in understanding any particular question or concept.
  27. 27. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-27 Continued……. The above method requires the selection of the enumerators and such selection should be done carefully. The enumerators should be trained to perform their job well and the nature and scope of the investigation should be explained to them thoroughly so that they may understand the meaning of each questions put in the schedule. Enumerators should be intelligent and must posses the capability of cross-examination to find out the truth . Above all, they should be sincere, hardworking, honest and should have patience.
  28. 28. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-28 S.No. Description Schedule Questionnaire 1. Non-response from respondents Very low because they are filled by enumerators who are able to get answers to all questions. High as many people do not responded many return it without answering all questions. 2. Contact with respondents Direct contact exist. Direct contact may or may not exist as it can be sent by post also. 3. Coverage of area Limited geographical area as difficulty lies in sending enumerators over a relatively wider area. wider geographical area coverage is possible. 4. Reliability of data collection High. The information collected is generally complete and accurate as enumerators can remove difficulties, if any, faced by respondents in correctly understanding the questions. Less. Risk of collecting incomplete and wrong information is high, particularly when people are unable to understand questions properly. Distinction Between Schedule and Questionnaire Cont….
  29. 29. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-29 S.No. Description Schedule Questionnaire 6. Interviewer Bias and cheating Relatively high Relatively low. 7. Success Here the success mainly depends on the honesty and competence of enumerators not on the attractive looks as they are filled by enumerators not by respondents. Here the success lies on the quality, physical appearance of the questionnaire. 8. Education level of the respondents Information can be gathered even when the respondents are illiterate. Can be used only when respondents are literate and cooperative. 9. Cost Relatively Expensive since considerable amount of money is spent in appointing enumerators and preparing schedules. Relatively cheaper since we have to spend money only in preparing the questionnaire and sending the same to the respondents.
  30. 30. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-30 Secondary Data It is the data already been collected by others which may be published or unpublished. This data is primary data for the agency that collects it and becomes secondary data for someone else who uses this data for his own purpose.
  31. 31. Methods and Techniques of Data Collection © Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, 2006, 2003 Excel BooksRESEARCH METHODOLOGY, 2 edition, Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya5-31 Methods of Secondary Data Collection  Various publications of the central and state govt.  Various publication of foreign governments/institutions  Technical & trade journals  Book, magazines and news-paper  Reports and publications of universities/institutions  Census reports  Reports prepared by research scholars  Researcher must ensure the reliability, suitability and adequacy of secondary data.

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